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AG娱乐网ERSHISHIJIZHONGGUOSHIXUEJIEDUILISHIXUEXINGZHIDELILUNSIKAO

作者: 黄敏兰 文章来源:AG娱乐网

LISHIXUESHIFOUSHIKEXUEDEWENTI,ZAIXIFANGYITAOLUNLELIANGBAIDUONIAN,ZAIZHONGGUOYEZHENGLUNLEJIANGJINYIGESHIJI。JINDAI,YOUYUZIRANKEXUEDEXUNSUFAZHAN,XIFANGSHIXUEJIATICHU,RUGUOCAIYONGSHIDANGDEFANGFAQUYANJIULISHI,JIUYOUXIWANGDEDAOKEXUEDEJIEGUO。ERSHISHIJICHU,ZHONGGUOXINSHIXUEXINGQI。SHIXUEJIAMENDALIANGYINJINXIFANGDESHIXUELILUN,GUANYULISHIXUEYUZIRANKEXUEDEGUANXI、LISHIXUENENGFOUCHENGWEIKEXUEDEWENTIYEYINQISHIXUEJIEDEJIDAXINGQU。YOURENRENWEILISHIXUESHIYIMENKEXUE,HUOKEYICHENGWEIYIMENKEXUE。YOURENRENWEILISHIXUEBUSHIKEXUE,ERSHIYISHUHUOQITAXUEWEN。HAIYOURENRENWEILISHIXUEJISHIKEXUE,YESHIYISHU。MAKESIZHUYIXUEPAIQUERENLISHIXUESHIKEXUE。ZIMAKESIZHUYISHIXUEZHANTONGZHIDIWEIHOU,JIHUCONGWEIYOURENHUAIYIGUOLISHIXUEDEKEXUEXING,MAKESIZHUYISHIXUEYULISHIKEXUEJIUSHITONGYIYU。RANERZHEIBINGBUBIAOMING,LISHIXUESHIBUSHIKEXUEDEWENTIYIJINGJIEJUELE。ZI80NIANDAIQI,YOUBUSHAOXUEZHEDUILISHIXUEDEKEXUEXINGTICHUHUAIYI,ZHONGYOUXINGQIDUILISHIXUEXINGZHIDETAOLUN。LUNZHENGZHONGDEGUANDIANRENGBUWAISANZHONG,JIHUOSHIKEXUE,HUOSHIYISHUHUOQITADONGXI,HUOERZHEJIANYOUZHI,ZHISHITAOLUNSHEJIDAOLELISHIXUELILUNGENGSHENDECENGCI。

 

YI、 ZHUZHANGLISHIXUESHIKEXUEDEBUTONGMUDE

 

GUANYULISHIXUEXINGZHIDEYANJIUHEZHENGLUNYEXUYONGYUANBUHUIQUDETONGYIDEJIELUN,DANXUEZHEMENRENGLECIBUPIDIBUDUANTANLUNZHEIGENANJIEDEHUATI。YINWEIZHEIYIWENTIDETAOLUNYOUZHEBUTONGDESHIDAIHEWENHUABEIJING,BINGSHOUXUEZHEBUTONGDEMUDESUOQUDONG。

 

TANTAOLISHIXUEDEXINGZHIJIUJINGYOUHEYIYI?LISHIXUESHIBUSHIKEXUE,YURENMENDUISHISHIDERENSHIYOUDUODADEGUANXI?HEZHAOWUDUICIYOUTOUCHEDECHANSHU。TAZHICHU: “SHENMESHILISHI?SHENMESHILISHIXUE?LISHIZHISHIHELIJIEDEXINGZHISHISHENME?TANGRUOBUSHOUXIANRENZHENKAOLVBINGQUEQIEHUIDAZHEIXIEWENTI,JIUJINGZHIZHESHOUYANJIULISHI;NEIZHONGLISHIZHISHIJIUBIRANSHIMANGMUDEERYOUHUNLUANDE,YOURUMANGRENMOXIANG。NEIYANGDELISHIXUEJIULIANSUOWEI‘KEXUEDE’LISHIXUEDOUTANBUDAO,GENGHUANGLUN‘RENWENDE’LISHIXUELE。DANGDAIAGYULEWANGGUOSHIXUEJIEYOURENXIHUANCHITANZHONGGUOLISHIDETEDIANYIJIRENLEILISHIDEPUBIANGUILVZHILEI,ERDUIYUZUOWEIQIXIANJUETIAOJIANDE,JISHENMESHILISHIDEHELISHIXUEDEBENXINGHETEDIAN,QUEHAOBUCUOYI,ZHEIYOUZENMENENGGOUBALISHIXUEHELISHIRENSHIJIANLIZAIYIZHONGJIANQUANDEJICHUZHISHANGNI?”[①]

 

AG娱乐网HEZHAOWUDEJIANJIESHICONGLISHIRENSHILUNCHUFADE,WANQUANSHIXUESHUXINGDE。DEQUE,BULEJIELISHIXUEDEXINGZHI,JIUHENNANZHENZHENGBALISHIYANJIUGAOHAO。DANSHIZAIBUTONGSHIQI,RENMENDUIZHEIGEWENTIDETANTAOHAIYOUBUTONGDEBEIJINGHETEBIEDEMUDE。ZAOQIYIXIEXUEZHEJIANXINLISHIXUESHIKEXUE,DUOCHUYUXINYANGHECHONGBAI,YOUYUDUIKEXUEDEJINHUMANGMUDECHONGBAI,SUOYIXIWANGTONGGUOBALISHIXUESHUOCHENGSHIKEXUE,HUOJIANCHENGKEXUELAITIGAOLISHIXUEDEDIWEI。YINWEIKEXUEDEDIWEIZHIGAOWUSHANG,SUOYISHIFOUCHENGRENLISHIXUESHIKEXUE,JIUCHENGLELICHANGWENTI。“KEXUE”CHENGLEYIGEBIAOQIAN,KEYISUICHUSHIYONG。DANBEIDAISHANG“BUKEXUE”DEMAOZI,ZESHIHENWEIXIANDE,JINHUFANDONG。HUSHIGUANYUKEXUEDELUNSHUFANYINGLERENMENDUIKEXUEDEMANGMUCHONGBAI。TASHUO: “ZHEISANSHINIANLAI,YOUYIGEMINGCIZAIGUONEIJIHUZUODAOLEWUSHANGZUNYANDEDIWEI;WULUNDONGYUBUDONGDEREN,WULUNSHOUJIUHEWEIXINDEREN,DOUBUGANGONGRANDUITABIAOSHIQINGSHIHEXIWUDETAIDU。NEIGEMINGCIJIUSHI‘KEXUE’,ZHEIYANGJIHUQUANGUOYIZHIDECHONGXIN,JIUJINGYOUWUJIAZHI,NEISHILINGYIWENTI。AGYULEWANGZHISHAOKEYISHUO,ZICONGZHONGGUOJIANGBIANFAWEIXINYILAI,MEIYOUYIGEZIMINGWEIXINRENWUDERENGANGONGRANHUIBANG‘KEXUE’DE。”[②]DUIKEXUEDECHONGBAISHIXUEZHECHANSHENGLEYIZHONGXINNIAN: TAMENJIANXINLISHIXUESHIKEXUE,HUOJIANXINZIJIDEFANGFASHIKEXUEDE,ZHENGRULIANGQICHAOSUOSHUO,ZHISHIXIANGYAOTIGAOTAMENSUOAIDELISHIXUEDEDIWEI。ZHEICHENGWEISHIXUEJIANULIAGYULEWANGXINSHIXUEDEDONGLI。TAMENBAYANSUDETAIDU、YANGEDEFANGFACHENGZUOKEXUEDEJINGSHENHEFANGFA。

 

RENWEILISHIXUESHIYIMENKEXUEHAIYOUZHESHEHUI、ZHENGZHIDEYUANYIN。YOUYUKEXUEDUIZENGJIASHEHUICAIFUHEGAIZAOSHEHUIQIDAOLEJUDADEZUOYONG,ZAIDANGSHI,KEXUEJIUDAIBIAOJINBU,DAIBIAOZHEXIWANG。SUOYIXINSHIXUEJIACHONGSHANGKEXUE,BUJINSHIYAOBALISHIXUEJIANDEGENGHELI,HAIBIAODALELEZHONGGUORENYAOQIUGAIZAOLUOHOU、PINQIONGDEZHONGGUO,SHIZHONGGUOZOUSHANGFUQIANGZHILUDEMEIHAOYUANWANG。CHENFUCHENYU1904NIANBIANZHUDE《JINGSHIDAXUETANGZHONGGUOSHIJIANGYI》ZHONGDEDIYIPIAN《DUSHIZONGLUN》ZHONGZHICHULEZHENXINGLISHIXUEYUKEXUEDEGUANXI。TASHUO: “KEXUEBUXING,AGYULEWANGGUOWENMINGBIWUZENGJINZHIYIRI。ERYUXINGKEXUE,BIZIZHONGSHIXUESHI。”“WUSHIXUEZEYIQIEKEXUEBUNENGCHENG;WUYIQIEKEXUE,ZESHIXUEYIBUNENGLI。”[③]ZHENGYINWEIRUCI,RENWEILISHIXUESHIKEXUEDEGUANDIANJIAOZHANGSHIQILIZHANLESHANGFENG。ERRENWEILISHIXUESHIYISHUHUOQITAXUEWENDEXUEZHEDUOSHICONGXUESHUJIAODUKAOLVZHEIFANGMIANDEWENTI。

