AG娱乐网

||||
今天是:
登录  注册  找回密码
繁体中文 | |   

此页面上的内容需要较新版本的 Adobe Flash Player。

您现在的位置: AG娱乐网 >>专题研究>>社会文化史>>正文内容
社会文化史 【字体:

ZHAO XIA: JINDAIWENPINGZAOJIAYUSHEHUIZUZHICANYUZHILI: YILIURIWENPINGZAOJIAHESHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIWEILI

作者: 文章来源:AG娱乐网

ZHAIYAO: WEIYINGDUIMINZUWEIJIHESHEHUIZHUANXING,JINDAIGUOJIAJIJICHANGDAO、GULICHUGUOLIUXUE,YOUXIANLUYONGGUIGUOLIUXUESHENG,YOUCIXIANQILEJINDAIZHONGGUOSHISHANGDAGUIMODELIUXUECHAOLIU,QIZHONGYOUYILIUXUERIBENZHANDUOSHU。SHOUWENPINGZHUYIJIWAIGUOWENPINGZHENBIENANDEYINGXIANG,CHUXIANDALIANGJIAMAORIBENDAXUEWENPING、HUNRUZHONGYAOZHIWEIDEXIANXIANG,QIZHONGYIPIANQULVSHIZIGEJINRULVSHIXINGYEZUIWEIYANZHONG。WEICI,JINDAIGUOJIAJINXINGLEJIJIZHILI,SUIRANZHILIXIAOGUOBUXIAN,DANYISHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIWEIDAIBIAODESHEHUIZUZHIDEZHILIQUEJIAOYOUCHENGXIAO。

 

AG娱乐网GUANJIANCI: JINDAIZHONGGUO LIURIWENPINGZAOJIA SHEHUIZUZHI ZHILI

 

BIAOTIZHUSHI: GUOJIASHEHUIKEXUEJIJINYIBANXIANGMU(11BZS043)

 

JINDAISHEHUIZHUANXINGJIXUXINSHIRENCAI,GUOJIAYUSHEHUIZAILUYONGXINSHIRENCAISHISHIFENZHONGSHIHAIWAILIUXUEWENPING。RANER,SHOUWENPINGXINGSHIZHUYIJIWAIGUOWENPINGNANYIZHENBIEDEYINGXIANG,CHUXIANDALIANGJIAMAORIBENDAXUEWENPING。DUICI,JINDAIZHENGFUYUMINJIANSHEHUIZUZHIJINXINGLEGONGTONGZHILI。BENWENSHITUTONGGUOYIMINGUOSHIQIDESHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIWEIDAIBIAODESHEHUIZUZHIJIJICANYULIURIWENPINGZAOJIAZHILIDEGEANKAOCHA,SHENRUFENXIJINDAIGUOJIAYUSHEHUIZUZHIDEGONGTONGZHILIYUHUDONG。

 

一、近代留日文凭泛滥与造假

 

1895NIAN,DAQINGDIGUOZAIJIAWUZHONGRIZHANZHENGZHONGCANBAI,GEDIPEIKUAN,JUGUOZHENJING,QINGZHENGFUYUSHEHUIGEJIEJINYIBUTANXUN“SHIYIZHANGJIYIZHIYI”FANGLVE。RIBENYOU“ZUIER”XIAOGUOYIYUECHENGWEISHIJIEQIANGGUO,XIANJINZHISHIFENZIRENWEISHIXUEXIXIFANG、ZHONGSHIXINSHIJIAOYUDEJIEGUO。WEIXINPAIKANGYOUWEIZHICHU,“JINZHERIRENSHENGAGYULEWANG,YIFEIQIJIANGXIANGSHIBINGNENGSHENGAGYULEWANGYE。QIGUOBIANSHEGEXUE,CAIYIZUYONG,SHINENGSHENGAGYULEWANGYE”(ZHONGGUOSHIXUEHUI,1953: 217);YANGWUPAIZHANGZHIDONGRENWEI,JIEYINRIBENLINGXIUYITENG、SHANXIANDENGRENCHUYANGQIUXUE,DAIDUIFUXIYANGGEGUOXUEXIJIYI,“XUECHENGERGUI,YONGWEIJIANGXIANG,ZHENGSHIYIBIAN,XIONGSHIDONGFANG”。CHUYUZHONGRIWENHUAYUANYUAN、DILIWEIZHIYIJIRIBENXUEXIXIFANGDECHENGGONGJINGYANDENGYINSUDEKAOLIANG,WANQINGSHEHUIGEJIECENGZAISHOUXUANLIUXUERIBENSHANGDACHENGGONGSHI。RIBENWEILEWEIHUZAIHUAJIDELIYI,TUIXING“DALUZHENGCE”,YEZHUDONGXIANGZHONGGUOSHIHAO,BIANTONGDA、ZHONGXUETANGZHANGCHENG,JIENAZHONGGUOLIUXUESHENG。

