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史学新论 【字体:

AG娱乐网ERSHISHIJIZHONGGUOSHIXUEJIEDUILISHIGUILVWENTIDETANTAO

作者: 黄敏兰 文章来源:AG娱乐网

AG娱乐网LISHIFAZHANSHIFOUYOUGUILV,YIJILISHIXUEDESHOUYAOMUDESHIFOUSHIFAXIANGUILV,ZHEISHILISHIXUEDEYIGEZHONGDALILUNWENTI。DUIZHEIYIWENTIDETANTAOZAIZHONGGUOYIYOUZHENGZHENGYIGESHIJI。BUTONGXUEPAIDEXUEZHEDUICIYOUBUTONGDEKANFA。

 

YI、LISHIYOUWUGUILVJILISHIXUEDEMUDE

 

二十世纪初,新史学的旗手梁启超大力提倡历史学应努力探索人类进化的"公理公例",也就是社会发展的规律。1902年,梁启超在《新史学》中说: "历史者,叙述人群进化之现象而求得其公理公例者也。"梁启超强调历史研究必须注意从纷纭复杂的历史现象中寻找历史发展变化的规律,"说明其事实之关系与其原因结果,""探察人间全体之运动进步,即国民全部之经历,及其相互之关系,""使后人循其理、率其例,以增幸福于无疆也。"[1]基于这种认识,梁启超把中国人群进化的历史划分为三个阶段,并指出各阶段的起迄和特征: 第一段为上世史,是为中国之中国,即中国民族自发达、自竞争、自团结之时代。第二段为中世史,自秦统一后至清代乾隆末,是为亚洲之中国。即中国民族与亚洲各民族交涉繁颐竞争最烈之时代,也是君主专制政体全盛的时代。第三段为近世史,自乾隆末年至今,是为世界之中国,即中国民族合同全亚洲民族,与西人交涉竞争之时代;也是国内AG娱乐网君主专制政体逐渐湮灭,而国民立宪政体嬗代兴起的时代。[2]梁启超打破皇朝界限探索人类社会的演变,把中国作为一个整体来考察,比较准确地概括了时代的特征,并大体上把握了历史发展的基本脉络。

 

LIANGQICHAODENGXINSHIJIAZAIZAOQIYINJIYUYONGXUESHUJIUGUO,QIANGDIAOSHIXUEDESHIYONGXING,ZHUZHANGYAOTANTAOLISHIGUILV,YIZUOWEIGUOMINZIJIAN。TAMENRENWEIZHIYOUZHANGWOLELISHIDEGUILV,CAINENGRENSHIXIANZAI,BAWOWEILAI。SUOYITAMENDUILISHIGUILVDERENSHISHIZHANGSHIDUANDEHEQUANFANGWEIDE,YEJIUSHIDUIZHENGGERENLEISHEHUILISHIJINCHENGDESIKAO,ZHEIYIDIANYUHOULAIDEMAKESIZHUYIXUEPAIYOUMOUZHONGCHENGDUDEXIANGSI,SUOBUTONGDEZHISHIJUTINEIRONG。ZAIJINGGUOLEZHANGQIDETANSUOHOU,XINSHIXUEJIAKAISHIZHONGXINSHENSHILISHIXUEDEDIWEIHEZUOYONG,LIANGQICHAOZAI20NIANDAICHUSUOXIEDE《ZHONGGUOLISHIYANJIUFA》ZHONG,PAOQILESHIJINIANQIANZAI《XINSHIXUE》ZHONGDEGONGLIZHUYIGUANDIAN,ZHUZHANGLISHIXUEYAODULIFAZHAN,YAO"WEIXUEWENERXUEWEN"。TAHAOZHAOSHIXUEJIAMEN"YUKENENGDEFANWEINEI,CAIYIQIZHUGUANERZHONGSHIYUKEGUAN,YISHIWEIMUDE,ERBUYIWEISHOUDUAN。"YUSHI,TAMENDUILISHIGUILVDERENSHIYOULEGAIBIAN。LIANGQICHAOZAI20NIANDAIHOU,BUZAIQIANGDIAOZHENGGERENLEISHEHUIDEGUILV,ERZAIYIDUANSHIQILIZHUZHONGLISHIDEYINGUOLV,ZAI《ZHONGGUOLISHIYANJIUFA》DENGZHUZUOZHONGDALIANGDI,JIZHONGDITAOLUNCIWENTI。YINGUOLVYULISHIGUILVYOUSUOBUTONG。LISHIGUILVSHIDUIZHENGGELISHIDEZONGJIE,YINGUOLVDEDUIXIANGXIANGDUILAISHUOSHIBUFENDEHELINGSANDE。LIANGQICHAOJIESHISHUO,SUOWEIYINGUOGUANXI,JIJIAWEIYIYIN,YIWEIBINGYIN,YINGUOXIANGXU,RUHUANWUDUAN。YINGUOLVTANQIUDESHIJUTILISHISHIJIANZHIJIANDEGUANXI,ERBUSHINEIZHONGCHOUXIANGDE、RENLEISHEHUITONGYIGUILV。

 

WUSIQIANHOU,ZHONGGUOSHIXUEJIECHUXIANYIGUFOURENLISHIFAZHANGUILVDECHAOLIU。ZHEIYUXIFANGSHIXUEHEZHEXUEZHONGDEXIANGDUIZHUYI、HUAIYIZHUYIDENGSIXIANGDECHUANRUYOUGUAN。19SHIJIYILAI,XIFANGSHEHUIGONGYEHEKEXUEDEGAODUFAZHANYINGXIANGDAOSHEHUIGUANNIANHEXUESHUSICHAO,KEXUEWANNENGDESICHAOSUIZHIXINGQI。RENMENXIANGXIN,BUJINZIRANJIEDESHIWUKEYITONGGUOKEXUEJIAYIRENSHI,ERQIERENLEISHEHUIHELISHIYEYOUYANGEDEGUILVKEXUN。RANER,DIYICISHIJIEDAZHANDECANKUXINGHEPOHUAIXINGCUIHUILEXIFANGRENDELEGUANQINGXU。TONGSHI,20SHIJIYILAIKEXUEDEXINFAXIANSHIRENLEIDESIWEIFANGSHIFASHENGJIDABIANHUA。XIANGDUILUNHELIANGZILIXUEDAPOLEERBAINIANLAIRENMENDUINIUDUNJINGDIANWULIXUEDEMIXIN,ZAIJIUZIRANZHEXUEGUANJICHUSHANGJIANLIQILAIDEJIXIEJUEDINGLUNSHOUDAOKONGQIANDEHUAIYIHETIAOZHAN。RENMENRENWEI,SHUNXIWANBIANDERENLEISHIJIEBUKEZHUOMO。HUAIYIZHUYISICHAOJIDADIYINGXIANGSHEHUI,ZAIZHEXUELINGYU,XIANGDUIZHUYISHIFENLIUXING。RENMENPAOQILEJINHUALUN,CONGFOURENLISHIYOUGUILVDAOFOURENLISHIXUESHIKEXUE。ZHEIZHONGSICHAOCHUANRUZHONGGUOHOU,ZAISHIXUEJIEYINQIJIDADEZHENDONG。

 

LIANGQICHAOSHOUXIFANGXUESHUODEYINGXIANG,KAISHIHUAIYILISHIYOUGUILVXING。LIANGQICHAOSHUO: "LISHIWEIRENLEIXINLISUOZAOCHENG,"XINLIJIFEIWULIDEHUOSHULIDEYINGUOLVSUONENGZHIPEI,LISHIJUEWUBIRANDEFAZEWEIZHIZHIPEI,"SUOYISHIJIADEGONGZUOHEZIRANKEXUEJIAZHENGXIANGFAN,ZHUANWUQIU'BUGONGXIANG'。"TACONGCIPAOQILEYINGUOLV,ZHICHU"QIUDEQIYINGUOGUANXI"YIYUSHI"WANQUANCUOLE"。TASHUO,YINGUOLVYEJIAO"BIRANDEFAZE","BIRAN"YU"ZIYOU"SHILIANGGEJIDUAN,JIBIRANBIANMEIYOUZIYOU。AGYULEWANGJICHENGRENLISHIWEIRENLEIZIYOUYIZHIDECHUANGZAOPIN,JIUBUNENGYOUCHENGRENTASHOUYINGUOLVDEZHIPEI。[3]

 

DANGSHIYOUBUSHAOXUEZHEYOUXIANGSIDEKANFA。LIANGSHUMINGJIESHOUBOGESENDESHENGMINGZHEXUE,RENWEIJUEDINGRENLEISHEHUIHELISHIFAZHANDESHIYIZHONGSHENMIDE"JINGSHEN"HUO"YIYU"。YOUYUZHEIZHONG"JINGSHEN"HUO"YIYU"DEHUODONGFANGXIANGBUTONG,JIUCHUXIANLERENLEISHEHUIHELISHIFAZHANDEBUTONG。HEBINGSONGCONGLUBINXUN"XINSHIXUEPAI"DEZONGHESHIGUANCHUFA,FOURENLISHIFAZHANDEKEGUANGUILV,RENWEIYINGXIANGLISHIDEZHUDUOYINSUHUXIANGYINGXIANG,HUWEIYINGUO,MEIYOUNAGEWEIZHU。HEBINGSONGRENWEISHEHUIYANHUADEYUANYINSHIRENLEINEIXINDEDONGJI。"SHIJIASUOJIAN,JIEFEIBENZHEN,GAIJINXINLINGSHANGZHIYIZHONGYINXIANGERYI。"YOUYURENWEIRENXINSHILISHIFAZHANDEDONGLI,ERRENXINYOUSHIBIANHUAMOCEDE,SUOYILISHIDEFAZHANSHIHUNLUANDE,NANYIBAWODE。HEBINGSONGFOURENLISHIFAZHANKEGUANGUILVDELINGYILIYOUSHI,LISHISHIBUDUANBIANHUADE,MEIYOUYIDINGDECHANGGUI。TASHUO: "LISHIZHE,YANJIURENQUNHUODONGTEYIYANHUAZHIXUEYE,JIRENLEITEYISHENGHUOZHIJIZAIYE。FURENLEIZHITEYISHENGHUO,RIXINYUEYI,BIANHUAWUQIONG,GUFANSHUQIANYANZHUXING,MOBUCIWANGBILAI,XINCHENDAIXIE,CILISHISHANGSUOYIBUNENGYOUSUOWEIDINGLVYE。GAIDINGLVYITONGGAIWEIBEN,TONGGAIYIZHONGFUWEIJI。YIWANGRENSHI,JIWUFUXIANZHIQING,GUJINZHUANGKUANG,YOUWUYIZHEZHILI,TONGGAINANSHI,HELAIDINGLVHU?"[4]HEBINGSONGRENWEI,TANQIUDINGLV,FEISHIJIADERENWU。SHIJIASUOQIUZHE,YINGUOGUANXIERYI。TAYOURENWEI,ZAILISHIZHONGYOUYINGUOGUANXI,DANMEIYOUYINGUODINGLV。TAFANDUIJIANGXUNZHAO"YINGUOLV"ZUOWEILISHIYANJIUDEMUDE。

 

YUDADUOSHUXINSHIXUEJIABUTONG,YIXIESHILIAOXUEPAIXUEZHESHIZHONGFOURENYOUSUOWEILISHIGUILVDECUNZAI。FUSINIANJITICHU"SHIXUEBIANSHISHILIAOXUE"DELUNDUAN。TARENWEILISHIMEIYOUGUILV,ZHISHIYIJIANJIANBICIGULIDELISHISHIJIANDEDUIJI。LISHIXUEJIADEZEREN,ZHISHICHAMINGZHEIXIESHIJIANBENSHENDEZHENXIANG,QUEBUNENGGOUXIANGZIRANKEXUENEIYANG,ZAIJUTISHIJIANDEJICHUSHANG,ZONGJIECHUCHOUXIANGDEGUILVHUOGONGSHI。ZAITAKANLAI,RENHEYIZHONGGUANYULISHIFAZHANDELILUN、GUANYULISHIGUILVDEMIAOSHU,DOUSHIMEIYOUGENJUDE。TASHUO,LIANGJIANSHISHIZHIJIANGEZHEYIDADUAN,BATAMENLIANXIQILAISHIWEIXIANDESHI,YINCIYINGDANG"CUNERBUBU","ZHENGERBUSHU"。"SUOYIGUINASHISHUOBULAI,YINGUOSHITANBUDINGDE。"[5]

 

