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史学新论 【字体:

JIANCHILISHIXUEDEKEXUEXING

作者: 刘俐娜 文章来源:AG娱乐网

  

2006年2月21日上午,近代史所政治史研究室和科研处联合举办了“历史学: 科学与人文的对话”学术论坛,对于历史学的学科性质及其功能与价值,以及相关研究理论与方法等问题展开了热烈的讨论。本版选登了其中的几篇发言稿,以飨读者。

 

坚持历史学的科学性

JINDAISHISUO LIULINA

 

KEXUESHIFANYINGZIRAN、SHEHUI、SIWEIDENGDEKEGUANGUILVDEFENKEDEZHISHITIXI。DUIYUZHONGGUODEJINXIANDAISHIXUEJIALAISHUO,LISHIXUESHIYIMENYANJIURENLEISHEHUILISHIDEYOUXITONGDEXUEWEN。ZHISUOYICHENGZHIWEILISHIKEXUE,SHIYINWEI,LISHIYANJIUDEMUDEYISHIYAOZHENSHIJISHUHEFANYINGKEGUANSHISHI,LINGYIFANGMIANSHIYONGKEXUEDEFANGFAYANJIURENLEISHEHUILISHIDEFAZHANLICHENG,TANXUNQIFAZHANDEGUILV。ZUNXUNKEGUANYUANZE,TANSUOSHIWUFAZHANDEGUILVZHENGSHIKEXUEYANJIUDENEIRONG。

 

QIANGDIAOLISHIXUESHIYIMENKEXUESHIJINDAICAIYOUDESHI。JINXIANDAIRENLIJIEDEKEXUEJIUSHIQIUZHENDEXUEWEN。(ANMAOZEDONG、CHENDUXIUDENGDUIKEXUEDELIJIE,RENMENDEZHUGUANXIANGFAJINGJIANYANYUKEGUANSHIJIXIANGFUHE,JIUSHIKEXUE。)ZAIZHONGGUOSHIXUEYOUCHUANTONGXIANGXIANDAIMAIJINDEGUOCHENGZHONG,LISHIXUENENGFOUZUNXUNYIDINGDEKEXUEYUANZE,CHENGWEIYIMENYOUXITONGDEXUEWEN,SHIQINENGFOUCUNZAIHEFAZHANDEGUANJIANWENTI。ERXIANDAISHIXUEDEQUELIZHENGSHIYOUYUQIZAIYANJIUMUDE、FANGFADENGFANGMIANGUANCHUANLEKEXUEDENEIHAN。

 

AG娱乐网LISHIXUEDEKEXUEXING,ZAIGAIGEKAIFANGQIANDEXUESHUJIEBUSHIWENTI。QISHOUDAOZHIYI,HUOSHUOZAOYUTIAOZHAN,YINGSHISHIYUGAIGEKAIFANGHOUYOUGUANSHIXUEWEIJIDETAOLUN。YEKEYISHUO,ZHEIXIEZHIYISHISHIXUEJIEDUIWENGESHIQICHUXIANDEZHENGZHIGUASHUAI,HUNXIAOGEMINGXINGYUKEXUEXINGDENGFEIKEXUEZUOFADEFANSI。HOULAI,YOUYUGEZHONGXINLILUNHEGUANNIANCHUANRU,RENMENZAIDUILISHIXUEBENSHENTEDIANJIASHENRENSHIDETONGSHI,YEDUIQIQIUZHENHETANSUOGUILVDEYANJIUMUDENENGFOUSHIXIANTICHUYIWEN。TEBIESHIHOUXIANDAIZHUYIDUI“HONGDAXUSHI”DEJIEGOU,DENGDENG,BUJINDUILISHIXUEDEKEXUEXING,GENGSHIDUILISHIXUEDECUNZAIJIYULEYANZHONGDECHONGJI。

 