 

QINGZHENGFUZAIQUELI“YIRIWEISHI”DEFANGZHENHOU,BIANDALIGUCHUILIUXUERIBENDEZHONGYAOXING,QIEJIYUJINSHI、JURENSHENFENYIJIGUANZHIJIANGLI。CONG20SHIJICHUKAISHI,JINDAIZHONGGUOZHUJIANXINGCHENGLEYIGUQIANGJINGDELIUXUERIBENGAOCHAO。1896NIANLIURIRENSHUJIN13REN,1904NIANZENGJIADAO1300REN,1905NIANMENGZENGZHI8000REN(SHITENGHUIXIU,1983: 451)。“WUSHUYOUXUESHENG,NAIRULINGTINGTICAOKOULING,ZHENGCHIQIYOUZHUANZHIBU,XIANGYUCIXUETANGZHIMEN,ZHIDONGHANGZHILU,BUDANQIANLIZHIYAO,DAYOURUCHAOZHISHI”(QINGLIUDUHENG,1907NIAN4YUE16RI)。ZHEIBUJINZAIZHONGGUOLISHISHANGSHIQIANSUOWEIYOU,ERQIEYESHI“SHIJIESHISHANGZUIDAGUIMODEXUESHENGCHUYANGYUNDONG”(FEIZHENGQING,1985: 393)。

 

AG娱乐网JINDAISHEHUIZHUANXINGXUYAODALIANGDEFAZHENGRENCAI,FURILIUXUESHENG,JUEDADUOSHUXIFAZHENG。GENJUGUANGXU32NIAN《XUEBUGUANBAO》TONGJI,1906NIANSHANGBANNIANLIURIXUESHENGWEI5418REN。1906NIANQUANNIANGONGYOUFURILIUXUEZHEYUE12000YUREN,QIZHONG60%YISHANGWEISUCHENG,XUEXIFAZHENGZHECHAOGUO2000REN(LIXISUO,1982: 30),ZHEIZHONGZHUANGKUANGYIZHICHIXUDAOMINGUOCHUNIANDELIUMEIRECHAOXINGQI。YIMINGPUTONGLIURIXUESHENGWANCHENGXUEYEZHISHAOXUYAOLIUNIANSHIJIAN。WEIYINGHEZHONGGUOLIUXUESHENGDEXUYAO,RIBENCHUXIANKAISHESANGEYUEHUOLIUGEYUEJIFAFANGBIYEWENPINGDE“XUEDIAN”,RIBENPUTONGDAXUEZEZHUANWEIZHONGGUOLIUXUESHENGKAISUCHENGBAN。SHENZHIZHONGGUOLIUXUESHENGCAORULINDENGYEJIEYONGRIBENXUEXIAOJIAOSHIKAISUCHENGBAN,DUIRUXUEZIGEBUZUORENHEYAOQIU。JUTONGJI,1898-1911NIAN,ZHISHAOYOU25000RENFURIBENLIUXUE,JUEDADUOSHUWEIJINRUZHENGSHIDAXUEXUEXI,BUGUANSHIFOUYOUZHENCAISHIXUE,ZHIXIANGJINKUAIQUDEYIZHANGWENPING(RENDA,1998: 51)。CAIYUANPEIDUICIDAJIAGOUBING,RENWEIFAZHENGXUESHENGZHONG“DUOBANSHIJIAMAOZHAOPAI”(GAOPINGSHU,1983: 460)。SUCHENGJIAOYUZHILIANGDILIE,LIURIWENPINGFANLAN,WEIZHONGRISHUANGFANGSUOGOUBING。

 