 

AG娱乐网MAKESIZHUXUEZHEJIANXINLISHIXUESHIKEXUE,ERQIERENWEIZHIYOUMAKESIZHUYISHIXUESHIKEXUEDE,ZHEIZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGSHICHUYUYIZHONGDUIMAKESIZHUYIDEJUEDUICHONGBAIHEDUIQITAXUEPAIDEMANGMUPAICHI。YUSHIZAIZHEILIYECHANSHENGLELICHANGDEWENTI。HUAIYILISHIXUESHIKEXUEJIUYIWEIZHEWEIBEIHUOFANDUIMAKESIZHUYI。

 

ER、 DUILISHIXUEKEXUEXINGDEPANDUANBIAOZHUN

 

XUGUANSANDE《XINSHIXUEJIUSHINIAN》ZIXUZHICHU: “CONGXINHUILIANGSHIMENGLONGDE‘LISHIKEXUE’HE‘KEXUEDELISHI’GUANNIANQI,XINSHIXUEFAZHANDEZHULIUSHIZHONGZAI‘KEXUEHUA’。LILAIDEJUZI,MOBUYITIGAOLISHIXUEDE‘KEXUE’ZHISUWEIZHIZHI,JINGUAN‘KEXUEHUA’DENEIRONGHEZHUNZEHENGYINPAIBIEERYI,QIEYUSHIJUBIAN。JIUXINSHIXUEDEYUANZULIANGRENGONGYAN,‘KEXUEHUA’DEJIEJING,MORUOYINGEZHONGGONGLIGONGLIYIGUANCHABINGJIESHUOLISHI;ZHANGYUANZHIJI,ZEZAIKUOCHONGSHIXUEJIADEXIUYANGJIYUSHEHUIKEXUESHENZHIZIRANKEXUELINGYU,GULIBINGYINDAOLISHIYANJIUZHECAIYONGBAOKUOTONGJIFAZAINEIDEKEXUEFANGFA。”

 

AG娱乐网ZHUZHANGLISHIXUESHIKEXUEDEXUEZHEDUIKEXUEYOUBUTONGDELIJIE,YINERDUIHENGLIANGLISHIXUEDEKEXUEXINGYOUZHEBUTONGDEBIAOZHUN。YOUDEQIANGDIAOKEXUEJINGSHEN,YOUDEQIANGDIAOKEXUEFANGFA;YOUDEZHUZHONGRENSHIDUIXIANG: YISHIKEGUANXING、ZHENSHIXING,ERSHIFAXIANGUILV;HAIYOUDEQIANGDIAOJIEGUO。YIBANLAISHUO,SHILIAOXUEPAIQIANGDIAOKEXUEFANGFAHERENSHIDUIXIANGDEKEGUANXINGHEZHENSHIXING,ERYIXIESHIXUEJIAJIMAKESIZHUYIXUEPAIDUIRENSHIDUIXIANGDEYAOQIUZHUYAOSHI“LISHIFAZHANGUILV”。

 

AG娱乐网YINWEIZIRANKEXUEBEIRENWEISHIFAXIANGUILVDEXUEWEN,SUOYIFAXIANGUILVJIUCHENGWEILISHIXUEKEXUEXINGDEYIGEZHONGYAOTIAOJIAN。LIANGQICHAOZAISHANGSHIJICHUFAQI“SHIJIEGEMING”,YU1902NIANFABIAODE《XINSHIXUE》ZHONGFANFUQIANGDIAO,LISHIXUEYAOFAXIANRENLEIJINHUADE“GONGLIGONGLI”。DAO20NIANDAICHU,TAXIEZUODE《ZHONGGUOLISHIYANJIUFA》ZHONG,BUZAIZHUZHANGYANJIU“GONGLIGONGLI”,ERYAOTANXUNLISHIDEYINGUOLV,YINIANHOUDE1923NIAN,LIANGQICHAOYOUPAOQILEDUIYINGUOLVDEZHUIQIU,CONGERFOUDINGLELISHIXUEDEKEXUEXING。LIANGQICHAOSHUO: “YOUYUYINGUOLVSHIZIRANKEXUEDEMINGMAI,XUEZHEDUOYUZHENGMINGZIJISUOZHIXUEKEYEYOUYINGUOLVKEXUN,YICHENGWEIKEXUE。SHIXUEXIANGLAIBINGMEIYOUBEIRENWEIKEXUE,YUSHIZHISHIXUEDERENYINWEIXIANGLINGZIJISUOAIDEXUEWENQUDEKEXUEZIGE,BIANNULIYAOFAMINGSHIZHONGYINGUO。AGYULEWANGJIUSHIZHEILITOUDEYIGEREN。AGYULEWANGQUNIANZHUDE《ZHONGGUOLISHIYANJIUFA》NEIZHONGSUOXIALISHIDINGYI,BIANYOU“QIUDEQIYINGUOGUANXI”YIYU,XIANZAIDULEXIRENZHUZUO,ZAIJIASHANGZIJIDEYANJIU,“YIJINGFAJUEZHEIJUHUAWANQUANCUOLE。”[④]LIANGQICHAOZHICHU,YUZHOUJIANDESHIWUKEFENWEIZIRANLEIHEWENHUALEIXI。ZIRANXISHIYINGUOLVDELINGTU,WENHUAXISHIZIYOUYIZHIDELINGTU。LISHIWEIWENHUAXIANXIANGDEFUXIEPIN,HEBIBAZIRANKEXUESUOYONGDEGONGJUCHELAIZHUANGZIJIDEMENMIANNI。

 

YAOZHENGMINGLISHIXUESHIKEXUE,JIUDECHENGRENLISHIYOUGUILVYIJILISHIXUEKEYIFAXIANGUILV。ERYAOFOUDINGLISHIXUEDEKEXUEXING,DANGRANJIUDEFOUDINGZHEIYIDIAN。LIANGQICHAOQIANHOUGUANDIANDEBIANHUAZHENGSHUOMINGLEZHEIYIQINGXIANG。CHULELIANGQICHAOWAI,XIANGDANGDUODEXUEZHE,WULUNSHIMAKESIZHUYIXUEZHEHAISHIFEIMAKESIZHUYIXUEZHE,DOUYIZHENGMING“LISHIGUILV”LAIZUOWEILISHIXUEKEXUEXINGDEZHONGYAOTIAOJIAN。CAOZUOXIDE《SHIXUETONGLUN》(1909NIAN)ZHONGYOUYIJIEZHUANMENLUNSHULISHIXUENENGFOUCHENGWEIKEXUEDEWENTI。TARENWEI,LISHIXUEZHINENGCHENGWEIKEXUESHIMEIYOUYIWENDE。LISHIZHISUOYINENGCHENGWEI“KEXUE”,SHIYINWEIRENLEISHEHUIDEFAZHANYOU“YINGUOGUANXI”,YOU“GONGLI”KEQIU。WANGRONGBAOZAI《BENCHAOSHIJIANGYI》(1906NIAN)ZHONGZHICHU: “LISHIZHIYAOYI,ZAIYUGOUJIRENLEIZHICHENJI,YIFAXIANQIJINHUAZHICIDI,WULINGSHOUWEIXIANGGUAN,YINGUOBICHENG。JINLISHIDEJIANCHENGWEIKEXUEZHE,QIDAOYOUCI”,SHUOMINGLISHICHENGWEIKEXUEDEBIAOZHIJIUZAIYUNENGGOUFAXIANJINHUADEYINGUOLV。

 

WANGGUOWEIZAI《GUOXUECONGKAN》XUZHONGZHICHU,XUEWENYOUSANDALEI: KEXUE、SHIXUE、WENXUE,ZHEISANZHONGXUEWENSHIXIANGHUGUANLIANDE。“FANJISHUSHIWUERQIUQIYUANYIN,DINGQILIFAZHE,WEIZHIKEXUE;QIUSHIWUBIANQIANZHIJI,ERMINGQIYINGUOZHEWEIZHISHIXUE;ZHICHURUERZHEJIAN,ERJIANYOUWANWUSHIQINGZHIXIAOZHE,WEIZHIWENXUE。”[⑤]