ZHEISHIBUSHISHUO,LISHIXUEDEKEXUEXINGZHONGJIELENI?LISHIXUEZAISHUQIANNIANDEFAZHANGUOCHENGZHONGZHUJIANXINGCHENGLEZIJIYIZHENGTAODEXUESHUYANJIUTIXI,YOUMINGQUEDEYANJIUMUDE、DUIXIANG、FANWEI,YOUYANGEDEYANJIUFANGFAHEYANJIUGUIFAN,YOUBUTONGYUZHEXUEHUOWENXUEDETEDIAN。ZHEIXIENEIHANYAOQIUTABUNENGLIQIKEXUE。

 

求真的研究过程要求历史学坚持科学性

 

LISHIXUEYANJIUDESHIRENLEISHEHUIFAZHANDEGUOCHENG,YEJIUSHIYIJINGFASHENGGUO、CHENGWEIBUNENGGAIBIANDEKEGUANCUNZAIDEGUOQUDESHISHI。YANJIUDEMUDESHOUXIANSHIZHENSHIKEGUANDIJISHULISHIFAZHANZHONGDESHISHI,JINKENENGDIFANYINGLISHIDEZHENSHIMIANMU。ZHONGGUOGUDAISHIXUEZHONGYOUHENTUCHUDEZHUIQIUZHENSHIDECHUANTONG。JINDAIKEXUEGUANNIANYUFANGFACHUANRUHOU,RENMENZAISHIXUELINGYUZHONGRENTONGKEXUEDEYIGEHENZHONGYAODEYINSUJIUSHIQIYIZHENSHIKEGUANWEIZHUIQIUMUDE。WANGGUOWEIZAINEIGESHIDAISUANSHIDUIXIXUEYOUYIDINGLEJIEDEREN,TADUIKEXUEDEJIESHISHI: “FANJISHUSHIWUERQIUQIYUANYIN,DINGQILIFAZHE”。TASHUO: “FANSHIWUBIJINQIZHEN,DAOLIBIQIUQISHI,CIKEXUESUOYOUSHIYE”。

 

AG娱乐网CONGYANJIUFANGFASHANGKAN,WEIDADAOFANYINGKEGUANZHENSHIDEMUDE,ZHONGCAILIAOSOUJI、ZHONGDUISHISHIDEKAOZHENG,SHISHIXUEYANJIUDEZHONGYAOTEDIAN。HUSHICONGLISHIYANJIUDEQIUZHENMUDEZHEYAN,TUIZHONGQINGDAIDEHANXUEFANGFA,JIANGQIYUJINDAIKEXUEDEFANGFAXIANGLIANXIJIAYITICHANG。FUSINIANWEIXUNQIUKEXUEDELISHI,TICHU“SHILIAOXUEJILISHIXUE”DEKOUHAO,TICHUYUNYONGGEZHONGXUEKEDEFANGFA,QIZHONGZHUYAOSHIZIRANKEXUEDEYANJIUFANGFALAIYANJIULISHI。WANGGUOWEIWEIBAOZHENGLISHIYANJIUDEZHENSHIKEKAO,CHUANGGUSHIXINZHENGDE“ERZHONGZHENGJUFA”,TICHANGYANJIUZHONGDEDUOZHONGZHENGJU。TAMENDEGONGZUOFANYINGLEJINDAIZHONGGUOXUEZHEDUISHIXUEKEXUEXINGDEZHUIQIU。

 

AG娱乐网CONGSHIXUEQIUZHENDEMUDELAIJIANGJIANCHILISHIXUEDEKEXUEXING,YINGGAISHIHAOLIJIEDE。RUGUOAGYULEWANGJIANCHIZAILISHIYANJIUZHONGDEQIUZHENTAIDU,SHISHIQIUSHIDEKEGUANFANYINGLISHIDEYUANZE,NEILISHIXUERENGYOUQIKEXUEXINGDEYAOQIUZAILIMIAN,YEJIUBUHUIYUANLIKEXUE。

 

科学的历史学要求其探究历史发展的规律

 

LISHIYANJIUDEMUDESHITANSUOLISHIFAZHANDEGUILV。KEXUEYANJIUSHIXUNZHAOGUILVDE,NEILISHIFAZHANYOUWUGUILVYEJIUCHENGLELISHISHIFOUNENGJIANCHIQIKEXUEXINGDEGUANJIANWENTILE。