WEICI,QINGZHENGFUPAIZAIZHENDAORIBENDIAOCHA,SHERIBENYOUXUESHENGZONGJIANJINXINGJIANDU。GULILIUXUESHENGXUEXINONG、GONG、SHANGSHIYE,JIANSHAOFAZHENG、WUBEIMINGE,YUYICHUSHENGUANZHIJIANGLIXUBUZUXUEZHINIANXIAN。1906NIAN,DAQINGXUEBUSHEDINGSUCHENGJIAOYUDEZHONGWEN、NIANXIANJIGONGZUOJINGYANDENGTIAOJIAN,GUIDINGSUCHENGYUZHONGXUEYIXIAWENHUACHENGDU,BUDECANJIASHOUGUANJIANGLIKAOSHI(DAQINGDEZONGGUANGXUHUANGDISHILU,1906: 13)。DUIYUCHIYOUFEIPUTONGDAXUEBIYEWENPINGZHE,XUXUEBUKAOYANHEGE。CHUCIYIWAI,LIUXUEJIANDUCHUYURIBENGONGTONGZUCHENGLIURIXUESHENGJIAOYUXIEYIHUIJINXINGGUANLI,RIBENZAODAOTIANDAXUEDENG20YUSUOXUEXIAOXIANGYING,TINGZHISUCHENGJIAOYU。

 

1914NIAN,JIAOYUBUBANBU《JINGLILIUXUERIBENXUESHENGSHIWUZANXINGGUICHENG》JIAQIANGDUILIUXUESHENGDEGUANLI。1916NIAN,JIAOYUBUFABUGUANFEIPAIQIANLIUXUESHENGGUICHENG,BUJINTIGAOLELIUXUEZIGE,ERQIEXUJINGSHENGHEJIAOYUBULIANGCIKAOSHI。DUIZIFEILIUXUESHENG,SUIRANCENGTONGGUO《LIUXUERIBENZIFEISHENGZANXINGGUICHENG》YUYIYUESHU,DANYINQIMEIYOUYANGEDEZIGEXIANZHIHEKAOSHI,ZIFEIXUESHENGSHULIANGJUDA,NANYIJIANGUAN。YUANSHIKAISIHOU,BEIYANGZHENGFUYAOQIUSUOYOUDELIUXUESHENGBIXUDEDAOJIAOYUBUDEPIZHUN,DANBINGMEIYOURENZHENZHIXING。JINDAISHEHUIZHUANXINGXUYAOXINSHIRENCAI,LIUXUESHENGCHENGWEIGUOJIALUYONGRENCAIDESHOUXUAN,FAZHENGLIUXUESHENGGENGJUYOUSHI。

 

QINGMOMINCHU,ZHENGFUTONGGUOXIANZHILIUXUEZIGEYIJIWENGUANKAOSHIZIGEDENGJUCUO,YIDINGCHENGDUSHANGEZHILELIURISUCHENGWENPINGDEFANLAN。DANDUILIUXUESHENGDEZHENXUAN、KAOYANHELIANGCAILUYONGDENGFANGFAZHIXIANYUGUOJIAGONGZHIRENYUAN,QITASHEHUIJIUYEQUDAO,SHITONGGUOGUIDINGLIUXUEWENPINGZIGELAISHIXIANDE。YINCI,WENPINGGAOJIADALIANGJIZHONGZAILVSHIDENGSHEHUIZHIYE。SIFABUZHENBALVSHIWEIYUANHUIZAISHENCHALIUXUEWENPINGSHOUYULVSHIZIGESHI,NANMIANHUI“SHILING”,CUNZAILOUWANGZHIYU。SUIRANGUOJIASHOUQUANLVSHIGONGHUIDENGSHEHUIZUZHICANYUZHILI,QIANGZHISUOYOULVSHIJIARULVSHIGONGHUI,JIESHOUGAIZUZHIDEJIANGUAN。DANYOUYUMEIYOUMINGQUESHOUQUANLVSHIGONGHUIJIANGUANQUANLI,GENGMEIYOUQUFENGUOJIAYUXINGYESHUANGZHONGJIANGUANDEQUANLIBIANJIE,LVSHIGONGHUIZAIDADUOSHUQINGKUANGXIA,MEIYOUJINXINGYANGEDESHENCHA,JINCHAKANLVSHIZHENGSHU、FAYUANDENGLUZHENGMINGDENGXINGSHIYAOJIANERYI,DUIWENPINGZHENJIAMEIYOURENZHENCHAYAN。