MAKESIZHUYIXUEZHEJIBENSHANGDOUZHUZHANGLISHIFAZHANYOUGUILV。LIDAZHAOZAI《SHIXUEYAOLUN》ZHONGJIESHAOLEWEIWUSHIGUANDEJIBENYUANLI,XIWANGGENJUZHEIGEYUANLIDUIJIUSHIXUEJINXINGGAIZAO,"YUQUANBANDELISHISHISHIDEZHONGJIAN,XUNQIUYIGEPUBIANDELIFA,YIMINGSHISHIYUSHISHIJIANDEXIANGHUDEYINGXIANGYUGANYING。"[6]ZHEILISUOSHUODE"PUBIANDELIFA",JIUSHILISHIFAZHANDEPUBIANGUILV。BUGUO,MAKESIZHUYIXUEPAIDUIGUILVDELIJIEZHUYAOSHISHOUSULIANLILUNJIEDEYINGXIANG。《SULIANGONGCHANDANG(BU)LISHIJIANMINGJIAOCHENG》ZHICHU: "LISHIKEXUEDESHOUYAORENWUSHIYAOYANJIUHEJIESHISHENGCHANDEGUILV,SHENGCHANLIYUSHENGCHANGUANXIFAZHANDEGUILV,SHEHUIJINGJIFAZHANDEGUILV。"[7]YINCI,ZAOQIYOUXIEMAKESIZHUYIXUEZHEBA"FAXIANGUILV"HEZHENGMINGRENLEILISHIDEPUBIAN、GONGTONGGUILVDANGZUOLISHIXUEDETOUDENGDASHI,SHENZHISHIWEIYIMUDE。GUOMORUOQIANGDIAO,ZHONGGUOHEXILALUOMAYIYANG,DUIYUMAKESIDENEIGE"TIEZE"BINGBUSHILIWAI。CONGSHEHUISHILUNZHANZHIZHIGAIGEKAIFANGQIAN,DUILISHIGUILVDELIJIEGUOYUJIANDANHUA,BIAOXIANWEIDUISHEHUIXINGTAIGENGTIMOSHIDEPIANMIANZHUIQIU。ZAI30-40NIANDAIYIYOUMAKESIZHUYISHIXUEJIATICHULEMOUZHONGXINDEKANFA,ERCONG70NIANDAIMOQI,YIXIEMAKESIZHUYIXUEZHEDUIZHEIZHONGQINGXIANGZHIJIETICHUJIANRUIDEPIPING,BINGDUILISHIGUILVWENTIZUOCHUDUOYANGHUADEJIESHI。

 

AG娱乐网LISHUSHUO: "AGYULEWANGDELISHIKEXUECENGJINGBUJIASISUODIJIESHOUZHEIGETIFA,BUDANBAFAXIANGUILVSHIWEISHOUYAORENWU,ERQIEWANGWANGBATAKANZUOWEIYIDERENWU。ZAIYANJIUGONGZUOZHONG,ZHIZHONGSHIDUIGUILVDEGAIKUOHEBIAOSHU,ERHUSHISHENZHIQINGSHIDUIJUTISHISHIDEKAOQIU,ZHEISHUOMINGAGYULEWANGDUIRUHESHIXIANZHEIGE'SHOUYAORENWU'HAIQUEFALEJIE。……QISHIMAKESI、ENGESIZAOJIUSHUOGUO,TAMENYANJIULISHI,JIUSHIWEILENONGQINGZHENXIANG。ZHEILIDIYIBUYAOZUODEGONGZUOJIUSHINONGQINGSHISHI。……LISHISHISHIBUMING,RENMENDUITAZHIYOUYIXIEMENGLONGDE、SHENMIDELEJIE,HUOZHEZHIZHIDAOYIXIEWAIQUDESHISHI,NEIJIUYIQIEWUCONGSHUOQI。"[8]LISHUZAIYUJIANGDACHUNDETANHUAZHONG,GENGJUTIDIZHICHU,GUOQUYOURENJIANGLISHIXUEYANJIUDERENWUSHIFAXIANLISHIGUILV,ZHEIGESHUOFAKONGPAYOUWENTI。LISHIXUERUGUOBAZIJIDERENWUZHISHIGUIJIEWEIFAXIANLISHIGUILV,SHIJISHANGYOUHENNANDADAO,YUSHIZHIHAOYONGLISHISHISHIQUCHANSHIMAKESI、ENGESIJIANGGUODENEIXIEGUILV,ERQIELIJIEHECHANSHIDEHAIWEIBIZHUNQUE。ZHEIYANG,LISHIXUESHIJISHANGSHIQULEZIJIDEKEXUEZHUIQIU。LISHIXUEDEDIYIGERENWU,YINGDANGSHIXIANBALISHISHISHIKAOQIUQINGCHU。[9]

 

ZAIXINSHIQI,YUELAIYUEDUODEXUEZHEDUILISHIXUEMANGMUZHUIQIUGUILV(QISHISHIWUZHONGSHENGCHANFANGSHIDEGENGTI)DEZHUANGKUANGTICHUPIPING。HANZHENPIPINGSHUO: "ZAILISHIGUILVWENTISHANG,AGYULEWANGGUOSHIXUEJIESIHUYIZHIWEINENGCHEDIBAITUOHEIGEERDEYINGXIANG。WEILEQIANGDIAOKEGUANGUILV,LISHIGUILVBEISHIWEIYIZHONGCHAOYUEYUJUTIHUODONGZHISHANGDELILIANG,RENLEIWULUNZENYANGHUODONGDOUBUNENGGAIBIANLISHIFAZHANDEJIDINGFANGXIANG,RENSIHUCHENGLELISHIGUILVZIAGYULEWANGSHIXIANDEMUOUHEGONGJU。"[10]ZHANGZHILIANSHUO: "YIDUANSHIJIANLI,AGYULEWANGDELISHIYANJIUBEIJUXIANYU'FAXIAN'HESHUOMINGPUBIANLISHIGUILV,LISHIXUEJIADEZUOYONGZHISHIZHENGMINGLISHIWEIWUZHUYIYUANZEDEYOUXIAOXING。SHIXUEYOUCICHENGLEMAKESIZHUYIZHEXUELILUNDEZHUJIE。'REN'ZHEIGELISHIBENLAIDEZHUTIWANQUANXIAOSHILE。RENDEHUODONG,RENYUZIRANHESHEHUIDEGUANXI……SIHUTONGTONGDOUBUZHONGYAOLE。DUILISHIZHONGRENDEYINSUDEFOUDING,DAOZHILEFEIRENXINGHUADESHIXUE。"[11]

 

AG娱乐网RANERRENGYOUXIEXUEZHEREZHONGYUDUIZHEIZHONGGUILVDETANQIU。TIANCHANGWUSHUO: "YOUGEZHONGGEYANGDELISHIXUE,ZHIYOUMAKESIZHUYILISHIXUESHIYANJIULISHIGUILVDE。ZHEISHIMAKESIZHUYILISHIXUEHEQITAGEZHONGLISHIXUE,BAOKUOZHONGGUOCHUANTONGSHIXUEDEGENBENQUBIESUOZAI。"TABAZHONGGUOLISHIHUAFENWEIHONGHUANGSHIDAI,ZUBANGSHIDAIHEFENGJIANDIZHISHIDAI,YIDAITIWUZHONGSHENGCHANFANGSHIDELILUN,RENWEIZHEISHIYOUZHONGGUOTESEDELISHIFAZHANGUILV。[12]

 

ER、SHEHUIFAZHANSHIYIYIDEGUILV

 

YISHANGZHUYAOSHIDUILISHIYOUWUGUILVYIJILISHIXUEDEMUDESHIFOUSHIFAXIANGUILVDEZHENGLUN。KENDINGLISHIYOUGUILVDEXUEZHE,DUILISHIGUILVYOUYOUZHEBUTONGDERENSHI。DATISHUOLAI,ZHONGGUOLISHIXUEDUIGUILVDEYANJIUYOULIANGZHONG,YIZHONGSHISHEHUIFAZHANSHIYIYIDE,YIZHONGSHILISHIRENSHILUNYIYIDE。ZHANGQIYILAI,DADUOSHUXUEZHEGUANZHUDESHISHEHUIFAZHANSHIYIYIDEGUILV,WEITAFUCHULEJIDADEREQINGHEJINGLI。YOUYUMAKESIDESHEHUIFAZHANLILUNYULISHISHISHI,YOUQISHIZHONGGUODELISHIYOUZHEJUDADECHAJU,BINGCUNZAIZHEHONGGUANYUWEIGUANDETUOJIE,YIXIEXUEZHELITUCONGGEGEFANGMIANXUNZHAOGENGHELIDEJIESHI,YOUCISHENGCHANLEYIXIEJUTILILUN,JIYIBANXINGYUTESHUXING、DANXIANHEDUOXIANDENGGUANDIAN。DAO70NIANDAIYIHOU,YIXIEXUEZHEKAISHIBAMUGUANGZHUANXIANGLISHIRENSHILUNYIYIDELISHIGUILV,SHIDUIGUILVDERENSHIYOULEXINDEFAZHAN。

 

1、 YIBANXINGYUTESHUXING:

 

30NIANDAIQIANQI,MAKESIZHUYISHIXUEJIAQIANGDIAO"LISHIFAZHANDEYIBANXING"ERHUSHITESHUXING。ZHEIYUDANGSHIDEZHENGZHIXINGSHIYOUGUAN。ZAISHEHUISHILUNZHANSHI,MAKESIZHUYIXUEZHEWEILELUNZHENGMAKESILILUNDEZHENGQUEXING,ERJILIZHENGMINGZHONGGUOLISHIFAZHANDAOLUYUSHIJIEGEGUOXIANGTONG。GUOMORUOZAI《ZHONGGUOGUDAISHEHUIYANJIU·ZIXU》ZHONGQIANGDIAOZHICHU: "ZHIYAOSHIYIGERENTI,TADEFAZHAN,WULUNSHIHONGHUANGHEIBAI,DADIXIANGTONG。YOURENSUOZUZHICHENGDESHEHUIYEZHENGSHIYIYANG。ZHONGGUORENYOUYIJUKOUTOUSHAN,SHUOSHI'AGYULEWANGDEGUOQINGBUTONG'。ZHEIZHONGMINZUDEPIANJIANCHABUDUOGEGEMINZUDOUYOU。RANERZHONGGUORENBUSHISHEN,YEBUSHIHOUZI,ZHONGGUORENSUOZUCHENGDESHEHUIBUYINGGAIYOUSHENMEBUTONG。"ZAIDANGSHI,QIANGDIAOGUOQING、ZHUZHANGZHUYITESHUXINGDENGYUSHIFANDONGDEBIAOXIAN。AISIQISHUO: "JINDAIZHONGGUODEYIQIEFANDONGSIXIANG,DOUYOUZHEYIGETESHUDECHUANTONG,"NEIJIUSHI"QIANGDIAOZHONGGUODE'GUOQING',QIANGDIAOZHONGGUODE'TESHUXING',MOSHARENLEILISHIDEYIBANDEGUILV,RENWEIZHONGGUODESHEHUIFAZHANZHINENGYIXUNZHEZHONGGUOZIJIDETESHUGUILV,ZHONGGUOZHINENGZOUZIJIDEDAOLU。ZHONGGUOZIJIDEDAOLUSHIWANQUANZAIYIBANRENLEILISHIFAZHANGUILVZHIWAIDE。"[13]YINCI,HANWEIMAKESIZHUYISHEHUIFAZHANLILUNDEPUBIANXING,JIUCHENGWEIMAKESIZHUYISHIXUEDETOUDENGZHONGYAORENWU。

 

DAO30NIANDAIMOJI40NIANDAI,YIXIEMAKESIZHUYISHIXUEJIAZAIKENDINGPUBIANGUILVDEQIANTIXIA,KAISHITANXUNZHONGGUOLISHIDETESHUXING。YUSHI,"TESHUXING"ZHEIYIGAINIANKAISHIPINFANDICHUXIANYUMAKESIZHUYISHIXUEZHUZUO。JUWANGXUEDIANKAOZHENG,ZHEIZHONGBIANHUASHICONGSULIANXUEZHEBAYAXIYASHENGCHANFANGSHIJIESHIWEINULIZHIKAISHIDE。1934NIAN,SULIANDEKEWALIEFUZHICHU,YAXIYASHENGCHANFANGSHISHINULIZHIDEBIANZHONG,BINGDIYICITICHUNULIZHIDEYIBANXINGYUTESHUXINGDEWENTI。ZHEIXIEGUANDIANSHIYIXIEMAKESIZHUYISHIXUEJIASHENSHOUGUWUHEQIFA。YINWEIZHEIJIBUWEIBEI"LISHIDEYIBANGUILV",YOUGUJILEZHONGGUODEJUTILISHIXIANXIANG。ZHEIYANG,"TESHUXING"ZHEIYIFANCHOUKAISHIJINRUZHONGGUOSHIXUEJIE。LVZHENYUTICHU,YINDAIDENULIZHISHIXILA、LUOMAYIWAIDELINGYIZHONGFANCHOUDENULIZHI。JIANBOZANRENWEI,CHUXILALUOMANULIZHIWAI,YIQIEGUOJIAHEMINZUDENULIZHI,DOUSHIBIANZHONG。ZAI《LISHIZHEXUEJIAOCHENG》DENGZHUZUOZHONG,JIANBOZANDALITICHANGYAOZHUZHONGLISHIDETESHUXING,YANLIPIPINGNEIZHONGZHIQIANGDIAOYIBANXINGDEQINGXIANG。TAZHICHU,ZAIYIBANFAZEZHIQIAN,ZHONGGUOSHIBIANCHENGLEYIPIANHUISEDEDONGXI,TASHIDIAOLEYIQIEDETESHUXING,JIHUBIANCHENGLEXIYANGSHIDEZAIBAN。HEGANZHIYECENGBANULIZHIFENWEI"ZHENGCHANG"HE"BUZHENGCHANG"DELIANGZHONG。TACHENGZHONGGUODENULIZHIDUSHIYIZHONG"BIANTAI"DEZHIDU,YUXILALUOMADEBUTONG,MEIYOUWANQUANFAZHANQILAI。HEGANZHIHAIBAZHONGGUOFENGJIANZHIDUSHUOCHENGSHIXIANGDUIYU"ZHENGCHANG"FAZHANDEYINGGUO、FAGUOFENGJIANZHUYIDE"BUZHENGCHANG"DEFAZHAN。TAZHICHU,SHIJIEGEGUODEFENGJIANZHIDOUJUYOUGONGXING,DANJUEBUSHIQIANPIANYILV,JUEFEIDANCHUNDEGONGSHI。KEWALIEFUDE"BIANZHONGLUN"DUIZHONGGUOMAKESIZHUYISHIXUEYINGXIANGPOSHEN,JIUSHIZAIJIANGUOHOU,RENGYOUBUSHAORENJIANCHIZHEIZHONGKANFA。