 

MAKESIZHUYISHIXUEJIAYIZHIZHUZHANGLISHIXUESHIKEXUE,BINGQIERENWEIZHENGSHIMAKESIDEWEIWUSHIGUANFAXIANLELISHIGUILV,ERSHILISHIXUECHENGWEIKEXUE。LIDAZHAOZUIZAOTICHUMAKESISHILISHIXUECHENGWEIKEXUEDEGUANDIAN。DANSHI,TABINGMEIYOUBAMAKESIYIWAIDEXUEZHEPAICHIZAIKEXUEPAIZHIWAI。TAZAI1920NIANZHICHU: “HOUSHIKEXUERIJIN,SHIXUEJIEYIJIANFANGSHUGUANG。KANGDEZHILIUYIJIXIANGWANGKAIPULAER(Kepler)、NAIDUAN(Newton)QIRENZHEDANSHENGYUSHIXUEJIE,ERQIQIFAJIANYIZHONGLISHIDEFAZE,RUYINLIFAZEZHERAN。JUEHOUMINGXIANDIEQI,RUKONGDAOXI,RUSANGXIMEN,RUWEIKE,RUKONGDE,RUMAKESI,JIEYINULIYIQIULISHIFAZEZHIFAJIANWEIJIRENERZHONGNENGYOUCHENG,JIHOUQIDELISHIXUE、SHEHUIXUEYUKEXUEZHILIE,JINGZAOCHENGXUESHUJIEYIDAWEIYE。JUEHOUDEGUO‘XINANXUEPAI’SUIJUEQIERWEIWENHUAKEXUEJILISHIXUEYUZIRANKEXUEDUILIDEYUNDONG,YIZHONGBUNENGHANYAOSHIXUEZAIKEXUEDEWEIZHI,ZHEIBUNENGBUGUIGONGYUMAKESIZHUZIDEWEIYELE。”[⑥]

 

LIDAZHAOZAI1924NIANDE《SHIXUEYAOLUN》ZHONGZHICHU: “MAKESISUOYIZHUZHANGYIJINGJIWEIZHONGXINKAOCHASHEHUIDEBIANGEDEYUANGU,YINWEIJINGJIGUANXINENGRUZIRANKEXUEFAJIANYINGUOLV。ZHEIYANGZISUIBALISHIXUETIDAOKEXUEDEDIWEI。”[⑦]LIDAZHAODELILUNCHENGWEIHOULAIJISHINIANZHONGMAKESIZHUYIXUEPAIDELILUNYUANZE。DANSHIYOUXIERENBAZHEIYIYUANZEJUEDUIHUA,JIDUANHUA,JIANGTADANGZUOPAICHIHEPIPANQITASHIXUELIUPAIDEYIGEQIANGDAWUQI。TAMENYIWEICHULEMAKESIZHUYISHIXUEWAI,LISHIXUEZHONGMEIYOURENHEXUEPAIHEXUESHUOSHIKEXUEDE。ZHEIJIUJIDADIBEILILELIDAZHAODECHUZHONG。

 

AG娱乐网ZAOQIDE“KEXUE”GAINIANYUXIANZAIBUTONG。AGYULEWANGJINRITIDAO“KEXUE”,SHOUXIANLIANXIANGDAODEDAGAISHISHULIHUAYILEIXUEKE,DANERSANSHINIANDAIRENMENGENGZHUZHONGDESHIKEXUEDE“JINGSHEN”YU“FANGFA”。ZAI20NIANDAIDE“KEXUEYURENSHENGGUAN”LUNZHANZHONG,GENBENFENQIZAIYUSHENMESHI“KEXUE”。HUSHIHEDINGWENJIANGDENGRENWEIKAOJUFANGFAJISHIKEXUEFANGFA。ZHANGDONGSUNBUTONGYI。TARENWEIHANXUEJIADEKAOJUFANGFABUNENGJIUSUANSHIKEXUEFANGFA。TACHENGRENHANXUEJIAYOUYIDIANKEXUEJINGSHEN,DANRENWEIBUNENGYIYIDIANDEXIANGTONG,JIUSHUOSHIWANQUANXIANGTONG。KEXUEZHUZHONGSHIYAN,KAOJUBUGUOZAIGUZHIDUIZHONGXUNSHENGHUOERYI。

 

AG娱乐网HUSHIDEKEXUEGUANSHOUXIANJIUSHIKEXUEDEJINGSHEN,ZHUYAOSHIHUAIYIYUPIPANJINGSHEN,QICISHIYANJIULISHIDEFANGFA: “ZUNZHONGSHISHI,ZUNZHONGZHENGJU”、“DADANJIASHE,XIAOXINQIUZHENG”。FUSINIANHEHUSHIYIYANG,DOUZHUZHANGANKEXUEDEYAOQIUAGYULEWANGZHONGGUOXIANDAISHIXUE。FUSINIANZHONGSHIYONGKEXUEDEFANGFAYANJIULISHI。TAZHICHU: “XIANDAIDELISHIXUEYANJIU,YIJINGCHENGLEYIGEGEZHONGKEXUEDEFANGFAZHIHUIJI。DIZHI、DILI、KAOGU、SHENGWU、QIXIANG、TIANWENDENGDENG,WUYIBUGONGJIYANJIULISHIWENTIZHEZHIGONGJU。GUTINGLINYANJIULISHISHIJISHIZIJIGUANCHADIXING,ZHEIYISISUIRANZHIHAO,DANRUGUOTANENGYOUAGYULEWANGXIANZAIKEYIXIANGXIYANGRENJIELAIDEYIQIEZIRANKEXUEDEGONGJU,CHENGJIQIBUGENGZHUOYUENI?RUOGANLISHIXUEDEWENTIFEIYOUZIRANKEXUEZHIZIZHUWUCONGXIASHOU,WUCONGJIEJUE。PIRUCHUNQIUJINGSHIBUSHIZHONGYUHUOLIN,ZUOSHIJINGHOUYIDUANSHIBUSHILIUXINSUOZAOBU,AGYULEWANGZHENGKEYISUANSUANAIGONGSHISINIANZHIRISHISHIBUSHIDUIDE,RUBUDUI,ZIRANSHIWEIZUO,RUDUILE,ZIRANSHIHEHUOLINQIANCHUNQIUWENTONGCHUSHISUOJI。YOUPIRUAGYULEWANGYAOJUEDIQU,MEIYOUKEXUEZIZHUDERENYICHANZIXIAQU,SUNHUAILEWUSHUGUSHIWU,QIEZHENGBUZHIJUEZHUNLEMEIYOU,RUGUOXIANYOUJIZHONGBIYAODEKEXUEDEXUNLIAN,KEYIYICENGYICENGDEZIRANFAXIAN,BUTEDEBAO,BINGQIEDEZHIDANGNIANRUTUDEZONGJI,ZHEIMEIMEIBISUODEWUGENGSHIZHONGDADEZHISHI。SUOYIGUSHIXUEXIANZAIZHIXUYONGCELIANGBENLINGJIDIZHIQIXIANGCHANGSHI,BINGBUSHAOYUHANGHAIJIA。”[⑧]

 

FUSINIANCHANGSHUOSHIXUEJIUSHISHILIAOXUE,ZHEIYEYIWEIZHESHIXUEJIUSHIKEXUE。TASHUO: “JINDAIDELISHIZHISHISHILIAOXUE,LIYONGZIRANKEXUEGONGJIAGYULEWANGDEYIQIEGONGJU,ZHENGLIYIQIEKEFENGZHEDESHILIAO,SUOYIJINDAISHIXUESUODADAODEFANYU,ZIDIZHIXUEYIZHIMUXIADEXINWENZHI,ERSHIXUEWAIDEDAERWENLUN,ZHENGSHILISHIFANGFAZHIDACHENG。”[⑨]

 