 

MINGUOCHUQI,LVSHIRENCAIQIQUE,JIAMAOWENPINGHUNRULVSHIXINGYESHANGWEIZAOCHENGYANZHONGYINGXIANG。DANSUIZHEZAOJIAZHESHULIANGZENGJIA,SHICHANGJINGZHENGJIAJU,QIELIEYINGXIANGJIUZHUJIANXIANXIANCHULAI。ZHINANJINGGUOMINZHENGFUJIANLI,ZHEIZHONGYANZHONGWEIHAIBUDEBUYINQIZHENGFUDEZHONGSHI。GUOMINDANGZHENGFULIYONGQIGEMINGDANGGUANXING,YIGAI“SIFABUDANG”DECHUANTONG,DUISHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIJINXINGGAIZU,YIFANGMIANSHISHILVSHIGONGHUIDANGHUAKONGZHIYUZHIDAO,LINGYIFANGMIANSHOUQUANLAIDIAODONGSHEHUIZUZHICANYUWENPINGJIANGUANDEHEFAXINGYUZHENGDANGXING(GUANBAOYING,2013: 82)。

 

二、社会组织加强对留日文凭的查验

 

AG娱乐网SUIRANLIURISUCHENGWENPINGBEIPAICHUZAIZHENBAZHIWAI,DANDUIWENPINGZAOJIADEZHENBIEQUEXIANDELIBUCONGXIN。YOUYURIBENXUEWEIHEBIYEZHENGSHUMEIYOUTONGYISHEJI,YEMEIYOUTONGYIDEGUIGE,ZAIJIASHANG1923NIANRIBENGUANDONGDADIZHENSUNHUILEZHURISHIGUANLIUXUESHENGJUANZONG,ZHISHIWEIZAORIBENBIYEWENPINGDEXIANXIANGSHIFENYANZHONG(SHANGHAISHIDANGANGUANZANG,Q190-1-13593)。

 

AG娱乐网1927NIAN10YUE,LISHOUFA、LIJIATAICHIBEIJINGZHENGFUSIFABULVSHIZIGEZHENGSHU,ZAINANJINGGUOMINZHENGFUSIFABUHUANLINGLEXINZHENGSHU,YOULIANGMINGHUIYUANLVSHIJIESHAOJIARUSHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUI。WEIJIAQIANGLEWENPINGYULVSHIZIGESHENCHA,SHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIGUIDINGJIARULVSHIGONGHUIXUJIANGLVSHIZHENGSHU、BIYEWENPINGYITONGCHENGJIAOCHAYAN。JINGSHENCHAFAXIAN,LISHOUFA、LIJIATAISUOCHIRIBENMINGZHIDAXUEBIYEWENPINGCUNZAI“XIACI”,SHIJIAN、YINZHANG、ZIJI、ZHIZHANGJUNYUXIAOYOULUJIADINGLVSHIBUTONG,JINGMINGZHIDAXUEXIAOYOUCHENJINRONGLVSHIJIANDINGYERENWEIYOUZAOJIAXIANYI。YUSHISHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIZHIHANMINGZHIDAXUEJIRIBENGONGSHIGUANDIAOCHAZHENXIANG。WEIJIAQIANGDUILIUXUEWENPINGZHENWEIDESHENCHA,SHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUITEBIEGUIDING,RUGUOSHUYURIBENJIYINGMEIDENGGUOBIYEWENPINGCUNYOUYIYI,YOUCHANGWUWEIYUANHUIPINQINGFUYOUJINGYANLVSHIJIANDING,ZHIHOUXINGCHENGGUANLI。ZAICHENJINRONGLVSHICHUJULISHOUFA、LIJIATAIWENPINGJIANDINGSHUHOU,SHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIRENDINGLISHOUFA、LIJIATAIWENPINGJIAMAO,JUJUEQIJIARUSHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUI,ERQIEYAOQIUSHANGHAIDIFANGFAYUANJIERUDIAOCHA。NANJINGSIFABUYIFANGMIANLINGSHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUICHAMINGZHENXIANG,YIFASHOUJIAOWEIZAOWENPING,CHENGSIFABUHECHA。LINGYIFANGMIANZHILINGSHANGHAIDIFANGFAYUANYANLICHECHA,YIJINGXIAOYOU。