 

AG娱乐网XIANDAISHIXUEJIANLIHOU,RENMENBALISHIYANJIUMINGQUEWEILIANGGECENGMIANDEGONGZUO,YISHIJISHULISHI,ERSHIJIESHILISHI。ZAIJISHUDECENGMIAN,ZHENSHIKEKAOSHIDIYIWEIDE。(DADAODABUDAOZHENSHISHIYIFANGMIAN,CONGZHUGUANSHANGJIANGYOUZHEIZHONGXUNQIUZHENSHIDEYUANWANGHEYAOQIU,ZHEISHILISHIXUEDEZUIJIBENYAOQIU。)ZAIZHEIYICENGMIANLISHIXUEDEKEXUEXINGSHIZHONGYAODE。WENTICHUZAIJIESHILISHIDECENGMIAN,YEJIUSHIDUILISHIFAZHANGUILVDEZONGJIEZHEIFANGMIAN。LISHIXUEDEKEXUEXINGSHOUDAOZHIYIZHUYAOYEJIUCHUZAIZHEIYICENGMIAN。

 

AG娱乐网AGYULEWANGCHENGRENLISHIXUEYUZIRANKEXUESHIBUTONGDE。RENLEILISHIDEFAZHANSHIFOUXIANGZIRANJIEYIYANGYOUGUILVCUNZAINI?ZAIJINXIANDAISHIXUEFAZHANSHISHANGDUIZHEIGEWENTIDEHUIDASHIXIANKENDING,HOUYOUYIWEN。ZAIWUSIYIHOU,ZHIDAOXINSHIQIZHIQIAN,DADUOSHUXUEZHEDUIRENLEILISHICUNZAIFAZHANGUILVBINGBUHUAIYI。XINSHIQIYILAI,XUEZHEMENFANSIWENGESHIQIZHENGZHIQUANSHIJIERUSHIXUEERZAOCHENGDESHENGBANYINGTAOJINGDIANLILUNHUO“GONGSHI”JIESHILISHI,DUILISHIDEGUILVCHANSHENGYILV。LINGYIFANGMIAN,WAILAIXINDELILUNHEGUANNIANCHUANRU,SHIRENMENDERENSHIYOUSUOFENGFU。RENMENBUZAIYONGJIANDANDEZHIXIANDEYANGUANGKANWENTI,KAISHIDUILISHIFAZHANYOULEXINDELIJIE,RENSHIGENGJIASHENRUHEQUANMIAN,ZHIDAOLEYONGRENHEYIZHONGJIANDANDELILUNHEGONGSHIDOUNANYIGAIKUORENLEILISHIFAZHANDEFENGFUNEIHAN。SUIZHEDUILISHIRENSHIDEDUOCENGMIANHUA,RENMENKAISHIYONGBUTONGDELILUNHEGUANNIANCONGBUTONGJIAODUBUTONGCENGMIANYANJIULISHI。ZHEISHILISHIXUEDEJINBU。

 

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AG娱乐网CIWAI,LISHIYANJIUCHENGGUODEBIAOSHURONGYISHOUZHUGUANDEYINGXIANG,ERSHIQIKEXUEXING。DANLISHIYANJIUDEGUIFANYAOQIUWULUNZENYANGDETUILIHEXUSHI,DOUBUNENGWUZHONGSHENGYOU,BIXUYOUSHISHIDEGENJU,FOUZEJIUBUBEIRENWEISHILISHIXUEDEBIAOSHU。CONGZHEIGEYIYISHANGSHUO,SHIXUEZHONGZUIKENENGCHUXIANFEIKEXUEXINGDEBUFEN,YEYOUQIZUIJIBENDEKEXUEDEGUIFANHEYAOQIU。

 

因此,坚持历史学的科学性是很必要的。如果抛弃了对历史事实真实性的追求,历史学也就不能称之为历史学了。



上一篇: 关注历史的大脉络大转折大关节 下一篇: 二十世纪中国史学界对历史学性质的理论思考

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