AG娱乐网ERSHISHIJIDELIANGDASHIXUELIUPAIDOUZHUZHANGLISHIXUESHIKEXUE。XUGUANSANZHICHU: “SHIGUANPAIYUSHILIAOXUEPAI,CONGBIAOMIANKANMAOSINANBEILIANGJI,SHIZEJUNYINGUORENDEKEXUEMILIANERXING,BINGQIYI‘KEXUEDESHIXUE’XIANGBIAOBANG。”[⑩]SUIDOUBIAOBANGKEXUE,DANLIANGPAIDUIKEXUEDELIJIEBUTONG。SHILIAOPAIRENWEI,KEXUEZHIWEIKEXUE,BUZAIDUIXIANG,ERZAIFANGFA。YONGKEXUEDEFANGFA(GUINAYANYI)YANJIULISHICAILIAO,LISHIXUEJIUHEDIZHIXUE、SHENGWUXUEYIYANG,YESHIKEXUE。SHILIAOXUEPAIJIESHOUDEKEXUEFANGFADEQIANTISHIKEXUEJINGSHENHEKEXUETAIDU。KEXUEJINGSHENZAIYUXUNQIUZHENLI,KEXUETAIDUZAIYUPIEKAICHENGJIANHEGANQING,ZHIGENZHEZHENGJUZOU。WEIWUSHIGUANPAIZERENWEI,LISHIXUECHENGWEIKEXUEDEGUANJIANZAIYUNENGFOUCONGDUIXIANGZHONGFAXIAN“GUILV”。ERYAOFAXIANGUILV,BIXUSHIYONGKEXUEDELILUN,JIWEIWUSHIGUAN。TAMENQIANGDIAO,ZHIYOUWEIWUSHIGUANSHIWEIYIKEXUEDELILUN,ZHIYOUWEIWUSHIGUANCAINENGFAXIANRENLEISHEHUIFAZHANDEGUILV。TIANCHANGWUDEHUAGAIKUOLEMAKESIZHUYIXUEPAIDEZHUDAOSIXIANG。TASHUO: “ZHIYOUMAKESIZHUYILISHIXUESHIYANJIULISHIGUILVDE。ZHEISHIMAKESIZHUYILISHIXUEHEQITAGEZHONGLISHIXUE、BAOKUOZHONGGUOCHUANTONGSHIXUEDEGENBENQUBIESUOZAI。SUOYI,ZHIYOUMAKESIZHUYILISHIXUECAINENGBALISHIYANJIUSHANGSHENGDAOKEXUEDEGAODU,JIANLIKEXUEDELISHIXUE。SHENMESHIKEXUE?KEXUESHIDUISHIWUGUILVDERENSHITIXI。QUEFAGUILVXINGDEZHISHIDUIJI,SHIBUCHENGQIWEIKEXUEDE。”[11]

 

JIANGDACHUNDUICIYOUZHEDUTEDEJIANJIE。TASHUO: “GUOQURENMENCHANGSHUO,YOUYUWEIWUSHIGUANDEFAXIAN,LISHIXUEZHENZHENGDIFAZHANCHENGWEIYIMENKEXUE。SUIRANYIBANSHUOLAI,ZHEIGETIFAYENENGCHENGLI。DANAGYULEWANGRENWEI,YINGDANGXIJIAZHENZHUO,SHIZHEIGETIFAGENGQUJINGQUE,FANGNENGSHIWEIWUSHIGUANDUILISHIYANJIUQIDAOGENGJIAQIESHIYOUXIAODEZHIDAOZUOYONG。”TAZHICHU,WEIWUSHIGUANHELISHIKEXUEYANJIUDEFANGFAHEJIAODUBUTONG。QIANZHECONGCHOUXIANGDEJIAODU,YANJIUSHEHUIGEZHONGYINSUXIANGHUGUANXIJIQIFAZHANDEZUIYIBANGUILV,SHUYUZHEXUEDEFANWEI。ERHOUZHECONGJUTIDEJIAODU,ANZHAOSHIJIANSHUNXUMIAOSHURENMENDESHIJIANHUODONGHESHIJIFAZHANGUOCHENG,SHUYUSHIZHENGKEXUEDEFANWEI。ZHEILIANGZHESHIBUTONGFANCHOUDEZHISHIXINGTAI。“WEIWUSHIGUANDEFAXIAN,BINGBUNENGSHILISHIXUEZIRANERRANDIBIANCHENGKEXUE,ERZHISHIJILISHIXUEFAZHANCHENGWEIKEXUETIGONGLESHIJIDEKENENGXING。”[12]

 

JINNIANLAIDUILISHIXUEKEXUEXINGBIAOZHUNRENGYOUZHENGYI: YOURENRENWEILISHIXUEDEKEXUEXINGZAIYUZHENSHIXING,ZHEYANDIANZHUYAOSHILISHIXUEDEKETI。YOURENFANDUIZHEIZHONGGUANDIAN,TICHULISHIXUEDEKEXUEXINGZAIYURENSHIDEKEXUEXING,QIANGDIAODESHILISHIXUEDEZHUTI。

 

杨向群认为: “历史研究科学性的最大特点是真实性,即对历史真实的揭示。历史学家所作的工作,实际上都是了解和说明历史真相的工作,对于史料和史实的研究如此,探讨历史规律亦如此。”[13]对此,宋月华提出不同的观点。他在《聊城师范学院学报》1999年第2期发表《试论历史学的科学性与真实性问题》, 指出,长期以来,强调科学性等同于真实性,实际上变成了一种教条主义的守护神。历史研究当然需要科学性,但科学性决不等同于真实性。历史学是一种主、客观相结合的产物,追求绝对客观的历史,不仅是做不到的,也是不可能的。同时历史作为以往的运动变化过程,一去不复返,它到底是什么样,很难看清。把历史学科学性等同于真实性的背景是经典物理学的产物。现代科学已打破了机械决定论的幻想。科学已丧失了那种AG娱乐网君临万物的无尚地位。AG娱乐网今天的史学研究也不应抱残守缺,纠缠于历史真不真实这一无法证实的命题不放。作者认为,历史学是一门人文科学。科学性的根本内容不在于事实本身,而在于该事实昭示的意义以及对它的客观解释。也就是说,历史学的科学性问题,首先指历史认识的科学性。求真只是史学的初级阶段,远远没有完成史学所应该完成的使命。AG娱乐网说历史学是科学,是指在唯物史观的指导下,对人类社会的运动变化过程能提供科学的认识和解释,同时又因为人类社会确实存在着不以人的意志为转移的普遍规律,所以,历史学不仅能够成为科学,而且本身也确实是科学的。

 

SAN、 “KEXUE”DELISHIXUEYUZIRANKEXUEDEGUANXI

 

AG娱乐网ZHUZHANGLISHIXUESHIKEXUEZHEYEYOUGUANDIANFENQI,YIXIERENBALISHIXUEYUZIRANKEXUETONGDENGKANDAI,LIRUFUSINIANJILIYAOBALISHIXUEJIANCHENGXIANGZIRANKEXUEYIYANGDEKEXUE。ERHEBINGSONGZEFANDUIZHEIZHONGTAIDU。FUSINIANSUOKANDESHIXUEDEXINGZHISHIHEZIRANKEXUEYIYANGDECHUNKEGUANDEKEXUE。TAJIANLILISHIYUYANYANJIUSUO,TICHU: YAOBAYUYANXUEYULISHIXUEJIANCHENGYU“KEXUE”TONGDENGDEXITONG。TAXUANBU: “YAOBALISHIXUEYUYANXUEAGYULEWANGDEHESHENGWUXUEDIZHIXUEDENGTONGYANG,NAISHIAGYULEWANGDETONGZHI。AGYULEWANGYAOKEXUEDEDONGFANGXUEZHIZHENGTONGZAIZHONGGUO!”[14]

 

AG娱乐网FUSINIANHUYUYAOJIANGLISHIXUEYUYANXUETISHENGDAOYUSHENGWUXUE、DIZHIXUETONGDENGDEDIWEI,ZHEIZHONGSIXIANGYUWUSISHIDAIRENMENDUI“KEXUEZHUYI”DECHONGBAIYOUGUAN。HEBINGSONGZEPIPINGZHEIZHONGQINGXIANG。TARENWEI,WUSIQIANHOU,XUDUORENMIANDUICHUXIANZAISHIXUEJIEDE“OUFENGMEIYU”,YOUJIBUXIAZEZHITAI,BUFENZAOBAI,SHENGTUNHUOBO。TAYOUQIPIPANLENEIZHONGSHITUBALISHIXUEBIANWEICHUNCUIKEXUEDEZHUZHANG,RENWEIQITUJIANLIYUZIRANKEXUETONGYANGKEXUEDELISHIXUEZHIBUGUOSHIYIZHONG“MENGXIANG”。HEBINGSONGPIPINGSHIXUEJIEYIXIEREN“BUANSHIXUEZHIXINGZHIJIQIKUNNAN,WANGYUYIZIRANKEXUEZHIFANGFASHIZHUSHIXUE,YIQIURENLEIHUODONGZHIYINGUO。”TALIEJUZIRANKEXUEYULISHIXUEDEJIDIANBUTONG: YI、LIANGZHEYANJIUSHIDEGUANCHADIANBUTONG。ER、LISHISHISHIYUZIRANKEXUEYANJIUDESHISHIZAIXINGZHISHANGJIONGRANBUTONG。SAN、LIANGZHEDEFANGFABUTONG。HEBINGSONGLIEJUZHONGZHONGLIYOU,SHUOMINGLISHIXUECONGYANJIUNEIRONGDAOFANGFADOUYUZIRANKEXUENAIZHISHEHUIXUEYOUHENDACHAYI,JIELUNSHILISHIXUEDUANBUNENGTONGWULIXUE、HUAXUE、SHENGLIXUEHUORENLEIXUEYIYANG,CHENGWEIYIZHONGZHENZHENGDEKEXUE。HEBINGSONGSUIRANFANDUIBALISHIXUEYUZIRANKEXUETONGDENGKANDAI,DANBINGBUFANDUILISHIXUEZUOWEIYIMENKEXUE。TARENWEI: “SUOWEIKEXUE,NAIYOUTIAOLIZHIZHISHIZHIWEI。SHIXUEZHIGUANCHADIANJIFANGFA,SUIYUQITAKEXUEBUTONG,RANQIWEIYOUTIAOLIZHIZHISHI,ZECHUWUERZHI。ERSHIXUEZHIZHIQIEQIUZHEN,YIZHENGYUQITAKEXUEZHIJINGSHENWUYI。GUSHIXUEBENSHEN,SUIYUANJIAOQITAKEXUEWEIBUBEI,ZHONGBUSHIQIWEIKEXUEZHIYIZHONGYE。”[15]