 

AG娱乐网SHANGHAIDIFANGFAYUANYINGSHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIZHIQING,JIERULISHOUFA、LIJIATAIWEIZAORIBENMINGZHIDAXUEWENPINGANDIAOCHA。YIFANGMIANYIFAJIANGERRENXIANGGUANZHENGJIANCHENGSONGSIFAXINGZHENGBUJIANDINGZHENWEI;LINGYIFANGMIANQINGLISHOUFA、LIJIATAIDAOFAYUANXUNWEN,DIAOCHAZHENXIANG。DANERRENJUNBINIBUDAO,GAIYUANJIANCHAGUANYOUCIRENDINGLISHOUFA、LIJIATAICHUFANXINGLVDIERBAISISHIYITIAOZHIWEIZAOWENSHUZUITIQIGONGSU。SUIJINGXINGSHIFATINGYIZAIJUCHUAN,DANERRENRENGBUDAOTING,YUSHISHANGHAIDIFANGFAYUANYIBEIGAOBUZHISUOZAI,CAIDINGTINGZHISHENPAN。

 

AG娱乐网YINLISHOUFA、LIJIATAILVSHIZHENGSHU、BIYEWENPINGYICHENGSONGSIFABUJIANHE,GAIWEIZAOWENPINGANDUORI“XUANERWEIJIE”。SHANGHAIDIFANGFAYUANYUANYAOQIUSIFAXINGZHENGBUFAHAILISHOUFADENGLVSHIZHENGSHUJIEAN。ZAISHANGHAIDIFANGFAYUANSHOUDAOLIJIATAI、LISHOUFALVSHIZHENGSHU、BIYEZHENGSHUHOU,SHOUXIJIANCHAGUANJUEDINGJIANGERRENYUANLINGLVSHIZHENGSHUTONGGAOCHEXIAO。JIANGSUGAOYUANSHOUXIJIANCHAGUANKENDINGSHANGHAIDIFANGFAYUANXIAOHUIERRENLVSHIZHENGSHU“BUWEIWUJIAN”,SIFAXINGZHENGBUTONGYISHANGSHUCHULI,BINGZHILINGSHANGJIAODAOSIFAXINGZHENGBUGONGGAOXIAOHUI(DIERLISHIDANGANGUANZANG: QUANZONGHAOQI;ANJUANHAO2885)。

 