 

"BIANZHONGLUN"SUIZHUZHONG"TESHU",DANZAIGENBENSHANGRENGSHIQIANGDIAO"YIBAN',RENWEIDONGXIFANGDEBUTONGSHIXINGSHISHANGDEERFEIBENZHISHANGDE。HOUWAILUZAIZHEIYIFANGMIANDADADITUPOLEYUANYOUDESIWEIMOSHI。TAXIEZUO《ZHONGGUOGUDIANSHEHUISHILUN》,ZHILIYUTANTAOZHONGGUOGUDAIWENMINGDETESHUXING。HOUWAILUZHICHU,YAXIYADEHEGUDAIDE,SHILIANGZHONGBINGLIDELUJING,SHILIANGTIAOPINGXINGDEWENMINGDAOLU。TARENWEI,GUDAIWENMINGDELUJINGSHIDUOZHONGDUOYANGDE。GUDIANGUDAIDELUJING,BINGBUSHIWEIYIDE,ERQIEYANGEDISHUOLAI,ZHEIGUDIANDEDIANXING,ZHIYOUXILA;CIWAI,HAIYOULUOMASHIHERIERMANSHI。ZHEISANZHONGLUJING,ZHISHIGUDAIXIYANGDESHILI。HOUWAILUPIPINGGUOMORUOGUANYUZHONGGUOGUDAISHEHUIDELILUNGENJU,SHIHUSHILESANGELEIXINGDEGUOJIADEJIBENCAILIAO,YINERBAXIZHOUYUXIYANGDEGUDIANDENGSHI,BAZHEILIANGZHONGBENLAIBUTONGDEWENMINGKANZUOSHIYIMOYIYANG。HOUWAILUDEGUANDIANYIJIEJINYUHOULAIDEDUOXIANLUN。

 

AG娱乐网JIANGUOHOUDEQIANJISHINIANZHONG,SHIXUEJIEYIZHIRENDINGLISHIXUEDERENWUSHIYAOFAXIANLISHIGUILV,ZHENGMINGMAKESIDESHEHUIFAZHANGUILV,SUOYIDUILISHIGUILVWENTIHENSHAOZUOLILUNTANTAO。GAIGEKAIFANGHOU,XINGQILESHIXUELILUNRECHAO,SHIXUEJIEDUILISHIGUILVWENTIJINXINGLEDAGUIMODETAOLUN。JUTIDAOSHEHUIXINGTAIYANJINWENTIJILISHIGUILVDEXINGSHIDENGWENTI。DUIYUYIBANXINGYUTESHUXINGDEWENTI,20SHIJISHANGBANQILAOYIBEIMAKESISHIXUEJIAZHISHIYIJUTISHISHISHUOMINGQIZHUZHANG,ERXINSHIQIXUEZHEZECONGLILUNSHANGJINYIBUCHANSHU。HANZHENSHUO,PUBIANXINGZHIYOUTONGGUOTESHUXINGCAINENGCUNZAI。ZAILISHILINGYUZHONG,TESHUXINGSHIJIBENDE,PUBIANXINGZESHIDIERXINGDE。ZAILISHISHANG,ZHIYOUGEGETESHUGUOJIADEFAZHANDAOLU,BUCUNZAIYIGEBUSHIRENHETESHUMINZULISHIDEGONGTONGDELISHIJINCHENG。GONGTONGDEJINCHENG,ZHISHIYIZHONGJIEGOUXINGCHOUXIANG。TESHUXINGSHICUNZAIGAINIAN,PUBIANXINGZESHICONGTESHUXINGCUNZAIZHONGFENXICHULAIDE。[14]ZAIXINSHIQITANLUNZUIDUODESHIDANXIANYUDUOXIANWENTI。

 

AG娱乐网2、 LISHIFAZHANSHIDANXIANHAISHIDUOXIAN

 

JIANGUOQIANLEIHAIZONG、LINTONGJITICHUDE"WENHUAXINGTAISHIGUAN"ZHUZHANGWENHUASHIDUOYUANDE,SHIJISHANGSHIDUOXIANLUN。SUOWEIDUOYUAN,SHIZHILISHISHIZAIBUTONGDESHIJIANYUBUTONGDEDIYUGEGEDULICHANSHENGHEZIYOUFAZHANDE。ZHEIXIEBUTONGDEWENHUADOUYOUQIDULIXING。NEIZHONGBASHIJIESHIKANCHENGZHENGGEDE、YILIANCHUANXIANGSHANGYUNDONGDEGUOCHENGDESIXIANGSHIMEIYOUGENJUDE。

 

SIDALINWUZHONGSHENGCHANFANGSHIDEMOSHISHIDANXIANLUN。JIANGUOHOUDEQIANSANSHINIAN,DANXIANLUNZHANZHUDAODIWEI。PUBIANDEGUANDIANRENWEI,RENLEISHEHUISHIANZHAOYUANSHISHEHUI、NULISHEHUI、FENGJIANSHEHUI、ZIBENZHUYISHEHUIDECIXUXUNXUJIANJIN,DANXIANFAZHANDE。RANER,ZAI50NIANDAI,YIYOUXUEZHETICHUMOUZHONGYOUBEI"DANXIANLUN"DEGUANDIAN。YANGXIANGKUI、TONGSHUYERENWEIGUDAIDONGFANGSHISHINULIZHIHEFENGJIANZHIJIEHEDELISHI,YAOZAIGUDAIDONGFANGGEGUODELISHIZHONGHUAFENNULISHEHUIHEFENGJIANSHEHUIDEJIEXIANSHIHENKUNNANDE。ZAIYUANSHISHEHUIHOU,KEYICHANSHENGNULISHEHUI,YEKEYICHANSHENGFENGJIANSHEHUI。[15]ZHEISHIJISHANGSHIZHUZHANGLIANGTIAODAOLU、DUOXIANGFAZHAN,ERBUSHIDANXIANFAZHAN。RANERZAIDANGSHIZHEIZHONGKANFASHIBUBEIDADUOSHURENSUOJIESHOUDE。

 

70年代末,学术界掀起思想解放的浪潮,单线论受到空前的冲击。许多学者提出,人类并非所有的国家都从原始公社制到奴隶社会、封建社会、资本主义社会及社会主义社会依次单线发展的。1972年,意大利米兰艺术学院教授梅洛蒂出版了一本专门论述亚细亚生产方式的著作,即《马克思与第三世界》,书中提出社会发展多线的理论。这一观点传入中国后,对国内学术界影响很大。吴大琨即认为,梅洛蒂的书"说服力很强。"吴大琨指出,亚洲、非洲、拉丁美洲的许多国家的历史发展,实际上并不象斯大林所讲的单线。原始社会崩溃后,由于地理条件不同,历史上出现过诸如亚细亚的、希腊罗马(古典的)和日耳曼的不同发展道路。就中国来说,在原始社会解体之后建立起来的国家,就是亚细亚式的国家。在全世界目前所有的国家中,只有西欧国家经过了资产阶级的民主革命使西欧的封建主义国家发展成为资本主义国家,而其他国家的资本主义制度则都是在外来条件的影响下才发展起来的。其原因在于历史的发展是多线的而不是单线的。吴大琨还指出,长期以来,AG娱乐网的历史学家还没有能就中国的古史分期问题取得一致的意见,这是由于AG娱乐网过去受到了斯大林所说的五种生产方式的思想上的束缚,硬要把中国的历史往这五种生产方式里套,结果,当然套得不合适。如果AG娱乐网相信还存在另一种马克思所说的亚细亚生产方式,问题就能得到解决。[16]

LEIHAIZONG、ZHANGGUANGZHI、HUZHONGDAXIANHOUZHICHU,NULISHEHUIFEIRENLEISHEHUIDEBIJINGJIEDUAN,DONGFANGSHEHUIHEOUZHOUSHEHUIZOUZHEBUTONGDELISHIDAOLU。

 

胡仲达指出,讨论亚细亚生产方式问题,必然要联系到它同奴隶制、封建制生产方式的关系,实际上就是要归结为人类历史的发展是"单线"的还是"多线"的,是五种生产方式,还是六种或四种生产方式。胡仲达认为亚细亚生产方式、古代的生产方式及封建的生产方式所代表的是同一社会发展阶段,是同一社会经济形态的不同类型或模式。他还认为,亚细亚社会(东方社会)、奴隶社会和封建社会三者之间有很多共同性。[17]

DINGYUNBENYERENWEI,YIDANXIANWUDUANSHUOLAICHANMINGRENLEILISHIFAZHANBINGWEITIXIANMA、ENDEYUANYI。ZAIMAKESIKANLAI,CONGTIAOJIANBUTONGDEYUANSHISHEHUILICHANSHENGCHULAIDEGONGSHEJUYOUBUTONGDETEDIAN,JINRUWENMINGSHIQIYIHOU,JIUKAISHILEJIZHONGSHEHUIXINGTAIBINGCUNYOUANGEZHONGBUTONGGENGTIXULIEFAZHANDEGUOCHENG。CUNZAIYAXIYAGONGSHEDEDIQU,JINRULEYIYAXIYASHENGCHANFANGSHIWEIJICHUDESHEHUI;ZAIGUDIANGONGSHENEILI,BIANJINRULENULISHEHUI;ZAIRIERMANDEGONGSHENEILI,ZEJINRULEFENGJIANSHEHUI。ZHENGGEKANLAI,ZHIYOUOUZHOUBUFENDIQUDELISHISHIANZHAOYUANSHISHEHUI、NULISHEHUI、FENGJIANSHEHUI、ZIBENZHUYISHEHUIDEXULIEFAZHANDE,SHIJIEJUEDADUOSHUDIQUDELISHIBINGFEIRUCI。GENGFUMENGSHUO,YOUYUZIRANTIAOJIANHELISHITIAOJIANDEBUTONG,YUANSHISHEHUIJIETIHOUXINGCHENGDESHEHUIJIEGOUBIANWUFAYIZHI,YOUGEZHONGGEYANGDEXINGSHI。JIUNAGUDAIAIJIHELIANGHELIUYULAISHUO,NULISHEHUIJIUBUSHIBIJINGDEJIEDUAN。JIUZHEIXIEDIQUDELISHIMINGYUNERYAN,YUANSHISHEHUIJIETIHOU,QIBIRANQIANTUSHIFENGJIANSHEHUI。[18]

 

HEXINZHICHU,WUZHONGSHENGCHANFANGSHIGONGSHIDELILUNBEIJINGYISHIGUDIANJINHUALUNDEDANXIANYANHUAMOSHI,YISHIOUZHOUZHONGXINZHUYI。RANER,DUIYUYA、FEI、LADIQUDEDADUOSHUMINZUHEGUOJIALAISHUO,YOUYUTAMENDELISHIWENHUACHUANTONGYUOUZHOUSHINEIYANGDIBUTONG,TAMENBUJINCONGWEIZOUGUOOUZHOUSHIDEZIBENZHUYIDAOLU,ERQIEYECONGWEIJINGLIGUOXILA、LUOMANEIZHONGNULIZHIYIJIZHONGSHIJIOUZHOUNEIZHONGFENGJIANZHIDEDAOLU。DANSHISANSHIDUONIANLAIDEZHONGGUOLISHIXUEQUEYIZHIZAIZUOLIANGJIANSHI。DIYISHISHITUJINKENENGDIXUEZUSHILV,NIUQU、SHANGAI、XIUZHENGZHONGGUOLISHI,YIBIANBATASAIJINZHEIGELISHIGONGSHIDEKUANGJIANEI。DIERJIUSHIZAI"LISHIGUILV"DEMINGYIXIA,JIANGZHEIGEGONGSHISHENHUACHENGBUYUNXUHUAIYIHEPIPINGDESHENSHENGJIAOTIAO。[19]

 

LUORONGQUTICHU"YIYUANDUOXIANGUAN"。TAZAI《LUNYIYUANDUOXIANLISHIFAZHANGUAN》[20]ZHONGTICHUZHEIYILILUN,BINGZAIHOULAIDELIANGBUZHUZUO《XIANDAIHUAXINLUN》HE《XIANDAIHUAXINLUNXUPIAN》[21]ZHONGJINYIBULUNSHUZHEIYIGUANDIAN。LUORONGQUZHICHU,MAKESICONGWEISHUOGUOTASUOTIDAODEJIZHONGSHENGCHANFANGSHIZHIJIANYOU"YIGECHANSHENGYIGE"DEBIRANXING。ERSHIRENWEISHEHUIFAZHANSHIDUODAOLU、DUOMOSHIDE。TAJIESHI"YIYUAN"SHIZHISHEHUIFAZHANDEWUZHIJICHUSHISHEHUISHENGCHANLI,TUIDONGSHEHUIFAZHANDEGENBENDONGLISHIJINGJILIDEBIANGE。"DUOXIAN"SHIZHIZAITONGYIDASHENGCHANLIZHUANGTAIXIADEBUTONGSHEHUIDEFAZHAN,SHOUFUZADEZIRANYINSUHESHEHUIYINSUDEYINGXIANG,QIANCHAWANBIE,DANKEYIGUINACHENGBUTONGDEFAZHANJIEDUAN、BUTONGDEFAZHANMOSHIHEBUTONGDEFAZHANDAOLU。JUTILAISHUO,CHULEXIOUYOUYUTESHUDELISHITIAOJIAN,FAZHANDEQIFUBIANHUAZUIDA,KEYIQINGLICHUCONGYUANSHIGONGSHEJINGNULIZHI、FENGJIANZHIDAOZIBENZHUYIDEDIANXINGXIANXINGFAZHANXULIEWAI,QITAGEDAZHOUDEGUOJIAHEMINZUDEFAZHANJUNQIFUBIANHUABUDA,QIANJINBUFAHUANMAN。