 

ERSHISHIJISHANGBANYE,CHUFUSINIANWAI,YOUBUSHAOXUEZHEBALISHIXUEYUZIRANKEXUEDENGTONG。TAMENCONGGEFANGMIANLUNZHENGZHEIYIZHUZHANG。LIZEGANGZAI《SHIXUETONGLUN》(1935NIAN)ZHONGZHICHU,CONGKEXUEDETEZHENGKAOCHA,ZIRANKEXUEDETEZHENGSHIKEGUANDE,LISHIXUEYESHIRUCI,WULUNSHISHIHUOSHILIAO,DOUSHIKEGUANDE。ZIRANKEXUEDETEZHENGWEIBIRANXING,LISHIFAZHANYEYOUBIRANXING。ERQIELIANGZHEDOUYOUYINGUOXING。YOUCIKEJIAN,ZIRANKEXUEDETEZHENG,LISHIXUEYEDOUJUBEI。CONGYANJIUDEMUDEKAOCHA,ZIRANKEXUEDEMUDESHIQIUZHENLI,LISHIXUEYESHIRUCI。CONGKEXUEYANJIUDEFANGFAKAOCHA,YULISHIXUEDEFANGFABINGWUBUTONG,RUGUINA、YANYI、FENXI、TUILIDENGDENG。JIYUYISHANGLIYOU,LIZEGANGRENWEI,LISHIXUEDEKEXUEXING,YUZIRANKEXUEMEIYOUQUBIE。YANGHONGLIEZAI《SHIXUETONGLUN》(1939NIAN)ZHONGYEZHICHU,SHIXUEHEZIRANKEXUEZAICAILIAOSHANGHEFANGFASHANGMEIYOUJUEDUIDECHAYI,SUOYISHIXUEBUDANKEYICHENGWEIKEXUE,ERQIEHAISHI“XIAYIDEKEXUE”。

 

AG娱乐网LIDAZHAOYECHIZHEIZHONGZHUZHANG。TASHUO: “MAKESIHEJINRIDEYIPAILISHIJIA,JUNYISHEHUIBIANQIANWEILISHIXUEDEDUIMIANWENTI,YIYUQIJIANFAJIANYINGUOFAZEWEICIXUEMUDE。ERZHETONGYILISHIXUEWEIFAZEXUE。CIYOUXUEWENDEXINGZHISHANGJIANG,SHISHUOLISHIXUEYUZIRANKEXUEWUSUOCHAYI。CIZHONGJIANJIE,JIEJUSHIYIZIRANKEXUEWEIWEIYIDEKEXUE。ZIYOUMASHIDEWEIWUSHIGUAN,CAIBALISHIXUETIDAOYUZIRANKEXUETONGDENGDEDIWEI。CIDENGGONGJI,SHIWEISHIXUEJIEKAIYIXINJIYUAN。”[16]FANDUIZHEIZHONGZHUZHANGDEXUEZHEYEBUSHAO。LIRUZHUQIANZHIZAI《LISHIKEXUELUN》YIWENZHONGRENWEI,LISHIXUEZHISUOYICHENGWEIKEXUE,ZAIYUTATANQIUFAZE。BUGUOLISHIKEXUEDEFAZEYUZIRANKEXUEDEFAZEBUTONG: LISHIKEXUEDEFAZESHIDONGDE,ZIRANKEXUEDEFAZESHIJINGDE;LISHIFAZESHIXINLIDE,ZIRANFAZESHIWULIDE;LISHIFAZEZHUZHONGMUDE,ZIRANFAZEZHUZHONGYINGUO;ZIRANDEFAZESHIBIRANDE,ERLISHIFAZESHIYOUYURENMENDEYUWANGERCHENG。

 

SI、 LISHIXUELIANGZHONGXINGDEGUANDIAN

 

AG娱乐网⒈ LISHIXUEJISHIKEXUEYOUSHIYISHU

 

AG娱乐网YIXIERENRENWEILISHIXUEJUYOULIANGZHONGXING,JISHIKEXUE,YOUSHIYISHUHUOQITADONGXI。QIZHONG,RENWEILISHIXUEJISHIKEXUEYESHIYISHUDEZHANDUOSHU。LIUJIEZAI《LISHILUN》ZHONGZHICHU,LISHIXUESHIJIEYUKEXUEYUYISHUZHIJIANDEYIZHONGXUEWEN。ZHANGYINLINRENWEI,LISHIXUEJISHIKEXUEYESHIYISHU。TASHUO,JINYOUJINGQUEDEZILIAOBUCHENGWEISHI,JIJINGKEXUEDEZONGHE,YEBUCHENGWEISHI,YINWEIGANQINGSHENGMINGSHENCAI,YOUDAIYUZHIGUANDERENQUYUYISHUDEBIAOXIAN。[17]

 

ZHEIZHONGGUANDIANDEZHUYAODIANSHIRENWEILISHIXUEZAIXUNZHAOGUILVFANGMIANJUYOUKEXUEXING,ZAIBIAOXIANXINGSHISHANGYOUYISHUXING。SHIJISHANGLISHIXUEDESHUANGZHONGXINGJIUSHINEIRONGHEXINGSHIDEGUANXI。ZHUWEIBINZHICHU,19SHIJIYIQIANDESHIXUESHIJIANBIAOMINGLESHIXUEKEXUEHUAHEYISHUHUALIANGZHONGBUTONGDEXUEKEQINGXIANG。ZUOZHERENWEI,JIUXUEKEGEXINGERYANLISHIXUESHIYIMENKEXUE,ZUNXUNZHECONGSHISHIZHONGDECHUJIELUN,YINCHUGUILVDEYANJIUTUJING;JIUBIAOXIANXINGSHIERYAN,YISHUDUISHIXUEYOUZHONGDAYINGXIANG。[18]

 

AG娱乐网MAQIANGRENWEI,LISHIXUEZAITANTAORENLEISHEHUIFAZHANYANJINJIQILISHISHEHUINEIZAIGUANXIJIGUILVFANGMIAN,ZUOWEIYIMENKEXUESHICHENGLIDE。DANZAILISHIDEBIAOXIANXINGSHIJIQIJIAZHINEIHANFANGMIAN,LISHIBIAOXIANGENGDUODESHITADEYISHUXING,LISHIXUEDEZHONGJIYIYIYEZAITADESHENMEIJIAZHI。LIGUIHAIYETICHUZHEIZHONGGUANDIAN。[19]

 

HEZHAOWUSHUO,LISHIZHISHIYAOKAOZHIJUE,TIHUI,SUOYIYOUQIYISHUXINGDEYIMIAN、ZIRANKEXUEZHIXUYAOCHUNCUILIXING,ERLISHIXUEZEXUYAOXIANGXIANGLI。[20]HEZHAOWUDEZHUZHISIHUYUDADUOSHURENBUTONG。ZAITAKANLAI,LISHIXUEDEYISHUXINGBUJINBIAOXIANWEIXINGSHI,ERQIESHIZHONGYAODENEIRONG,SUOWEIXIANGXIANGLIQISHIJIUSHIRENSHILISHIDEYIZHONGFANGFA。

 

AG娱乐网⒉ LISHIXUEJISHIKEXUEYOUSHIZHEXUE

 