CHAYUETONGXUELUYIJIZHIHANBIYEXUEXIAOJIANBIESHICHAYANLIURIWENPINGZHENWEILINGYIXINGZHIYOUXIAODEZHONGYAOJUCUO。1930NIAN1YUE,SHIZHUORENCHIHENGTIANXIUXIONGDEMINGZHIDAXUEBIYEZHENGMINGHELVSHIZHENGSHUSHENQINGJIARUSHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUI。SHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUICHAYUEMINGZHIDAXUEXIAOYOUHUIMINGLU,FAXIANBINGWUQIREN。YU3YUE27RI,JIANGSHIZHUORENZHENGMINGFUYINJIWANGRIBENMINGZHIDAXUEJIXIAOYOUHUIDIAOCHAZHENXIANG。MINGZHIDAXUEXIAOYOUHUICHENG,SHIZHUORENYUANMINGHUANGZONGHAN,WEICHENGJIQIYUEFUDECAICHANLAIMINGZHIDAXUEGAIMINGSHIZHUOREN。5YUE9RI,SHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIZAICIZHIHANXIAOYOUHUI,XUNWENSHIZHUORENSHENQINGGAIMINGYIHOUSHIFOUZAIYUDAXUEMINGLU、CENGFOUJIANGDENGJIHUANGZONGHANXINGMINGBIYEZHENGSHUJIAOHAIYIJIBIYESHIDENIANLING。MINGZHIDAXUEXIAOYOUHUIXIANGSHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIXIANGXIHUIFULESHIZHUORENGAIMINGJINGGUO。SUIHOURIBENMINGZHIDAXUEYELAIHANZHENGMINGSHIZHUORENWENPINGDEZHENSHIXING。DANSHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIRENGBUNENGQUEDINGSHIZHUORENMINGZHIDAXUEBIYEWENPINGDEZHENWEI,YOUQIDUIYUSHIZHUORENWEIZAIYURUMINGZHIDAXUEHUIYUANLUDESHUOCI、BIYESHIJIANBUYIZHIYIJIGENGGAIXINGMINGMEIYOUJINGMINGZHIDAXUEFADINGDAIBIAORENQIANMINGDENGSANDIANYIWENRENGWUFAZUIZHONGQUEDING,BIANZAICIZHIHANMINGZHIDAXUEXUNWEN。SHIZHUORENRUHUIYANCHI,YIFANGMIANZHIZESHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUISUNHAILEQIMINGYU,YIFANGMIANZHICHUSHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIFANYICUOWU,BINGJIANGMINGZHIDAXUEDIERCILAIHANZHONGXINFANYIJIAOFUSHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUI(SHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUI,1930: 69-77)。SHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIDANGJIZHAOKAIHUIYISHENCHASHIZHUORENYIWEN。RENWEISHIZHUORENWENPINGHAIXUJINYIBUDIAOCHA,BINGYAOQIUSUOYOUHUIYUANYIHOUJIESHAORUHUIWUBIQUEBAORUHUIZHEDEWENPINGZHENSHIXING,FOUZEYAOFULIANDAIZEREN(SHANGHAISHIDANGANGUANZANG,Q190-1-13593)。1930NIAN7YUE26RI,SHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIJIANGSHIZHUORENQUANBUJUANZONGJIAOYOUSIFAXINGZHENGBUSHENCHA,SIFAXINGZHENGBUZHUANJIAOLIURIXUESHENGJIANDUJIANBIEZHENJIA。LIURIXUESHENGJIANDUCHAMINGSHIZHUORENMINGZHIDAXUEBIYEWENPINGZHENSHIKEKAO,ZHICI,SHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUICAITONGYISHIZHUORENJIARULVSHIGONGHUI(1930: 25)。

 

ZHENDUIYIWANGJIAOYUBU、SIFABUZAILIUXUEWENPINGZHENWEICHAYANSHANGDE“SHILING”,YIJISHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIDENGSHENCHAYALIYUDUNCU,NANJINGGUOMINZHENGFUJIAOYUBUJINYIBUJIAQIANGLELIUXUEWENPINGRENZHENGZHUCEZHIDU,YAOQIUSUOYOULIUXUEWENPINGJUN“YOULIUXUESHENGJIANDUCHUHUOZHUZAIGUOGONGSHIGUANJIAJIZHENGMINGSHUFANGWEIYOUXIAO,BINGYOUBENBUZIQINGWAIJIAOBULINGXINGZHUWAIGEGONGSHICHAZHAO”。TONGSHIJIANYISIFABU“SIHOUFANYIGUOWAISILIXUEXIAOBIYEWENPINGQINGQIUQUDELVSHIZIGE,YINGQINGGUIBUCHAMINGQUEYOUQIANXIANGZHENGMINGSHU,FANGZHUNZHUCE”。CIWAIHAIJIANGJIAOYUBUCHENGRENZHUCEXUEXIAOQINGDANYIBINGSONGWANGSIFABUBEICHA(DIERLISHIDANGANGUANZANG,QUANZONGHAOQI;ANJUANHAO2885)。

 

三、政府与社会组织共同清理混入律师行业中的留日文凭造假者

 

AG娱乐网NANJINGGUOMINZHENGFUJIANLIHOU,JINGGUOSHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIYUGUOJIAXIANGGUANQUANLIJIGUANDEGONGTONGZHILI,JIAMAOLIUXUEWENPINGZHEBUNENGZAIXIANGYIWANGHUNRULVSHIXINGYEZHIXINGLVSHIZHIWU,DANYEBUNENGRANGYIJINGHUNRULVSHIDUIWUZHEXIAOYAOFAWAI,JIXUZHAOYAOZHUANGPIAN。

 