 

YULUORONGQUJIDANXIANLUNZHEDEZHUZHANGBUTONGDESHI,CHENGRENQIANTICHUDUOYUANDUOXIANLUN。DANXIANLUNZHEQIANGDIAOLISHIDEDONGLISHIYIYUANDE,LUORONGQUYERENWEILISHIFAZHANDEDONGLISHIYIYUANDE。CHENGRENQIANZEZHICHU,TUIDONGLISHIQIANJINDEDONGLIBUSHIDANYIDE,ERSHIDUOYUANDE。20SHIJISHIJIEDEFAZHANBUSHIDANXIANDE,ERSHIDUOXIANDUOYUANDE。[22]DANTAMEIYOUDUIZHEIYIWENTIZUOXIANGJINDECHANSHU。

 

ZHUZHANGLISHIFAZHANDUOXIANLUNZHEDADUOQIANGDIAO,MAKESI、ENGESISHIZHUZHANGDUOXIANLUNDE,ZHUYAOSHISIDALINZHUZHANGDANXIANLUN。DUICIZHANGYANGUOTICHUBUTONGDEKANFA。ZHANGYANGUOKAOCHALEMAKESILISHILILUNDEFAZHANHEYANBIAN,ZHICHU,MAKESIDELILUNQIANHOUYOUSUOBIANHUA。ZAI19SHIJI70NIANDAIYIQIAN,SHIDANXIANLUN,QIZHEYANDIANSHIXIFANGZIBENZHUYI,SHIDUIXIFANGZIBENZHUYIFAZHANDAOGONGCHANZHUYIDEKEXUEFENXI;19SHIJI70NIANDAIYIHOU,MAKESIZHUYISHIJIELISHILILUNYOUDANXIANLUNXIANGDUOXIANLUNFAZHAN,QIZHEYANDIANSHIZHENGGERENLEISHEHUI,DUIBUTONGLISHITEDIAN、BUTONGLISHIZHUANGKUANG、BUTONGLISHIFAZHANMOSHIDEMINZUGUOJIAJINRUSHIJIELISHIJINCHENGDEKEXUEJIESHUO。[23]

 

ZAITAOLUNJINDAISHIFAZHANXIANSUOWENTISHI,JIANGJINPIPINGLE"XIANXINGFAZHANGUAN"。TAZHICHUXIANXINGFAZHANGUANSHI18、19SHIJILIXINGSHIDAIDECHANWU。DANGSHIDESIXIANGJIARENWEI,RUTONGWUZHISHIJIEYIYANG,SHEHUIDEFAZHANYESHIXUNZHEMOUZHONGGUIZEDEYUNDONG。RENMENYOUKENENGZHAOCHUZHEIXIEGUIZE,BINGMIAOHUICHUSHEHUIFAZHANDEYITIAOBIRANXINGXIANSUO。ZHEIZHONGGUANDIANZAIJIECHUDESIXIANGJIANEILI,CENGJINGSHIQIFACHUANGZAOXINGSIWEIDEDONGYIN,DANSHIDAOLEBIEJIAODELISHIXUEJIASHOULI,QUECHENGLESHUFUSIXIANGDESHENGSUO。TARENWEIXUESHUJIEZHENGQIDAIZHEYIZHONGXINDETUPO,JIQIUDEHONGGUANRENSHIDEYIZHI,ERSHIXIANZHEIYITUPODEGUANJIAN,JIUSHIBAITUOGUANYULISHIDEXIANXINGFAZHANGUANDESHUFU。[24]

 

YIXIERENRENGJIANCHIYUANYOUDEGUANDIAN。《SHIJIESHANGGUSHIGANG》BIANXIEZUZAI《DUOXIANSHUOHAISHIDANXIANSHUO》YIWENZHONG,YANLIPIPINGMEIGUOXUEZHEWEITEFUZHUZHANG"DUOYUANLUN"HUO"DUOXIANSHUO"DELILUN,BINGCHANSHUQI"YIYUANHUODANXIANDELISHIFAZHAN"GUAN。WENZHANGRENWEI,YINGDANGBAQUANBUYAZHOUHUODONGFANGSHEHUIFENCHENGLIANGBUFENKAN,YIBUFENSHIZUIZAOJINRUWENMING、JINRUJIEJISHEHUIHEFASHENGGUOJIADEDIQU,LINGYIBUFENSHIGONGSHESHANGWEIJIETI,JINHUACHENGDUBUDENGDEHOUJINDIQU。QIANZHEDELISHIFAZHANGUOCHENGYUXIFANGJIBENSHANGFUHEYUTONGYIDELISHIFAZHANGUILV,JIYOUBULUOJIEHEERCHENGSHIGUOJIA,YOUCHENGBANGERDIGUO。SUIRANGEYOUTEDIAN,DANLISHIFAZHANDEFANGXIANGSHIYIZHIDE,ZONGDEGUILVSHIYITIAOGUIDAODE。ZHEIJIAOYIYUANHUODANXIANDELISHIFAZHAN。ZHIYUHOUZHE,YEBUSHIYAZHOUHUODONGFANGSHEHUICAIYOUDE,OUZHOUDEAIERLANGONGSHE、RIERMANGONGSHEHESILAFUGONGSHEDENGYESHUYUTONGYIFANCHOU。YINCI,ZHEIXIEXIAOXIAOGONGSHEDETINGZHIXING,BUWEIDONGFANGHUOYAZHOUSHEHUISUODUZHAN,ERYINGWEIXIFANGHUOOUZHOUYIDINGSHIQIHEDIQUDELISHIWENHUASUOGONGXIANG,TONGYANGYINGDANGGUIYULISHIYIYUANHUODANXIANFAZHANDEFANWEI。[25]

 

ZHICHUN、XUESHENGQIANGDIAO,CHENGRENBUCHENGRENQUANRENLEIDELISHIFAZHANFUCONGYUTONGYIDEKEGUANGUILV,BARENLEILISHIDEFAZHANKANZUOSHIYIYUANDEHAISHIKANZUODUOYUANDE,ZHEISHISHEJIWEIWUZHUYILISHIGUANDEYIGEZHONGDAYUANZEWENTI。TAMENHAIRENWEI,MAKESI、ENGESIZAI《DEYIZHIYISHIXINGTAI》YISHUZHONGDIYICITICHUDELISHIFENQI,SHIBASHIJIELISHIDEFAZHANKANZUOYIGEXITONG,ERBUSHIDUOGEXITONG,KANZUOYIYUANFAZHAN,ERBUSHIDUOYUANFAZHAN,KANZUODANXIANDE,ERBUSHIDUOXIANDE。[26]

 

LINGANQUANZAI《YAXIYASHENGCHANFANGSHIYUZHONGGUOGUDAISHEHUI》YIWENZHONGJIZHONGCHANSHULETADUIMEILUODIDE"DUOXIAN"LUNDEKANFA。TASHUO,YIWANGDEQUECUNZAIBAWUZHONGSHENGCHANFANGSHIJIANDANHUAHEJIANGHUADEQINGXIANG。DANTABUTONGYIYONG"DANXIAN"LUNHUO"DUOXIAN"LUNDEDUILILAIGAIKUODUIYUSHEHUIXINGTAIDERENSHI。YINWEIWULUNSHI"DANXIAN"LUNHUO"DUOXIAN"LUN,DOUKEYIZUOBUTONGDEJIESHI。"DUOXIAN"LUNKEYILIJIEWEIFOURENBUTONGGUOJIAHEMINZULISHIFAZHANDEGONGTONGXING,ERZHEIZHONGGONGTONGXINGZHENGSHIAGYULEWANGBIXUJIANCHIDEMAKESIZHUYIDEYIGEJIBENGUANDIAN。YINCI,"DUOXIAN"DETIFAFANYINGBUCHUSHEHUILISHIFAZHANDEZHONGFULV。ER"DANXIAN"DETIFAYOUHENRONGYIBEIWUJIEWEIDANYIDEMOSHI,CONGERHUSHILEBUTONGGUOJIAHEMINZULISHIFAZHANDEDUOYANGXING。RENLEILISHIDEFAZHANBUNENGSHUOSHIDUOXIANDE,DANQUESHIDUOMOSHIDE。[27]

 

GUNAIZHONGMINGQUEDIJIANCHIDANXIANLUN。TARENWEI,AGYULEWANGBUJINBAMAKESIDELISHIGUANGUIJIEWEIJINGJIJUEDINGLUN,ERQIERENWEIWEIYOUJINGJIJUEDINGLUNCAISHIKEXUEDELISHIGUAN。JINGJIJUEDINGLUNZHUNQUEDISHUO,YINGSHISHENGCHANFANGSHIJUEDINGLUN。SHENGCHANFANGSHIZUOWEISHEHUILISHIFAZHANDEJUEDINGXINGJICHU,YOUYIGEANZHAOLISHIFAZHANDELUOJISHUNXUYICIYANJINDEGUOCHENG。YINCI,GENJUZHEIZHONGLILUNKAOCHALISHIJINCHENG,KEBIAOMINGLISHIFAZHANSHIDANXIANDE,ERBUSHIDUOXIANDE。ZAIMAKESIKANLAI,LISHIDEFAZHANSHIDANXIANDE。ZONGZHI,ZAILISHIFAZHANDANXIANLUNKANLAI,SUOYOUDEMINZUDOUJINGLIJIBENXIANGTONGDEDAOLU,LISHIFAZHANDANXIANXINGBIAOMING,ZAISHEHUILISHIZHONGCUNZAIZHEBUYIRENDEYIZHIWEIZHUANYIDEKEGUANGUILV。[28]

 

YEXIANMINGDUIZHEILIANGZHONGLILUNDOUTICHUPIPING。TASHUO,WULUNDANXIANLUNHAISHIDUOXIANLUN,QIFANGFALUNDEJIBENDIANDOUSHIXIANGTONGDE,DOUBUNENGZHENGQUEDIRENSHIHEBAWO"LISHIFAZHANGUILV"YU"SHEHUIFAZHANDAOLU"、ZUOWEIZHENGTIDESHIJIELISHIDEFAZHANGUOCHENGYUGEGEMINZUHEGUOJIADESHEHUILISHIFAZHANGUOCHENGZHIJIANDEQUBIELIANXI。"DANXIANLUN"SHIBA"LISHIFAZHANGUILV"HUNTONGYU"SHEHUIFAZHANDAOLU",CONGERBASHEHUIFAZHANDETONGYIXINGJIANDANHUA。ER"DUOXIANLUN"ZEBA"LISHIFAZHANGUILV"YU"SHEHUIFAZHANDAOLU"JIERANFENKAI,CONGERBAGEGEMINZUHEGUOJIADESHEHUILISHIFAZHANDETESHUXINGJUEDUIHUA。XIANRAN,ZHEILIANGZHEDOUSHISHIZHENDE。[29]

 

⒊LISHIFAZHANDELIANGTIAODAOLU: YUANSHENGXINGYUPAISHENGXING

 

YIXIERENCONGLINGYIJIAODUCHANSHULISHIFAZHANDAOLUWENTI。WANGZHANYANGZHICHU,RENLEISHEHUICONGLAIJIUBUSHIYIGETONGYIDESHEHUI。RENLEISHEHUIDEFAZHAN,YOULIANGZHONGBUTONGDEJIBENXINGSHI,JI,YI、YIKAOZISHENDELILIANGSUOSHIXIANDEYUANSHENGXINGDEFAZHAN;ER、ZAIWAIBUSHEHUIDEZUOYONGXIASUOSHIXIANDEPAISHENGXINGDEFAZHAN。YUANSHENGXINGDEFAZHAN,SHISHEHUIFAZHANDEDIANXINGXINGSHI,YESHIPAISHENGXINGDEFAZHANYOUYIFASHENGDELISHIQIANTI。YINER,ZHEIZHONGFAZHAN,ZUINENGXIANXIANRENLEISHEHUIFAZHANDEZUIYIBANDEGUILV。MAKESIZAI《〈ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEPIPAN〉XUYAN》ZHONGDEGAIKUO,SHIZHIRENLEISHEHUIFAZHANDEYIBANGUILVDEYUANSHENGXINGLISHIYUNDONGDEGUILV,ERJUEBUSHICHUNCUIDERENLEISHEHUIFAZHANDEYIBANGUILV。AGYULEWANGGUOXUESHUJIEZHANGQIDUICIBULEJIE,YIWEIZHEIZHONGGUILVJIUSHI"FANGZHISIHAIERJIEZHUN"DEPUBIANGUILV,ZAOCHENGLILUNSHANGDESHIWU。RENLEILISHIDEFAZHANCONGLAIDOUSHIBUPINGHENGDE。ZAIRENLEILISHISHANG,ZONGSHISHAOSHUHUOGEBIEDIQULINGXIANJINRULEYUANSHENGXINGDESHEHUIGEMINGSHIDAI,RANHOU,ZAIXIANGQITADIQUCHUANBODEJICHUSHANG,SHIJIEDABUFENDIQUCAIXIANHOUJINRULETONGZHIDEPAISHENGDESHEHUIGEMINGSHIDAI。[30]MENGQINGRENYETICHUZHEIZHONGGUANDIAN,RENWEILISHIFAZHANYOUYUANSHENGXINGHECISHENGXINGDEQUBIE。ZHEIZHONGLILUNSHIJISHANGYESHIZHUZHANGDUOXIANLUN。