AG娱乐网HONGWEILIANRENWEI,XUEZHEDUIYUSHISHIYOUMIAOXIEHEJIESHIZHIZE,ZHUZHONGMIAOXIEDEXUEWENSHIKEXUE,ZHUZHONGJIESHIDEXUEWENSHIZHEXUE,ERLISHIXUEZEJIANYOUKEXUEYUZHEXUEERZHEDEXINGZHI。LISHIDEFANGFAFENLIANGBUFEN,QIJIANSUODEBUFENWANQUANSHIKEXUE,TONGJIEDEBUFENWANQUANSHIZHEXUE。DANKEXUEYUZHEXUEDOUSHICHAOSHIJIANDE,ERLISHIZHUZHONGSHIYUSHIJIANDEGUANXI,SUOYILISHIYUKEXUE、ZHEXUEYEYOUBUTONGZHIDIAN。[21] LIDONGFANGRENWEI,LISHIYOULIANGGEMUDE,YIWEIQIUZHENDESHISHI,ERWEIQIUSHISHIDELIJIE。QIUZHENSHILISHIKEXUE,QIULIJIESHILISHIZHEXUE。[22]

 

HEZHAOWUCENGZHUZHANGLISHIXUEJISHIKEXUE,YOUSHIYISHU,DANTAZHUYAOHAISHIZHUZHANGLISHIXUEJISHIKEXUE,YOUSHIZHEXUE。HEZHAOWURENWEI,LISHIXUEYOULIANGGECENGCI,DIYICENGCISHIKEXUEDE,DIERCENGCISHIZHEXUEDE(JUTILUNSHUJIANHOU)。

 

⒊ LISHIXUESHIKEXUEDEJIESHIXUE

 

AG娱乐网WANGXUEDIAN、SUNYANJIETICHUYUZHONGBUTONGDEXINJIANJIE。TAMENRENWEI,LISHIXUEJIBUSHISHILIAOKAODINGPAI“NAZHENGJULAI”DESHIZHENGKEXUE,YEBUSHISHIGUANPAITANQIUGUILVDEFAZEKEXUE。ZAITAMENKANLAI,LISHIXUEJIBUWANQUANSHIQIANZHE,YEBUWANQUANSHIHOUZHE,TASHIYIMENJIANYOUKEXUEHEJIESHIXUESHUANGZHONGSUZHIDEXUEWEN,GENGJINYIBUSHUO,LISHIXUESHIYIMENDAIYOUKEXUE(SHIZHENG)SHUXINGDEJIESHIXUE。LISHIXUEZHIYAOXIANGBAOCHIZIJIDEGUYOUXINGZHIJIUJUEBUKENENGBAZIJIHAIYUANWEIYIMENKEXUE。[23]

 

AG娱乐网WU、 FANDUILISHIXUESHIKEXUEDEGUANDIAN

 

DADUOSHUXUEZHERENWEILISHIXUESHIKEXUE,HUOBUFENDIJUYOUKEXUEXING,ZHIYOUSHAOSHURENFANDUI。ZHUYAOGUANDIANRUXIA:

 

⒈ LISHIXUESHIYISHU

 

JIANGYUNGANGZAI《LISHIYISHULUN》(1943NIAN)ZHONGZHICHU,LISHIMEIYOUSHENMEGUILVKEXUN,MEIYOULIYOUKEJIANG,XUDUOLISHISHISHIWUFAYONGKEXUELAIJIESHI。GUOQUDELISHI,KEKAOXINGTAISHAO,SUOYIKAOJUHESHIGUANDOUSHIYIPIANZHIJIAN。YINCI,LISHIBUSHIKEXUE,YEBUSHIZHEXUE,ZHISHIYIZHONGYISHU。TAJIBUSHIKAOJU,YEBUSHISHIGUAN,ERSHIYIGEYOUBIANJIDEXUANXIANG,JIUSHIYIQINGGANLAITAOLUNRENSHENG,RENSHIRENSHENG,TIYANRENSHENG。QINGGANSHIGUJINZHONGWAIWUCHAYIDE,SUOYILISHIBIANKEYIZAIZHEIGERENSHIZHIXIAXUANXIANG,TONGGUOXUANXIANGLISHIKEYIDADAOZHENSHANMEIDETONGYI。TAZHUZHANG,LISHIXUEJIAXIANYAOYOUYISHUDEXIUYANG,RANHOUKEYICHANSHENGYOUJIAZHIDELISHI。

 

AG娱乐网⒉ LISHIXUESHIYISHIXINGTAIBIAOYINGDEYIZHONGFANGFA

 

ZHANGZONGYINGRENWEI,LISHIBUNENGCHENGWEIKEXUE,TAWUSUOWEIYINGUO,YEMEIYOUDINGLV,SHENZHILISHIDEZHENXIANGYEWUCONGRENSHI。LISHIZHISHIDEJIAZHIBUZAIXUNQIUYINGUODINGLV,ERZAIYU“ZAICHUANGZAOXINLIXIANGHUOWEICHIJIUZUZHIRENHEYIXIANGQITUZHONG,CHANGBEIYONGZUOYOULIDESHUOFUGONGJU”。“XIANMINGDESHIYISHIXINGTAIDEBIAOYINGDEYIZHONGFANGFA。”[24] TASHIJISHANGSHISHUO,LISHIXUESHIZHENGZHIXUANCHUANDEGONGJU。

 

⒊ LISHIZHISHILISHI

 

JINZHAOZIRENWEI,LISHIXUEGUBUSHIZHEXUE,BUSHIWENXUE,DANYEWEIBISHIKEXUE。KEXUESHICHUNKEGUANDE,LISHIQUEMIANBULEZHUGUANDEXUANZEZUOYONG。LISHISHIYIQIEXUEWENDEZONGHE,SUOYISHUO,LISHIZHISHILISHI。[25]

 

LIU、 DUIWEIKEXUEZHUYIDEPIPINGYUFANSI

 

AG娱乐网DATILAISHUO,RENWEILISHIXUESHIKEXUEDEGUANDIANZHANGQIZHANZHUDAODIWEI,RANERDUIKEXUEZHUYIDECHONGBAIYECENGSHOUDAOCHONGJI。ZAIERSHINIANDAI,LIANGQICHAOCONGOUZHANHOUDEOUZHOUGUIGUOHOU,DALIPENGJI“KEXUEWANNENGLUN”。TARENWEIKEXUEDAILAIDEGAODUWUZHIWENMINGBINGMEIYOUJIRENLEIDAILAIHEPINGHEXINGFU,FANERDAILAILEZAINAN。TAZHUZHANGYAOYIZHONGGUODEJINGSHENWENMINGZHENGJIUXIFANGDEBIBING。LIANGQICHAOYOUCIPAOQILEGUOQUDUIKEXUEDECHONGBAI,ERDUILISHIXUEDEKEXUEXINGTICHUYIWEN。RANERZAIJIANGUOHOUDEQIANJISHINIANLI,MEIYOURENGANYUDUILISHIXUEDEKEXUEXINGTICHUZHIYI,BUJINBUKENENGCHUXIANXIANGSHANGSHIJIQIANBANYEDENEIZHONGGONGRANFANDUILISHIXUESHIKEXUEDEGUANDIAN,JISHISHIZHUZHANGLISHIXUEJUYOULIANGZHONGXINGYESHILIJINGPANDAODE。ZHIDAOGAIGEKAIFANGHOU,SUIZHESIXIANGJIEFANG,JINQUBEIDAPO,CAIYOUXUEZHEDUIMANGMUDEKEXUECHONGBAIQINGXIANGTICHUPIPING。

 

AG娱乐网ZHAOJIHUIZHICHU,CONGJINJISHINIANZHONGGUOSHIXUEJIADEGUANNIANYANBIANLAIKAN,KEXUEZHUYIHEJIAOTIAOZHUYISHIYINGXIANGLISHIRENSHILUNSHENRUYANJIUDEZHUYAOSIXIANGZHANGAI。BIAOXIANZAIJIGEFANGMIAN: YI、BASHIXUEZHUTIJIHUCONGLISHIRENSHILINGYUPAICHUCHUQU,RENWEILISHIYANJIUJIUSHI“YUANYUANBENBENDEHUIFULISHIDEBENLAIMIANMU”,CONGERDANHUALELISHIZHEXUETEBIESHILISHIRENSHILUNDEYANJIU。ER、ZAITANTAOLISHIGUILVWENTISHANG,CHANSHENGLEYANZHONGDEJIAOTIAOZHUYIHEWEIYIZHILUNQINGXIANG,RENWEIRENHEMINZU、RENHEDIQUDOUHAOBULIWAIDIJINGLIWUZHONGSHENGCHANFANGSHI,FOUDINGLELISHIFAZHANDETESHUXING。SAN、BAWEIWUSHIGUANJIANDANHUA,RENWEIWEIWUSHIGUANSHIDANGJINZUIKEXUEDELISHIGUAN,YINERZAI50—70NIANDAIBUDANZHONGZHILEDUISHIXUELILUNDEYANJIU,HAIBAYIQIEXIFANGSHIXUESIXIANGDOUSHIWEI“FANDONGSIXIANG”JIAYIPIPAN,YEZHONGZHILEDUIXIFANGSHIXUERENSHILUNZUIXINCHENGGUODEYINJINHEYANJIU,JIEGUOSHIGENGJIAZHUZHANGLEKEXUEZHUYI、JIAOTIAOZHUYIDESIXIANGYINGXIANG。[26]