 

AG娱乐网4、 LISHIFAZHANDECHANGGUIXINGYUBIANYIXING

 

AG娱乐网ZHANGYANGUOZHICHU,WUZHONGSHEHUIJINGJIXINGTAIYICIJIAOTIDELISHIFAZHANLILUNZHISHIYIZHONGLISHIZHEXUEXINGTAIDELILUNMOSHI,TABUNENGWANZHENGDIDAIBIAOLISHIGUOCHENGBENSHEN。XIOULISHIFAZHANSHUYUCHANGGUIDEXINGSHI,BIAOXIANZAIJIZHONGSHEHUIJINGJIXINGTAIYICIJIAOTI;CHUXIOUYIWAIDESHIJIESHANGXUDUOGUOJIAHEMINZUZESHUYULISHICHANGGUIXINGSHIXIADEBIANYIXINGSHI。RENLEISHEHUIDEFAZHAN,CHUSHOUCHANGGUIXINGFAZHANDAOLUDEYINDAOWAI,ZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGSHOUBIANYIXINGFAZHANDAOLUDEYINDAO;ERBIANYIXINGFAZHANDAOLUYUCHANGGUIXINGFAZHANDAOLUSHIZHONGPINGXING。[31]DUYUTINGZHICHU,DANXIANLUNHEDUOXIANLUNZHIZHENG,BIJIANGSHIMAKESIZHUYIDEWEIWUSHIGUANDEDAOFENGFUHEFAZHAN。RANERTAYOURENWEI,RENLEISHEHUIDEFAZHANGUILVNANYIZHIYONGDANXIANLUNLAIGAIKUO,YEBUYIZHIYONGDUOXIANLUNLAIGAIKUO,ERYINGSHILISHIDEGUILVXINGYUYIBIANXINGDEDUILITONGYI。HONGGUANZONGTIDEDANXIANLUNYUWEIGUANJUTIDEDUOXIANLUNSHIXIANGFUXIANGCHENGDEDUILITONGYI,JILISHIDEGUILVXINGYUYIBIANXINGDEDUILITONGYI。[32]

 

AG娱乐网5、 LISHIFAZHANDETONGYIXINGYUDUOYANGXING

 

AG娱乐网DINGWEIZHITICHU,LISHIKEXUEDEZUIJIBENDERENWU,SHIZAIYUTANTAORENLEILISHIDEDUOYANGXINGDENEIRONGZHONGSUOBAOHANDEBENZHIHEGUILV。LISHIDETONGYIXINGKEGUANDICUNZAIYULISHIDEDUOYANGXINGZHIZHONG。RENLEISHEHUIDELISHISHIYIGETONGYITI,TACUNZAIZHETONGYIDEBENZHI,YINERJUYOUTONGYIDEYUNDONGGUILV。[33]DINGWEIZHIDEGUANDIANYINQIYIXIEXUEZHEDEXINGQU。TAMENDUIRUHELIJIETONGYIXINGHEDUOYANGXINGZHANKAIZHENGLUN。YOUXUEZHERENWEI,LISHIDETONGYIXINGJIUZAIYUSHEHUIXINGTAI(WUZHONGSHENGCHANFANGSHI)DEGENGTIJIYOUCIXINGCHENGDERENLEILISHICONGDIJIXIANGGAOJIDEYOUKEGUANGUILVDEFAZHANGUOCHENG。[34]YOURENZERENWEI,BUYINGZAISHEHUIJINGJIXINGTAIDEGENGTIZHONGQUZHAOSHIJIEGUJINLISHIGUILVDETONGYITI,ERYINGQIUZHIYUSHENGCHANFANGSHIDETONGYITI。YINWEIZHIYOUDANGZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANFANGSHIXINGCHENGLESHIJIESHICHANG,DAPOLEMINZUBILEISHI,CAIYOULETONGYIDESHIJIELISHI。SUOYIZAIQIANZIBENZHUYISHIYEJIUMEIYOUJUYOUKEXUEYIYIDESHIJIELISHIDEDUOYANGXINGTONGYI,BUCUNZAIANJIZHONGSHEHUIJINGJIXINGTAIYANJINDE、DANXIANDE、BIRANDESHUNXU。[35]SHESHUSHENGBA"DUOYANGXING"CHENGWEI"DUOYUANXING",RENWEISHEHUIXINGTAIDECUNZAIHEYOUYIZHONGXINGTAIXIANGLINGYIZHONGXINGTAIDEYANHUA,DUIYUDIQIUKONGJIANDEBUTONGDIYULAISHUO,BINGBUSHITONGBUXINGDE。ZHEIZHONGFEITONGBUXINGDECUNZAI,SHIZAOCHENGLISHI"DUOYUANXING"CUNZAIDEJIBENYUANYIN。[36]

 

AG娱乐网6、 RENLEISHEHUISHIFOUCONGDIJIXIANGGAOJIYANJIN

 

AG娱乐网LISHIFAZHANDANXIANYUDUOXIAN、YIBANYUTESHUDENGWENTISHEJIDESHILISHIFAZHANGUILVDELEIXINGDEWENTI,CIWAI,ZAISHEHUIFAZHANSHIDEGUILVFANGMIANHAIYOUSHEHUIXINGTAIYANJINDECHENGDUWENTI。MAKESIZHUYISHEHUIFAZHANSHIRENWEI,RENLEISHEHUIDEFAZHANSHIXUNXUJIANJIN、YOUDIJIXIANGGAOJIJINHUA,HOUYIGESHEHUIBIDINGBIQIANYIGESHEHUIGENGXIANJIN。JINNIANLAIYEYOUXUEZHEDUICITICHUZHIYI。LIUXINYONGZHICHU,RENLEISHEHUIDEYANHUAJUEBUHUICHENGZHIXIANDIJINZHUANG,GENGBUNENGZHIWANGYISHIJIEMOUYIDIQULISHIDEYANJINGUIJI,ZUOWEIYIZHONGTONGYIDEMOSHI,LAISHUOMINGWUXIANFENGFUDEFANFUBUYIDERENLEISHEHUIFAZHANGUOCHENG。JINXIANDAISHEHUISHIGONGYEHUADASHENGCHANDECHUANGZAO,TAYUYIWANGRENHESHIDAIDOUYOUMINGXIANDEQUBIE。ZAICIZHIQIANDEZHENGGEYINONGYEWENMINGWEIJICHUDERENLEILISHIZHONG,JIZAIANCHUANTONGSHIGUANBEIHUAWEINULISHEHUIHEFENGJIANSHEHUIDESHIQILI,AGYULEWANGQUEZHAOBUDAOKEYIYUGONGYEGEMINGXIANGLEIBIDESHEHUIJINBUDEBIAOZHI。ZAIDANGSHI,RENYURENDEYIFUGUANXISHIGEGEDIQUGEZHONGSHEHUIGUANXISUOJUYOUDEGONGTONGDEBENZHITEZHENG。YOUCIERLUN,OUZHOUZHONGSHIJISHEHUIXINGTAIGAOYUGUDAIDEGUANDIAN,SHINANYICHENGLIDE,YINWEINULIZHIHEFENGJIANZHIWUYISHUYUTONGYIZHONG"ZUICHUXINGTAI"。OUZHOUZHONGSHIJISHEHUISHIJIANLIZAIGULUOMADIGUODEFEIXUSHANGDE,DANYOUCIBINGBUNENGTUILUNCHUQIANZHESHIHOUZHEXIANXINGJINBUDEJIELUN。ZONGGUANZHENGGEZHONGSHIJI,HENNANFAXIANSHENGCHANJISHUSHUIPINGYOUMINGXIANDECHAOGUOGUDAIDEFAZHAN,SHEHUISHENGHUOFANGMIANYESHIRUCI。BUBIDUANYAN,ZHONGSHIJIDEOUZHOUSHEHUIFAZHANSHUIPINGYIDINGGAOYUHUODIYUGUDAIXILALUOMASHEHUI。[37]

 

SAN、 LISHIRENSHILUNYIYIDEGUILV

 

AG娱乐网JINNIANLAI,YIXIEXUEZHEBUMANYUZHANGQIYILAIDUIGUILVWENTIDEJIANDANHECHOUXIANGDELIJIE,KAISHICONGXINDEJIAODUTANTAOLISHIGUILVWENTI。SUSHUANGBIZHICHU,LISHIGUILVYIBANLAISHUO,KEYIBAOKUOLIANGGECENGCI: YISHIZHILISHIFAZHANGUILV,JIMAKESIZHUYIJINGDIANZUOJIAZAOYIJIESHIGUODEGUILV,ZHEIXIEGUILVJUYOUPUBIANYIYI。ERSHIZHIXIANGYIDELISHIXIANXIANGYOUQIBIRANDENEIZAILIANXI,LISHIYANJIUZHEKEYICONGLINGSUIDEFUZADELISHIZILIAOZHONGGAIKUOCHUTAMENDEGONGXING,ZHAOCHUTAMENDEGUILV。SUSHUANGBIZHUYAOCHANSHULEDIYIGECENGCIDEGUILV。TARENWEI,LISHIFAZHANGUILVZHIFANYINGZONGDELISHIQUXIANGHEXIANSUO,BUYIDINGHESUOYOUDELISHISHIJIANHELISHIRENWUYOUZHIJIEDELIANXI。MAKESIZHUYIJINGDIANZUOJIAJIESHIDELISHIFAZHANGUILVYOUSANTIAO: YI、LISHIDEJINCHENGSHISHOUSHENGCHANLIDEFAZHANZHIYUEDE。ER、RENHELISHIXIANXIANGDOUYOUTAFASHENG、FAZHANHEZHONGJIEDEGUOCHENG,ZAIZHEIGEGUOCHENGZHONG,XINSHENGDE、JINBUDELILIANGDOUYAOZHANSHENGJIUDE、LUOHOUDESHILI。GENJUZHEIGEYUANLI,MAKESIJIESHILEGEGEBUTONGSHEHUIXINGTAIGENGDIEDEGUILV。SAN、JIEJIDOUZHENGSHIJIEJISHEHUILISHIFAZHANDEDONGLI。WENZHANGHAIZHICHU,SHIBALISHIFAZHANGUILVDANGCHENGGONGSHI,SUIYITAOYONG,HAISHIBAGUILVDANGCHENGXIANSUO,JINYIBUQUTANSUOHECHANMING,ZHEISHIYIGEZHIDEYANJIUBINGNONGQINGCHUDEWENTI。[38]

 

AG娱乐网SUSHUANGBILUNDIANDEXINYIZAIYU: YISHIMINGQUETICHUGUILVYOULIANGGECENGCI,QISUOSHUODEDIYIGECENGCIDEGUILVSHIJISHANGJIUSHIYIWANGRENMENPUBIANGUANZHUDENEIZHONGGUILV,ERDIERZHONGGUILVJIUSHILISHIRENSHILUNCENGMIANDEGUILV。ERSHIDUIDIYIZHONGGUILVDEJIESHIGENGJIADUOYANGHUA,BINGJUYOUYIDINGDELINGHUOXING,ZHUZHANGBAGUILVDANGZUORENSHIDEXIANSUO,ZHEIZHONGJIESHIYESHIFUHELISHIRENSHILUNTEZHENGDE。YIHANDESHITAMEIYOUDUILISHIRENSHILUNYIYIDEGUILVZUOCHUJIAOXIANGXIDECHANSHU。

 

WANGHE、ZHOUDUODUIYIWANGDEPUBIANZUOFATICHUPIPING。WENZHANGSHUO,LISHIGUILVJIUJINGSHISHENMEYANGDEDONGXI?RENMENZHIJINBINGMEIYOUGAOQINGCHU。LUNZHEWANGWANGBUJIASIKAODIYUNYONGZHE"LISHIGUILV"HUO"LISHIFAZHANGUILV"ZHEILEIMINGCIQUSHUOMINGYIQIEBEILUNJIDELISHIWENTI,QUEBINGBUZHENZHENGLEJIEZHEIXIEMINGCIDEQUEDINGHANYI。WENZHANGDUILISHIRENSHILUNYIYIDEGUILVZUOCHULEJIAOXITONGDEHEZHENGMIANDELUNSHU。[39]

 

AG娱乐网1、 LISHIGUILVDEDINGYIJITEZHENG

 

WANGHE、ZHOUDUORENWEI: "LISHIGUILV,SHILISHIXUEJIADUILISHIFAZHANDEGUILVXINGDEMIAOSHUHEGUINA,JIDUIDUOCICHUXIANDEJUYOUXIANGSIXINGDELISHIXIANXIANGHEGUOCHENGDEMIAOSHU,YIJIDUIDAOZHIZHEIXIEXIANXIANGHEGUOCHENGCHUXIANDENEIZAIYINSUHEWAIBULIANXIDEGUINAHEZONGJIE。"LISHIGUILVJUYOUJIGEJIBENSHUXING: YI、ZHONGFUXING。LISHIGUILVSHIDUIZHONGFUCHUXIANDESHIWUDEZONGJIE。ER、CENGCIXING。DATIKEFENWEISANLEIBUTONGYIYIDECENGCI。JIULISHIGUILVDESHIYONGFANWEIERYAN,YOUPUBIANGUILVHETESHUGUILVDEQUBIE。JIULISHIGUILVSUOZONGJIEDELISHIXIANXIANGHEGUOCHENGJIQINEIZAIYUANYINHEWAIBULIANXIDEXINGZHIERYAN,YOUZONGTIGUILVHEJUTIGUILVDEQUBIE。JIULISHIGUILVNENGGOUSHIYONGDESHIJIANXIANDINGERYAN,YOUJIEDUANGUILVYUYONGHENGGUILVDEQUBIE。SAN、BUQUEDINGXING,BIAOXIANWEIDUOYANGXINGHEKEBIANXING。

 

ZHAOYIFENGDENGZHU《LISHILILUNJIBENWENTI》YISHUZHONGDUIGUILVDEDINGYICONGLIANGZHONGJIAODULIJIE。YIZHONGSHIBENTILUNDEDINGYI: LISHIGUILVSHITIXIANZAIRENLEISHEHUIKEGUANYUNDONGGUOCHENGZHONGDEJUYOUWENDINGXINGHEKEZHONGFUXINGDEPUBIAN、BIRAN、BENZHIDELIANXI。RENSHILUNJIAODUDEDINGYI,TAJIESHAOLEWANGHE、ZHOUDUODEGUANDIAN。ZHAOYIFENGDENGRENWEI,SHANGSHULIANGZHONGSHUOFASHIFOUDADAOLEDUI"LISHIGUILV"JINXINGDINGYIDEYANGEZHUNQUEXINGHAIKEYITAOLUN,DANBENTILUNYURENSHILUNJIAODUDETANJIUDOUSHIBIYAODE。[40]

 

AG娱乐网JIANGXIDONGCONGZHEXUEGUANYUGUILVDEGUANDIANCHUFA,FANDUIWANGHE、ZHOUDUODEGUANDIAN。TARENWEILISHIGUILVZHISHIGUILVZHIYIZHONG,BUNENGLIKAIZHEXUEYIYIDEYIBANGUILVLAITANLUNHERENSHILISHIGUILV。TAYINYONGXIAOQIANZHU《BIANZHENGWEIWUZHUYIYUANLI》(RENMINCHUBANSHE1981NIANBAN)ZHONGDEDINGYI,RENWEIGUILVSHISHIWUFAZHANGUOCHENGZHONGSUOGUYOUDE、BENZHIDE、BIRANDE、WENDINGDELIANXI。LIANXISHIKEGUANCUNZAI,JUEFEINAGERENDEZHUGUANXIANGXIANG,BINGBUSHIRENZAIRENSHITAMENZHIQIANGUILVJIUBUCUNZAI。BAGUILVKANCHENGRENMENDEMIAOSHUHEGUINA,KANCHENGRENDERENSHI,ERBUSHIKANCHENGYIZHONGKEGUANLIANXIDEGUANDIAN,YANZHONGHUNXIAOLERENMENDUIKEGUANGUILVDERENSHIHEKEGUANGUILVBENSHENDEQUBIE。ZHEIZHONGLIJIE,SHIWUBAYANJIUDEFANGFAHEGUOCHENGDENGTONGYUYANJIUDUIXIANGBENSHEN。[41]

 

HAIYOUYIZHONGGUANDIANSHI: LISHIGUILVSHILISHIDEZHUTIYUKETIXIANGHUZUOYONGDESHIJIANGUOCHENGZHONGBIAOXIANCHULAIDEHENGDINGDELIANXIFANGSHI。CONGKETIFANGMIANJIANG,GUILVTIGONGDESHIYIZHONGKEGUANDEKENENGXINGKONGJIAN。YIFANGMIAN,ZHEIZHONGKENENGXINGSHIYOUXIANDE。LINGYIFANGMIAN,GUILVYOUZHEKEGONGXUANZEDEYUDI。CONGZHUTIFANGMIANJIANG,LISHIGUILVZONGSHITONGGUORENMENDEXUANZELAISHIXIANDE。RENMENBUNENGSUIXINSUOYUDICHUANGZAOLISHI,DANKEYINENGDONGDICHUANGZAOLISHI。[42]

 

LISHUTICHUGUILVSHISHIWUJIANNEIZAILIANXIDEQUEDINGDEBIAOXIAN。[43]

 

LISUXIARENWEI,SHEHUILISHIGUILVSHIZHISHEHUINEIBUZHUYINSUYIJISHEHUIHEZIRANJIEBENZHILIANXISUOBIAOXIANCHULAIDEFAZHANBIANHUADEBIRANQUSHI。[44]

 

AG娱乐网KANLAI,DUILISHIGUILVDEDINGYISHIDUOZHONGDUOYANGDE。

 

2、 LISHIGUILVDELIZHENG

 

MUQIANYANJIUDEZHUANGKUANGSHIYILILUNCHANSHUWEIZHU,SHIZHENGYANJIUBINGBUDUOJIAN。YINERDUIJUTIDELISHIGUILVTIGONGDELIZHENGJIAOSHAO。YANJIUDEDUIXIANGBAOKUOLIANGFANGMIAN,YIZHONGSHIKEGUANLISHIJINCHENGZHONGDEGUILV,YIZHONGSHISHIXUEZISHENFAZHANDEGUILV。

 

AG娱乐网WANGHE、ZHOUDUOTICHU,"TIANXIADASHI,FENJIUBIHE,HEJIUBIFEN";SHIGUOQUDELISHIXUEJIADUIZHONGGUOGUDAISHEHUIZAIXIANGDANGZHANGYIDUANLISHISHIQINEIYOUZHIDAOLUAN,YOULUANDAOZHIDEZHONGFUXIANXIANGDEMIAOSHU。"SANSHINIANHEDONG,SANSHINIANHEXI"。ZHEISHIGUDAIZHONGGUORENZONGJIEDELISHIFAZHANJIJIAZUXINGSHUAIYUCAIFUBIANQIANDEGUILV。(JIANGXIDONGZAISHANGPIANSHANGQUEWENZHANGZHONGRENWEIZHEIBUSHISHENMELISHIGUILV,QIANYITIAOZHISHIYIZHONGXIANXIANGDEMIAOSHU,HOUYITIAOZHISHIYIZHONGBIYU,BINGBUKEXUE)

 

AG娱乐网LISHUZAI《MAKESIZHUYIDUILISHIXUEDEYAOQIU》ZHONG,GENJUMAKESIDELUNSHU,ZONGJIELEJITIAOYOUGUANLISHIDEGUILV,LIRUMAKESICONGZHENGFUYINDUDEALABOREN、TUERQIREN、MOWOERRENDENGLUOHOUMINZUBUJIUJIUBEIDANGDIJUMINTONGHUADESHILISHUOMING,YEMANDEZHENGFUZHEZONGSHIBEINEIXIETAMENSUOZHENGFUDEJIAOGAODEWENMINGSUOZHENGFU。MINGQUEZHICHU"ZHEISHIYITIAOYONGHENGDELISHIGUILV。"[45]LISHUJINYIBUSHUOMING,ZHEIYESHIWEIZHONGGUOLISHISUOCHONGFENZHENGMINGDEGUILV。CIWAIHAIYOUMAKESISUOSHUO: "MEIYOUDUIKANGJIUMEIYOUJINBU"DENGGUILV。

 

SHANGSHULIZHENG,BUFENSHIZHONGGUOGUDAIRENTIGONGDE,BUFENSHIWAIGUOREN,JIMAKESIZONGJIEDE。ZHONGGUOXIANDAIXUEZHEJINGUANWEITANTAOGUILVWENTITOURULEDALIANGDEJINGLI,DANZIJIZONGJIEDELISHIGUILVSHANGSHUKONGBAI。ZHEISHIZHIDESHENSIDE。

 

JINGUANSHIXUESHIYANJIUZHEZHUZHANG,SHIXUESHIYINGYISHIXUEFAZHANDEGUILVWEIZHUYAOYANJIUDUIXIANG,DANQIJINWEIZHI,HENSHAOYOURENTICHUSHIXUEZISHENFAZHANGUILVFANGMIANDEJUTILIZHENG。SUFENGJIEZAIZHEIFANGMIANZUOCHULEYOUYIDECHANGSHI。WENZHANGJIANGJIANGUOHOUSISHINIANSHIXUEFENWEISIGEJIEDUAN,MEIYIJIEDUANGEYOUQITEDIAN。CONGZHEIZHONGFENXIZHONGKANCHU,SISHINIANLAI,XIANSHIZHENGZHIDUISHIXUEFAZHANYOUZHEQIANGLIEDEYINGXIANGHEZHIYUE,DANGXIANSHIZHENGZHISHENGHUOZHENGCHANGSHI,SHIXUEDEFAZHANJIUZHENGCHANG,BINGCHONGMANSHENGQI,FANZHIZEFOU,ZHEISHUOMINGSHIXUEDESHENGSHUAIRONGKUBUSHIGULIDEXUESHUSHISHI。WENZHANGRENWEI,ZHEIZHONGXIANXIANGDEYUANYINZAIYULISHIXUEYOUZHECONGSHUYUZHENGZHIDESHUXING。WENZHANGHAIZHICHU,SHIXUECHULEYOUDUIYUZHENGZHIDECONGSHUXINGZHIWAI,HAIYOUZHEZISHENFAZHANDEXIANGDUIDULIXINGHEGUILV。WEILEYOULIYUSHIXUEDEFAZHAN,BIXUZHEZHONGSHIXUEZISHENDEXIANGDUIDULIXINGHEGUILV。KEYISHUO,BAIJIAZHENGMINGSHISHIXUEFAZHANDENEIBUGUILVHEBIYOUZHILU。SISHINIANLAIAGYULEWANGGUOSHIXUEFAZHANDELICHENGBIAOMING,LAIZISHIXUEYIWAIDEDUISHIXUEDEGANYU,WEIBEILESHIXUEFAZHANDEZHEIGENEIBUGUILV,WANGWANGBULIYUSHIXUEDEFAZHAN。[46]

 

AG娱乐网SI、XIANGGUANDELILUNWENTITANTAO

 

1、 FANGFALUN

 

DUILISHIGUILVDETANTAO,FANGFAWENTISHISHIFENZHONGYAODE。YIWANGPUBIANDEZUOFASHICONGLILUNCHUFA,GENJULINGXIUDEMOUXIELUNSHU,QUEDINGRENLEILISHIYOUYIGEGONGTONGDEGUILVZHEIYIDAQIANTI,RANHOUZAITADE"ZHIDAO"(SHIJISHIGUIDING)XIASOUXUNSUOXUDESHILIAO,YIZHENGMINGZHEIYIGUILVDEPUBIANCUNZAI。ZHENGRUHEZHAOWUSUOPIPINGDENEIYANG: "LISHIXUEJIADERENWUBINGFEISHIYAOCONGLISHIYANJIUZHONGDECHULILUN,LILUNSHIJIDINGLEDE,LISHIXUEJIADERENWUZHIBUGUOSHIZHAOCHUYIXIESHISHILAI'TIANCHONG'HUOZHE'ZHENGMING'NEIGEXIANCHENGDELILUNERYI。"[47]RANERLISHIGUILVYINGDANGSHICONGLISHISHISHIZHONGZONGJIECHULAIDE。ZAIJINNIANLAIDUIGUILVWENTIDETANTAOZHONG,YIYOUSHAOSHUXUEZHEZHUYIDAOGAIBIANFANGFADEBIYAOXING,TICHUYAOCONGSHISHICHUFAZONGJIELISHIGUILV。ZHEIZHONGKANFAYUNEIXIEDUIGUILVDEDALIANGJUTILUNSHUXIANGBIHAIXIANDEBIJIAOWEIBO,YEXUZHEIZHENGSHILISHIGUILVJUTILIZHENGSHIFENXISHAODEYIGEYUANYIN。YINWEIZHIYOUSHIXIANFANGFADEZHUANBIAN,CAINENGGOUFAXIANGENGDUODEZHENZHENGDELISHIGUILV。RANER,ZHEIZHONGRENSHIQUESHILISHIXUEJIAZIJUEYISHIDEBIAOXIAN。TADUIFAZHANLISHIXUE,JIANLIZHENZHENGDELISHILILUNJUYOUZHONGYAOYIYI。

 