 

LEIGEPIPINGDAO,DANGDAILISHIXUEJIADUILISHIGUANMANGMUCHONGBAI。TAMENTIANZHENDIXIANGXINYOULE“KEXUE”DELISHIGUANJIUDENGYUYOULE“KEXUE”DELISHIXUE。YUSHI,JIHUSUOYOUDESHIJIADOUSHEBENQIUMODIQUZHUIZHULISHIGUANERPAOQILISHIXUE。ZHEIYANG,YIZHONGJINHUGUAIDANDEXIANXIANGBIANCHANSHENGLE: ZUOWEILISHIXUEJIA,TAMENBUQUYANJIULISHI,QUEZAINEILIZHENGTIANGAOHANLISHIGUAN,SONGJINGBANDIXUANCHUANLISHIGUANDEZHIYANPIANYU,ZUIHOU,JINYIBUYONGLISHIGUANDAITILELISHIXUEBENSHEN。[27]

 

HAIYOUXIEXUEZHEBUSHICONGZHENGMIANTICHUPIPING,ERSHIBAQIANGDIAOLISHIXUEDELIANGZHONGXING,YOUQISHIKEXUEXINGZHIWAIDEDONGXIZUOWEIJIUZHENGWEIKEXUEZHUYIDESHOUDUAN。ZHANGYINLINTICHULISHIXUESHIKEXUEYESHIYISHU,JIUSHIYINWEIJINDAIZHONGGUOSHIXUEQIANGLIEKEXUEHUADEQUXIANGSHITASHENGANYOUZHONGTISHIXUERENWENXINGDEBIYAO。XINSHIQIYIXIEXUEZHEQIANGDIAOKEXUEXINGZHIWAIDEDONGXI,YOUYIZHONG“BOLUANFANZHENG”DEYIWEI,MUDESHIJIUZHENGYIWANGNEIZHONGDUIMAKESIZHUYILISHIXUEMANGMUCHONGBAIDEQINGXIANG。YUZHANGYINLINDENGRENWEIFANDUIKEXUEMIXINERQIANGDIAOLISHIXUEYISHUXINGYOUMOUZHONGXIANGSIZHICHU。LIGUIHAIZAI《LISHIXUEJISHIKEXUEYESHIYISHU》ZHONGSHUO,ZAIZHONGGUOSHIXUEJIE,JIEFANGYIHOUSIHUYIXINGCHENGYIZHIDEKANFA,NEIJIUSHIRENWEITASHIYIMENYANJINDEKEXUE,JUEDUIBUNENGYUYISHUZHANBIAN,FOUZEJIUHUIYINGXIANGTADESHENSHENGZHIZE。ZHEIZHONGKANFACHANSHENGLEYIXIEXIAOJIDEFUMIANZUOYONG。XIANZAILISHIXUEZAIFAZHANZHONGYUDAOKUNNANHEWENTI,TADEWEIJIHEKUNJING,DOUYUZHEIZHONGKANFAYOUMIQIEDEGUANXI。LISHIXUEWEILEZOUCHUDIGU,JIUBIXUGAIBIANDUILISHIXUEDEKANFA,DUILISHIXUEDEDINGYIZHONGXINJIAYIJIEDING。TARENWEI,LISHIXUERUGUOYESHIYIMENYISHU,DUILISHIXUEJIASHIYIZHONGSIXIANGJIEFANG,SHILISHIXUEJIACONGGUIFANDEKUANGZIZHONGJIETUOCHULAI。KEJIAN,RUGUOBALISHIXUEDANGCHENGYIMENYISHULAIKAN,BIRANHUIJILISHIXUEDEYANJIUDAILAIFEIYUE。

 

90NIANDAI,HEZHAOWUHEPANGZHUOHENGLIANGWEIXUEZHEZHIJIANDEYICHANGZHENGLUNSUIRANGUIMOBUSUANDA,QUEHENYOUYIYI。TASHIZHENZHENGJINRUDAOLISHIRENSHILUNSHENCENGDEYICITAOLUN。HEZHAOWUZAI《SHIXUELILUNYANJIU》1996NIANDI2QIFABIAO《DUILISHIXUEDERUOGANFANSI》。TARENWEI,LISHIXUESHIYIZHONGRENWENZHISHI,ERBUSHIZIRANKEXUEYIYISHANGDENEIZHONGKEXUE。ZUOWEIXUESHU(ZHISHI)HUOKEXUE,LIANGZHEYOUQIGONGTONGDEKEXUEGUIFAN、JILVHUOZHUNZE;DANZUOWEIBUTONGDEZHISHIHUOXUEKE,LISHIXUEDEXINGZHIBIANYOUBIEYUZIRANKEXUENEIZHONGYIYISHANGDEKEXUEDEXINGZHI。LISHIXIANXIANGHEZIRANXIANXIANGYIYANG,SHIKEGUANCUNZAI,DANDUIYULISHIXIANXIANGDERENSHI、LIJIEHEBIAODA(ZHEISHILISHIXUE),ZESHILISHIXUEJIAXINLINGLAODONG(HUOHUODONG)DEJIEGUO,SHIYAOQUJUEYULISHIXUEJIADERENSHENGTIYANDE。LISHIJUYOULIANGZHONGXING,YIFANGMIANTASHIZIRANSHIJIEDEYIBUFEN,YAOSHOUZIRANJIEDEBIRANLVSUOZHIPEI;LINGYIFANGMIANTAYOUSHIRENDECHUANGZAO,SHIBUSHOUZIRANLVSUOZHIPEIDE。YINCI,LISHIXUEJIUBAOKUOYOULIANGGECENGCI,DIYIGECENGCISHIDUISHISHIDERENZHI,DIERGECENGCISHIDUIDIYIGECENGCISUORENDINGDESHISHIDELIJIEHEQUANSHI。DIYIGECENGCISHUYUZIRANSHIJIE,TASHIKEXUEDE;DIERGECENGCISHUYURENWENSHIJIE,TASHIRENWENDE。LISHIXUEZHICHENGQIWEILISHIXUE,QUANSHIDIERGECENGCIFUJITAYISHENGMING。DIERGECENGCIBAOHANLIANGGEBUFEN,JILIXINGSIWEIHETIYANNENGLI,LIANGZHEDEZONGHEJIUCHENGWEILISHILIXING。LIXINGSIWEISHISHILISHIXUERENTONGYUKEXUEDEDONGXI;TIYANNENGLISHISHILISHIXUEYOUBIEYUKEXUEDEDONGXI。WENZHANGQIANGDIAOZHICHU,TONGCHANGDEKANFAZONGYIWEISUOWEILISHIXUEJIUSHILISHIXUEⅠ,ERBUZHIDAOLISHIXUEZHICHENGWEILISHIXUE,QIGUANJIANNAIZAIYULISHIXUEⅡ,ERBUZAIYULISHIXUEⅠ。LISHIXUEⅠSHIKEXUE,LISHIXUEⅡSHIZHEXUE。LISHIXUEJIADEZHEXUESIXIANGYUANBISHILIAODEJILEIGENGWEIZHONGYAODEDUO。SHILIAOXUEBUSHILISHIXUE,YEBUNENGXIANCHENGDIJICHULISHIXUE。

 

ZUOZHEHAIZHICHU: “LISHIXUESHIKEXUEMA?DAGAIZHEIGEWENTIZAIHENDUORENKANLAIHUIXIANDESHIDUOYUDE。YINWEIDUONIANYILAIRENMENYIJINGXINGCHENGLEYIZHONGGENSHENDIGUDESIWEIDINGSHI,YEXUKEYICHENGZHIWEIWEIKEXUEGUANDIAN,JIYIQIEDOUYINGGAIYIKEXUEXINGWEIQIWEIYIDEZHUNZE,YIQIELUNDUANDOUXUCONGKEXUECHUFA,BINGQIEYIKEXUEWEIWEIYIDEGUISU。ZHIYAOYIDANBEIXUANBUWEI‘BUKEXUE’,ZHEITIAOZUIZHUANGJIUZUYIBAYIQIELILUNDAFANZAIDI,YONGSHIBUDEFANSHEN。LISHIXUEFANGFOLISUODANGRANDIYINGGAISHIKEXUE。WANQUANERYOUCHEDIDI(ZHENGYOURUBOLISUOSHENGCHENGDE‘LISHIXUESHIKEXUE,BUDUOYEBUSHAO’)”ZUOZHEHAIPIPINGSHUO: “YOUXIESHIJIASUIRANHAOCHENGGAOPANLISHIXUEDEKEXUEXINGZHEIMIANQIZHIQUEMEIYOURENZHENCHAOZHEKEXUEXINGDEFANGXIANGMAIBU。”

 

AG娱乐网ZUOZHEZAILINGYIPIANWENZHANG《LISHIXUELIANGZHONGXINGPIANLUN》(《SHIXUELILUNYANJIU》1998NIANDI1 QI)ZHONGYETICHULEXIANGTONGDEPIPING。TASHUO,17—19SHIJI,YOUYUKEXUEQUDEJUDADECHENGGONGJIQISHENYUANDEYINGXIANG,KEXUESIHUSHENRULERENMENSHENGHUODEMEIYIGEXIBAO,YIQIESIHUDOUYAOYIKEXUEWEIWEIYIDEZHUNZEHEGUISU。ZHIDAO19SHIJIMOYEFASHENGLELINGYICIGEMING,RENMENDEGUANNIANCAIKAISHIZHUANBIAN。ZAIZHONGSHIJI,KEXUECENGJINGSHISHENXUEDEBINV,DAOLEJINDAI,QINGXINGSIHUDIANDAOLEGUOLAI,RENMENYIQIESIXIANGHUODONGDOUYINGGAICHENGWEIKEXUEDENUBI,DOUYAOYIKEXUEWEIZUIGAOTONGZHIZHE;——ZHEILIMIANTONGYANGBAOHANZHEDUISIXIANG、DUIRENXINGDEYIZHONGNIUQU,JIYAOBARENSHENGDEQUANBUZHIYUKEXUEDEJUEDUIQUANWEIZHIXIA。SHIJIESHANGMEIYOUJUEDUIDEQUANWEI。ZHENGSHIZHENDUIZHEIZHONGJUEDUIQUANWEIDEZHUANHENGBAHUHUOZHESHUOKEXUEZHISHANGZHUYI,CONGSHANGGESHIJIMOJIUZAIGEGELINGYU(SHENZHIYEZAIKEXUEDELINGYU)CHUXIANLEKANGYIDESHENGYIN。DUIKEXUEDEZONGJIAOCHONGBAIBENSHENJIUSHIFANKEXUEDE。ZHENGDANGDELIXINGHEKEXUE,YEBIXUCHENGRENFEILIXINGHEFEIKEXUEDEYINSUZAIRENLEILISHIZHONGDEDIWEIHEZUOYONG。

 

庞卓恒《历史学是不是科学——与何兆武先生商榷》(《史学理论研究》1997年第3期)一文,针对何兆武提出的肯定历史学Ⅰ的科学性, 而把历史学Ⅱ排除于科学之外的观点提出不同的看法。他指出,历史学的科学性主要不是体现在历史学的第一个层面,即对史料的认定上,而是体现在第二个层面,即对史实的解释和理解上。其论据是,两个多世纪以来,“科学”一词的含义,无论在自然科学界或社会科学界,看来已渐趋一致,那就是把科学视为从特殊现象求出一般规律的学问或知识体系。反过来说,不能从特殊现象求出一般规律的学问或知识体系,就不能称为科学。马克思、恩格斯说过: “AG娱乐网仅仅知道一门唯一的科学,即历史科学。”唯物史观揭示的存在决定意识和经济基础决定上层建筑的原理,早已指出了科学的方向。唯物史观揭示了社会基本矛盾运动推动人类社会从低级向高级发展的普遍规律后,这一发现已经历了一个半世纪的考验,至今没有发现任何一桩历史事实足以否定这一历史发展的普遍规律。文章最后指出,强调所谓“人文学科”与科学不相容的“人文主义性质”,不仅是从马克思主义科学观的倒退,也是从当代学术的“社会科学化”方向倒退。“看来,庞文仍是坚持原有的观点,既主张历史学的科学性在于发现规律。

 

HEZHAOWU: 《DUILISHIXUEDERUOGANFANSI》,《SHIXUELILUNYANJIU》1996NIANDI2QI。

HUSHI: 《KEXUEYURENSHENGGUAN》XU,YADONGTUSHUGUAN1923NIANBAN。

《ZHENGYITONGBAO》1904NIAN10YUE23RI。

梁启超: 《研究文化史的几个重要问题》,《饮冰室合集》文集之四十,第2页。

WANGGUOWEI: 《GUOXUECONGKAN》XU,《WANGGUOWEIWENJI》DISIJUAN,ZHONGGUOWENSHICHUBAN1997NIANBANDI365YE。

LIDAZHAO: 《SHIGUAN》,《LIDAZHAOSHIXUELUNJI》,HEBEIRENMINCHUBANSHE1984NIANBANDI69YE。

LIDAZHAO: 《SHIXUEYAOLUN》,《LIDAZHAOSHIXUELUNJI》DI201YE。

《FUSINIANQUANJI》,TAIWANLIANJINGCHUBANGONGSI1980NIANBAN,DI4CE,DI259—260YE。

《FUSINIANQUANJI》4CE,253YE。

AG娱乐网 XUGUANSAN: 《XINSHIXUEJIUSHINIAN·ZIXU》,XIANGGANGZHONGWENDAXUECHUBANSHE1986NIANBAN。

AG娱乐网 TIANCHANGWU: 《MAKESIZHUYIYUZHONGGUOLISHIFAZHANGUILV》,《XUESHUYUEKAN》1997NIANDI1QI。

AG娱乐网 JIANGDACHUN: 《WEIWUSHIGUANYULISHIYANJIU》, 《WEIWUSHIGUANYUSHIXUE》JILINJIAOYUCHUBANSHE1991NIANBAN,DI39、41YE。

YANGXIANGQUN: 《SHILUNLISHIYANJIUDEKEXUEXING》,《HUANANSHIDAXUEBAO》1992NIANDI4QI。

《FUSINIANQUANJI》DI4CE,DI266YE。

AG娱乐网 HEBINGSONG: 《LISHIYANJIUFA》,《HEBINGSONGWENJI》DISIJUAN,SHANGWUYINSHUGUAN1997NIANBAN,DI12、13、15YE。

AG娱乐网 LIDAZHAO: 《MAKESIDELISHIZHEXUEYULIKAIERDELISHIZHEXUE》,《LIDAZHAOSHIXUELUNJI》,DI133YE。

ZHANGYINLIN: 《LUNLISHIXUEZHIGUOQUYUWEILAI》,《XUEHENG》1928NIAN3YUE。

JIANZHUWEIBIN: 《LISHIXUE: KEXUEHAISHIYISHU?》,《ZHONGSHANDAXUEXUEBAO》1995NIANDI4QI。

见马强: 《历史审美初论》,《学术月刊》1996年第9期。 李桂海: 《历史学既是科学也是艺术》,《学习与探索》1994年第3
期。

HEZHAOWU: 《LISHILIXINGPIPANSANLUN》,HUNANJIAOYUCHUBANSHE1994NIANBAN,DI32、34YE。

AG娱乐网 JIANHONGWEILIAN: 《LISHIXUEZAIJINDAIXUESHUZHONGZHIWEIZHI》,《SHIDAYUEKAN》1936NIAN4YUE。

JIANLIDONGFANG: 《PUTONGLUOJIYULISHILUOJI》,《XIANDAISHIXUE》2JUAN3QI,1935NIAN1YUE。

WANGXUEDIAN、SUNYANJIE: 《SHIZHENGZHUIQIUYUCHANSHIQUXIANGZHIJIANDEBAINIANSHIXUE——JIANLUNLISHIXUEDEXINGZHIWENTI》,《WENSHIZHE》1997NIANDI6QI。

张宗颖: 《社会学的历史观》,《中德杂志》5卷3期,1943年9月。

JIANJINZHAOZI: 《LISHISHIFOUKEXUE?》,《GAIZAO》CHUANGKANHAO,1946NIAN11YUE。

AG娱乐网 ZHAOJIHUI: 《KEXUEZHUYI、JIAOTIAOZHUYIDUIDANGDAILISHIRENSHILUNYANJIUDEYINGXIANG》,《XUESHUYUEKAN》1994NIANDI5QI。

LEIGE: 《POSUIDEXINJING——ZHONGGUODANGDAISHIJIADEXINLIZHANGAIFENXI》,《QINGHAISHIFANDAXUEXUEBAO》1996NIANDI4QI。



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