HEZHAOWUZAISHANGWENZHONGTICHUYAOCONGLISHIXUEDERENSHILUNRUSHOU,BASHIXUELILUNAGYULEWANGTUIXIANGGENGXINDE、GENGGAODEJIEDUAN。GAIBIANCHUANTONGFANGFA,YILISHIXUEDESHIJIANTUIDONGLILUNAGYULEWANGJIUSHITADEGENBENZHUZHANG。WANGHE、ZHOUDUOYEZHUYIDAOLELISHIXUEFANGFADEYIYI。TAMENSHUO: "SUOWEIDUIXIANXIANGHEGUOCHENGNEIZAIYINSUHEWAIBULIANXIDEGUINAZONGJIE,SHITONGGUODUIDUOCICHUXIANDELISHIXIANXIANGHEGUOCHENGDEFENXI,ZHAOCHUDAOZHIZHEIXIEXIANXIANGHEGUOCHENGZAIYIDINGWAIBUTIAOJIANXIACHUXIANDENEIZAIYUANYIN,YEJIAGYULEWANGSUOSHUODE'BENZHIDEGUILV'。"TAMENHAITEBIEQIANGDIAO,LISHIGUILVSUOYANJIUDE,SHIFANFUCHUXIANGUODELISHIXIANXIANGHEGUOCHENG。YINCI,TABUSHIDANCHUNDEYUJIAN,JINYOULILUNTUIDUANERWUSHISHIYIJUZHE,BUSHUYULISHIGUILVDEFANCHOU。LISHUGENJUMAKESIYANJIU《ZIBENLUN》DEFANGFA,TICHUYANJIULISHIDEFANGFA,YINGSHICHONGFENZHANYOUZILIAO,FENXILISHISHIJIANDEGEZHONGFAZHAN,CONGZHONGTANXUNQINEIZAILIANXIHEGUILV,WANQUANCONGSHISHICHUFA,ERBUSHIANZHAOYUXIANDEGONGSHICAIJIANLISHIZILIAO,SHIZHISHIYINGMOUZHONGZHUGUANXUYAO。TADEZHEIZHONGKANFAYUSHANGSHUXUEZHEDEZHUZHANGSHIJIBENYIZHIDE。

 

2、 LISHIGUILVDETEXINGHEYAOQIU

 

㈠ BIRANXINGHEOURANXING

 

ZHEISHIYIDUIYUGUILVYOUGUANDEZHONGYAOGAINIAN。YANJIUSHEJIGAINIANDEYIYI、DIWEIJILIANGZHEDEGUANXI。YIWANGDADUOSHURENZHIZHONGSHIBIRANXING。JINNIANLAI,ZHONGSHIOURANXINGDERENYUELAIYUEDUO。DANYIBANDOURENWEIOURANXINGYUBIRANXINGSHIBUKEFENDE。YOUXUEZHETICHUQUFENOURANXINGHEBIRANXING。ZHEIZHONGGUANDIANZHAOZHIYIXIERENDEFANDUI。HAIYOURENTICHUYINGCHEDIFANGQIZHEIDUIGAINIAN。

 

CHUANTONGDELILUNQIANGDIAOLISHIGUILVDEBIRANXING,JISHECIWUTA,BIEWUXUANZE。JINLAIXUEZHEMENDUICIZUOCHUJIAOWEILINGHUODEJIESHI,ZHAOYIFENGDENGRENWEI,LISHIGUILVBENLAIDOUSHIGAIRANDE,SUOYI"LISHIDEBIRAN"BUGUOSHIZHILISHIXIANGMOUYIQUXIANGYUNDONG、DAYUMOUZHONGJIEGUODEGAILVHENDA,ERBINGFEISHECIWUTA。JUTILISHIYUNDONGZHONGYANGEDEBIRANSHIJIANHENSHAO。EROURANXINGZESHIYIQIELISHISHIBIAN、GUOCHENGZHONGDOUBAOHANDE、BIANDONGBUJUERYOUJINGCHANGQIZUOYONGDEYINSUDEBIAOZHENG。OURANXINGYOUSHIJINJINZAOCHENGBIRANXINGDEPIANLI,YOUSHIZEGENBENGAIBIANYUANYOUDEQUSHI。CIWAI,YOUBIRANXINGBINGBUDENGYUSHIBIRANDE。HAIYOUXUDUOXUEZHEYERENWEIBIRANXINGZHISHIYIZHONGLISHIDEFAZHANQUSHI,BINGFEISHIJUEDUIDE,FEICIBUKE。LISUXIARENWEI,ZAIWEIWUSHIGUANKANLAI,CHUNCUIDEBIRANXINGZAIXIANSHIZHONGSHIBUCUNZAIDE(TAZHINENGZAILUOJIZHONGCUNZAI)。ZAIXIANSHIZHONG,GUILVSHIFEIZHIJIEDE,TONGJIXINGDE,ZHISHIZUOWEIYIZHONGYIBANDEQUSHICUNZAI。YINCI,BIRANXINGZHISHIZHUDUOKENENGXINGDEZONGHE。[48]

 

AG娱乐网YOUXIANGDANGYIXIERENGENJUENGESIDEYOUGUANLUNSHU,TICHUBIRANXINGYUOURANXINGXIANGHUZUOYONGLUN。RENWEIBIRANXINGZHIPEIOURANXING,OURANXINGYENENGFANYINGCHUBIRANXING。WANGHE、ZHOUDUOZEMINGQUEQUFENOURANXINGHEBIRANXINGZHANXIANDEBUTONGLINGYU。TAMENRENWEI,ZAIYUZHOUJIANYIJIRENLEILISHIZHONGDOUCUNZAIZHESANZHONGBUTONGDEYUNDONGXITONG。YILEISHIJUYOU"BIRANGUILVXING"DEQUEDINGXINGXITONG,ZAIZHEIYIXITONGZHONGBIRANXINGQIZHONGYAOZUOYONG。DIERLEISHIJUYOU"GAIRANGUILVXING"DESUIJIXINGXITONG,NEIZHONG"OURANFANYINGBIRAN"、"BIRANZHIPEIOURAN"ZHILEIDEPANDUAN,SHUOMINGDEJIUSHIZAIZHEIZHONGSUIJIXITONGDEGAIRANXINGGUILVZHONGSUOBIAOXIANDELISHIXIANXIANGHEGUOCHENG。DISANLEISHIBUQUEDINGXITONG。SHUYUZHEIYIXITONGDELISHIXIANXIANGHEGUOCHENGSHISHOUCHUNCUIOURANDEYINSUZHIPEIDE,BUJUBEITONGJIYIYIDEQUEDINGXING,YU"GUILV"MEIYOUGUANXI。YIWANGYOUYUHUSHINAIZHIFOUDINGZHEIZHONGBUQUEDINGXITONGDECUNZAI,CONGERDAOZHIDUI"BIRANZHIPEIOURAN"、"OURANFANYINGBIRAN"ZHILEIGAINIANDELANYONG。ZHEIZHONGMINGQUETICHULISHIZHONGYOUBUSHOUBIRANGUILVZHIPEIDELINGYUDEGUANDIAN,ZAIZHONGGUODALUSHIXUEJIEKONGPASHANGSHUSHOUCHUANG。

 

YUWANGHEDENGRENHUAFENBIRANXING、GAIRANXING(SHIJISHIZHONGJIANZHUANGTAI)JIOURANXINGSANFANGMIANBUTONGDESHI,SUSHUANGBIZHIZUOLIANGZHONGQUFEN。SUSHUANGBIYIFANGMIANZHICHU,OURANXINGYUBIRANXINGYOUGUANLIAN,LISHIOURANXINGDOUSHISHOUZHIYUBIRANXINGDE。YIFANGMIANYOUSHUO,LISHIDEOURANXINGWANGWANGSHIDULICUNZAIDE。YOUSHISHENZHIHUIYINGXIANGZHENGZHENGYIGESHIDAI,HUOSHIYIGEDIQUZANSHILIKAITONGCHANGDELISHIGUILV。TAHAISHUO,LISHIZHISUOYIYOUOURANXING,SHIYINWEILISHIDEJINCHENGBINGBUDOUSHIYITADEYIZHIWEIZHUANYIDE。[49]

 

AG娱乐网SHANGSHULIANGZHONGGUANDIANSHOUDAOLETIAOZHAN。JIANGXIDONGFANBOWANGHE、ZHOUDUOSHUO,CHOUDIAOLE"BIRANDE"ZHEIYIJIEDING,RENHEGUILVDOUSHIJIESHIBUQINGDE。TASHUOSUOWEIDISANZHONGXITONG,JIBUQUEDINGXITONGSHIZIXUWUYOU。ZHEIZHONGSHUOFAZHINENGBAKEXUEYANJIUYINXIANGSIHUTONG。ZAIRENHESHIHOUDOUBUNENGLIKAIBIRANXINGLAIKANDAIOURANXING。

 

AG娱乐网GUOPINGLIANGFANBOSUWENSHUO: "TABALISHIDEJINCHENGFENGEWEILIANGGEBUTONGDEBUFEN,YIBUFENSHIYIRENDEYIZHIWEIZHUANYIDE,CONGERCHANSHENGLEBIRANXING,YIBUFENSHIYIBUYIRENDEYIZHIWEIZHUANYIDE,CONGERCHANSHENGLEOURANXING"(YUANWENRUCI,SIHUYINGFANGUOLAI。BUYIRENDEYIZHIWEIZHUANYICHANSHENGBIRANXING)GUOZHUZHANGLIANGZHEBUKEFEN,RENWEIOURANXINGBIAOXIANWEIYUNDONGDEBIAOMIANXIANXIANG,BIRANXINGBIAOXIANWEIYUNDONGDENEIBUBENZHI。TASHUO,WANQUANANREN、ANSHI、ANDIYU、ANSHIJIANLAIQUFENSHENMESHIOURANXING,SHENMESHIBIRANXING,SHIBEILILISHISHIJIDE,SHIBUKEXUEDE。[50]

 

GENGYOUXUEZHEMINGQUEBIAOSHIYINGBA"BIRANXING"、"OURANXING"CHEDIBINGQI。SHENGGUOXIONG、CUISHIGUANGERRENZHICHU,LISHIDEBIRANXINGHEOURANXINGZHEIDUIFANCHOU,CUNZAIZHEZIXIANGMAODUNYIJIFOURENRENLEIZIZHUCHUANGZAOXINGDENGNEIHANSHANGDEQUEXIAN。ZHEIZHONGLILUNJILISHIYANJIUDAILAILEJIDADEHUNLUAN。BIRANLUNDEKUANGSHIJINGULERENMENDESILU,YIZHIDUIZHONGGUOGUDAISHEHUIDEYANJIUYIZHIWUFASHENRU。TAMENRENWEI,SHIJISHANG,LISHIGUOCHENGZHONGWUSUOWEIBIRANHEOURAN。LISHIDEFAZHANSHIDUOZHONGYINSUXIANGHUZUOYONGDEJIEGUO。DUIYULISHIJINCHENGHUOLISHIXIANXIANG,RENMENZAIRENSHISHANGKEYIHUAFENWEIZHUYAODE、CIYAODE、NEIZAIDE、WAIZAIDEDUOZHONGYINSU,DANBUDENGYUSHUOZHUYAODE、QIZHUDAOZUOYONGDEYINSUJIUSHIBIRANXINGYINSU,YEBUDENGYUSHUOCIYAODE、WAIZAIDEYINSUJIUSHIOURANXINGYINSU。YIWANGNEIZHONGHUAFEN,SHIRENMENDEZHUGUANYIDUAN。ZHENGYINWEIZHEIZHONGHUAFENSHIBUKEXUEDE,SUOYIZAIYINGYONGZHONGCHANSHENGZIXIANGMAODUN,XIANGHUFENLIDEZHUANGKUANG。YINCI,AGYULEWANGRENWEIBIRANXINGYUOURANXINGFANCHOUDUIYUSHIXUEYANJIUSHIBUSHIYONGDE,YINGGAIYOUXINDEFANCHOULAIQUDAITA。[51]

 

何兆武对必然性问题的理解也与众不同。他说: "'历史的必然'作为历史学中的一条指导原则是能够成立的,但只能是在更高一层的意义上: 那就是,它是非必然性的必然,是承认可能性的必然。"他还认为,历史规律与自然规律不同,物理世界是由必然性的自然律支配的,历史世界是由非必然性的自然律席支配的。[52]

 

㈡ KEGUANXINGHEZHUGUANXING

 

TONGCHANGRENMENRENWEIGUILVDEZHUYAOTEXINGSHIKEGUANXING,"KEGUANGUILV"YICHENGWEIZHUANYOUMINGCILIUXINGYUSHI。JINNIANLAIXUEZHEDUIZHEIZHONGLILUNTICHUTIAOZHAN。HEZHAOWURENWEI,CHUANTONGLILUNYOUYIGELUOJISHANGDEMAODUN: JIRANLISHIDEJINCHENGBUYIRENDEYIZHIWEIZHUANYI,NEIMERENDENULIDUIYULISHIJIUHAOWUYIYI,YEWUNENGWEILI。DANSHISHISHANG,QUANBURENLEILISHINAISHICHETOUCHEWEIGUANCHUANZHERENWEIDENULIDE。MEIYOURENDEYIZHIDEZUOYONG,JIUMEIYOURENLEIDEWENMINGSHI。[53]ZHAOYIFENGDENGRENWEI,LISHIGUILVZHONGBAOHANZHERENDEYIZHI。RENMENXIGUANYUBA"BUYIRENDEYIZHIWEIZHUANYI"ZUOWEIKEGUANGUILVDEZHUYAONEIHAN,DANSHI,LISHIHUODONGDEZHUTISHIREN,LISHIGUILVSHIYAOTONGGUORENDEHUODONGTIXIANDE。NEIMERENDEYIZHIWEISHENMEBUKENENGZHUANYILISHIGUILVNI?RUXINRENWEILISHIGUILVYURENDEYIZHI、SIXIANG、GANQING、YUANWANGYOUGUAN,[54]YAOJUNYIZEJIANCHILISHIGUILVDEKEGUANXINGBIRANXINGBIAOXIANWEI"BUYIRENDEYIZHIWEIZHUANYI、BUKEBIMIANDEHEQUEDINGBUYIDE。"[55]

 

㈢YONGHENGXINGHEXIANGDUIXING

 

TONGCHANGRENMENRENWEI,LISHIGUILVSHIBUKEDONGYAODE,YONGHENGDE。XIANZAIXUEZHEDUICITICHUBUTONGDEKANFA。HEZHAOWUCONGRENDERENSHIDEXIANGDUIXINGJIAODUSHUOMINGCIWENTI。TARENWEI,GUILVSHIRENMENRENSHIDECHANWU,ERRENSHISHIBUDUANFAZHANHEBIANHUADE,SUOYOUDAGAIBUHUIYOUWANSHIBUBIANDEYONGHENGGUILV。ZHAOYIFENGCONGLISHIFAZHANHERENDERENSHIZHEILIANGGEJIAODUKAOLV。TASHUO,LISHIGUILVJUYOULISHIXING,ZANSHIXING。ZHEISHIYOUYU,RENLEILISHIBUJINSHIYIGEZIRANLISHIGUOCHENG,ERQIESHIJUYOUZIAGYULEWANGSHEJI、GAIZAO、XUANZENENGLIDERENDEZIZHUHUODONGGUOCHENG。YINCI,RENLEISHEHUIDEFAZHANSHIBUDUANBIANHUADE。LISHIBENSHENDEZHEIZHONGTEXINGZAOCHENGKEGUANGUILVBENSHENYECHUYUBIANDONGZHIZHONG。LINGYIFANGMIAN,LISHIGUILVBUSHIRUTONGZIRANGUILVNEIYANGQUEDING,YEBUSHIWAIZAIYURENZHIWAIDEDONGXI。TABIXUZAILISHIYUNDONGDEZHUTIJIAODUZHONGXINJIAYIYANJIU。YOUCI,RENSHILUNYIYIDELISHIGUILVJUYOUXIANGDUIXING。WANGHE、ZHOUDUOYIFANGMIANRENWEILISHIGUILVYOUJIEDUANGUILV(ZHISHIYONGYULISHIDEMOUYIJIEDUAN)HEYONGHENGGUILV(KEYONGYUQIJINWEIZHIDEZHENGGERENLEISHEHUI)LIANGZHONG,LINGYIFANGMIANYOUZHICHU,LISHIGUILVJUYOUBUQUEDINGXINGHEKEBIANXINGDETEZHENG。ZHEIFANYINGLERENDERENSHIDEBUDUANSHENHUA。

 

㈣ JUEDINGYUXUANZE

 

AG娱乐网LISHIDEJUEDINGLUNYULISHIDEBIRANXINGSHIMIQIEXIANGGUANDE。YIWANGRENMENDUOQIANGDIAOJUEDINGLUN,YOUYUKAER·BOPUDUIJUEDINGLUNTICHUFEINAN,ZHONGGUOLILUNJIEQUNQIFANBO,RENWEIFEIJUEDINGLUNWEIBEILEMAKESIZHUYI。HAIYOUYIXIERENZHUZHANG,JIBUFANGQIJUEDINGLUN,YEBUNENGJIXIEDIJIANCHIJUEDINGLUN,YINGDANGFAZHANJUEDINGLUN,YINRUXUANZELUN。YINERJINNIANLAIYOUDUOPIANWENZHANGTAOLUNLISHIDEXUANZEWENTI。GUOJIANNINGZHUZHANG,YAOFAZHANWEIWUSHIGUAN,BIXUZHUANHUANYANJIUSHIJIAO。QIZHONGZUIZHONGYAODEYIDIANJIUSHI"YOUDANCHUNQIANGDIAOLISHIJUEDINGLUN,DAOLISHIJUEDINGLUNYULISHIXUANZELUNTONGYIDEZHUANHUAN"。[56]

 

LIUZHIZHICHU,LISHIDEFAZHANYOUXUANZEXING。LISHISHIZAIXUANZEZHONGFAZHAN,ZAIFAZHANZHONGBUDUANXUANZE。RENLEILISHIDEFAZHANGUOCHENGJIUSHIBUTONGSHIZU、MINZUHEGUOJIADERENZAIBUTONGDETIAOJIANXIABUDUANXUANZEDEGUOCHENG。TARENWEI,RENLEIDELISHIFAZHANJIWEICANCHABUQI,LISHIDEDUOYANGXINGHETESHUXINGZHENGSHILISHIXUANZEXINGZAOCHENGDEJIEGUO。TAZHUZHANGKEFUYIWANGNEIZHONGBALISHIDEGUILVXING、BIRANXINGQUJIEWEISUMINGLUNDEPIANXIANG。[57]

 

AG娱乐网LUJIANJIESHUO,YOUSANZHONGSHEHUIXUANZE: SHEHUIGETIXUANZE、SHEHUIQUNTIXUANZEHESHEHUIQUANTIXUANZE。SHEHUIQUNTIXUANZEYOUZHEIJIFANGMIAN: SIXIANGXUANZE、ZUZHIXUANZEHEZHENGCEXUANZE。SHEHUIQUANTIXUANZEYOU: SHEHUITONGZHISIXIANGDEXUANZE、SHEHUIZHENGZHITONGZHILINGDAOJITUANDEXUANZE、SHEHUIZHENGCEZHIDAOTIXIDEXUANZE。[58]

 

WANGHE、ZHOUDUORENWEI,AGYULEWANGZAITAOLUNSUIJIXINGXITONGHEBUQUEDINGXITONGDESHIHOU,YIJINGZHENGMINGLE"FEIBIRAN"DECUNZAI。ERZHIYAOSHICHENGRENLE"FEIBIRAN"DECUNZAI,YEJIUSHICHENGRENLEXUANZEDEKENENG。

 

AG娱乐网ZHAODEXING、LIZHENGFENGRENWEI,LISHIGUILVYUZHUTIXUANZEZHIJIANDEGUANXISHILISHIGUOCHENGZHONGBIRANXINGHEOURANXINGGUANXIDEJUTIZHANKAI。TIXIANZAILIANGFANGMIAN: YI、LISHIFAZHANDEKEGUANGUILVWEIZHUTIHUODONGGUIDINGLEJIBENFANGXIANGHEXUANZEDE"KENENGXINGKONGJIAN"。ER、ZHUTIHUODONGQIANGLIEYINGXIANGZHELISHIGUILVDESHIXIANLICHENG。[59]

 

YUSHIXUEJIEDERELIETAOLUNXIANGHUYING,ZHEXUEJIEDUILISHIGUILVYIJIXIANGGUANLILUNWENTIYEZHANKAILEDAGUIMODETAOLUN。GUANYULISHIJUEDINGLUNDEGUANDIANKEJIANSUNFEIXING、DENGRONGTING《LISHIJUEDINGLUNYANJIUZHENGLUNSHUYAO》HEZHANGYANGUO: 《LISHIJUEDINGLUNTAOLUNZONGSHU》LIANGPIANWENZHANG。[60]

 

3、 LISHIGUILVDEQIANTISHIFOUSHILISHIDEKEZHONGFUXING

 

JIRANYIXIERENRENWEI,LISHIGUILVSHIDUIZHONGFUDELISHIXIANXIANGDEZONGJIE,NEIMELISHISHIFOUJUYOUZHONGFUXINGJIUSHILISHIGUILVWENTIDEYIGEZHONGYAOQIANTI。YIXIEXUEZHEFOURENZHEIYIQIANTI,LIGUIHAISHUO,RENHELISHIDOUBUKENENGZHONGYAN。LISHIJINCHENGZHONGKENENGYOUMOUZHONGFANFU,KEYIYOUJINGRENDELEISI,DANQUEBUKENENGZHONGYAN。[61]

 

AG娱乐网HAIYOUXUEZHERENWEILISHIYOUZHONGFUXING,DANSHIYUZIRANKEXUEDEZHONGFUXINGYOUSUOBUTONG,BURUTAYANGEHEPUBIAN。ZHAOYIFENGDENGRENWEI,ZIRANSHIBIRENLEISHIBIAOXIANCHUYUANWEIPUBIANHEYANGEDEZHONGFUXING。ZAIRENLEILISHIZHONGMEIYOUZHENZHENGDEZHONGFU。YIBANLAISHUO,ZIRANJIEDEXIANXIANGJINGGUOYIDINGDECHOUXIANG,JIUKEXIANSHICHUYANGEDEZHONGFUXINGLAI,SHEHUILISHILINGYUDEXIANXIANGZEYAOJINGGUOYUANWEISHENRUDEYOUBIAOJILI、QUFANQUHONGDEBENZHICHOUXIANG,CAIHUIBAWODAOZHONGFUXING,ERQIEXINGZHISHANGDEZHONGFUWANGWANGBUDENGYULISHIDEZHONGYAN,QIYUNDONGDETIAOJIANZONGYAOYOUSUOBIANHUA。YUNDONGDEJIEGUOZONGYOUSUOBUTONG。TAMENRENWEI,WANQUANFOUDINGLISHIXIANXIANGJUYOUZHONGFUXINGSHIBUDUIDE。DANSHIYEBUNENGBALISHIYUNDONGDENGTONGYUZIRANYUNDONG。WANBINZHICHU,LISHIGUILVHEZIRANGUILVYIYANG,CUNZAIZHEZHONGFUXING,DANSHILISHIGUILVDEZHONGFUXINGYUZIRANGUILVDEZHONGFUXINGBUTONG。ZAIYANGEYIYISHANG,LISHIGUILVZHONGBUCUNZAIWANQUANDEZHONGFU。ZHEIZHONGZHONGFUXING,ZHISHIDUINEIXIEJUYOUXIANGSIXINGDANQUEJUYOUTONGLEIPUBIANGUIDINGDEXIANXIANGHEGUOCHENGDEGUINAHEGAIKUO。[62]WANGHE、ZHOUDUOTICHUXIANGJINDEKANFA。LISHIGUILVZHONGBUCUNZAIYANGEYIYIDEZHONGFU,YINWEILISHISHIBUKENENGZAIXIANDE。SUOYI,"LISHIGUILV"DUI"KEZHONGFUXING"DEYANJIU,JINJINSHIZHIDUINEIXIEJUYOUXIANGSIXINGDETONGLEILISHIXIANXIANGHEGUOCHENGDEYANJIU。

 

AG娱乐网ZHANGGENGHUADUISHANGSHULIANGZHONGGUANDIANDOUTICHUZHIYI。TARENWEIZHONGYANKEYIYOULIANGZHONGBUTONGDEHANYIHEYONGFA。YI、ZHONGYANYICIKEYIYONGLAIZHICHENGSHISHIHUOSHIWUDEJUTINEIRONGSHANGDEXIANGSI。ER、ZHONGYANYICIYEKEYIBEIYONGLAIZHICHENGSHISHIHUOSHIWUDEMOUZHONGBENZHI、GUANXIHUOSHUXINGSHANGDETONGLEI。TAHAIJULEENGESIZAI《DEGUODEGEMINGHEFANGEMING》ZHONGGAIKUODEYITIAOGUILVWEILI,SHUOMINGZHEITIAOGUILVZAIZHONGGUOLISHISHANGJIUZHONGYANLESICI,YUZIRANKEXUEDEGUILVXIANGBI,BUCUNZAIYANGEYUBUYANGE、WANQUANYUBUWANQUANDEQUBIE。[63]

 

AG娱乐网LIRONGHUADEGUANDIANYUZHONGBUTONG。TABINGBUBAZHONGFUXINGDANGZUOLISHIGUILVDEQIANTI。TARENWEI,BOPUBAFEIZHONGFUXINGDANGZUOFOUDINGLISHIGUILVDELIYOUSHIZHANBUZHUJIAODE。YINWEI,SHIJIESHANGGENBENMEIYOUJUEDUIZHONGFUDEXIANXIANG。BUJINSHEHUILISHILINGYUMEIYOU,JIUSHIZIRANLINGYUYEMEIYOUJUEDUIDEZHONGFU。DANSHISHEHUIGUILVZHENGSHITONGGUOZHEIXIEBUZHONGFUDE、OURANDE、JUTIDEXINGSHITIXIANCHULAIDE。[64]

 

KEYIYULIAO,RENMENDUILISHIGUILVDERENSHIJIANGCHAOYUESHEHUIFAZHANSHIYIYIDEGUILVERRIYISHENRUDAOLISHIRENSHILUNDEFANGMIAN。

 

------------------------

参考文献:

[1]梁启超,新史学,饮冰室合集文集之九[M],北京,中华书局,1989,第9、10页。

[2]梁启超,中国史叙论,饮冰室合集文集之六[M]第1页。

[3]梁启超,研究文化史的几个问题,饮冰室合集文集之四十[M]第1、2、3页。

[4]何炳松,历史研究法·绪论,何炳松文集第四卷[M]北京,商务印书馆1997,第14、11-12页。

[5]傅斯年,傅斯年全集[M]台北,台湾联经出版公司,1980,第4册,第310、311页。

[6]李大钊史学论集[M],天津,河北人民出版社,1984,第210页。

[7]联共(布)党史简明教程[M],北京,人民出版社,1975,第159页。

[8]黎澍,马克思主义对历史学的要求[J],历史研究,1984,(1)。

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