AG娱乐网NANJINGGUOMINZHENGFUDUILIURIWENPINGZAOJIADEZHILIBINGWEIQUDEYUQIXIAOGUO。ZHENDUIYIWANGDALIANGJIAMAOWENPINGPIANQULVSHIZIGEZHE,NANJINGGUOMINZHENGFULITUTONGGUOHUANLINGLVSHIZHENGSHUDENGCUOSHIJINXINGCHAYAN,DANMEIYOUSHIXIANYUQIMUBIAO。BUJINXUDUOJIAMAOZHERENGRANHUANLINGLEXINLVSHIZHENGSHU,ERQIEYOUXIANGDANGDUODELVSHIDUICIZHIRUOWANGWEN。1927NIAN7YUE,NANJINGGUOMINZHENGFUSIFABUGUIDINGSUOYOULVSHIRUYAOZAINANJINGGUOMINZHENGFUSHIQIZHIXINGLVSHIZHIWU,CHUBENSIFABUBANFALVSHIZHENGSHUWAI,SUOYOULVSHIBIXUZAILIANGGEYUENEISHENGQINGHUANLINGGUOMINZHENGFUSIFABUFAJIXINZHENGSHU,BINGTONGGUOFUYANZHENBIE,FOUZE,YUANLINGLVSHIZHENGSHUSHIXIAO(SIFABU,1927: 1768)。SUIHOUSIFABUFACHUDIERHAOTONGGAO,YOUGESHENGFAYUANZHUANCHENGZHEZHANXIANLIANGGEYUE,LIANGGEYUEQIXIANHOUZAIZHANXIANLIANGGEYUE(1927: 1769)。SUIRANLIANXULIANGCIYANZHANJIEZHIQIXIAN,DANRENGYOUXIANGDANGDUODELVSHIMEIYOURUQIFUYANJIHUANLINGZHENGSHU,WUNAISIFABUYOUXUNLINGSHUNYANZHI1929NIAN8YUE31RI。12YUE24RI,SIFAXINGZHENGBUYOUYI“WEIJINLAIGESHENGLVSHIWANGWANGYOUYINTEBIEGUZHANGSHENGQINGBUXINGFUYANHUANZHENGZHE,QIZHONGBUWUKEYUANZHICHU”WEIYOU,XUNLINGGESHENGGAODENGFAYUAN“BIANTONGBANLI”,“FANCENGLINGQIANBEIJINGSIFABULVSHIZHENGSHUYUXIAN,WEIJINGHUANZHENGERQIYUANYOUZIGEQUEWUYIYIZHE,YILVYIZHENBAHEGELUN,SIHOUQINGLINGLVSHIZHENGSHUZHIXUJIANGYUANYOULVSHIZHENGSHUJIQIGUANXIWENJIANLIANTONGZHENGSHUYINHUAGEFEIYANGYIBAIBASHIERYUANJUCHENGBENBU”(1927: 1769)。SUIRANSIFABUYIZAIQIANJIU、YANCHIFUYANHUANLINGXINLVSHIZHENGSHUQIXIAN,DANRENGYOUXIANGDANGDUODELVSHIMEIYOUZUNZHAOBANLI,RU1935NIANHANKOULVSHIGONGHUIRENGYOU40YUMINGLVSHICHIBEIJINGZHENGFULVSHIZHENGSHUCONGSHILVSHIZHIWU(LIYANCHENG,2013: 61)。

 

AG娱乐网NANJINGGUOMINZHENGFUSIFABUTONGGUOFUYAN、HUANLINGZHENGSHUBANFALAIZHENBIELIUXUEWENPINGDEZHENWEI,YISHIXUYAOLVSHIGONGHUIPEIHE,DUNCUHUIYUANHUANLINGXINZHENGSHU;ERSHIYILAIGEGAODENGFAYUANDENGLUSHICHAYAN。DANYOUYUSIFABUMEIYOUGUIDINGJUTIHUANLINGBANFA,GEDIFANGFAYUANZHIXINGBULI,XUDUOJIAMAOZHEBUJINHUANLINGLEXINDELVSHIZHENGSHU,ERQIEYEZAIFAYUANSHUNLIDENGLU,WEINENGSHIXIANDUIWENPINGZAOJIAZHEDEYUQIZHENBIE,YINGXIANGLECHAYANXIAOGUO。YUGUOJIAZHILIXIAOGUOBUXIANXINGCHENGXIANMINGDUIBIEDESHI,ZUOWEIZHUANYETUANTIDELVSHIGONGHUICANYUDUILIURIWENPINGZAOJIADEZHILI,QUEQUDEJIAOHAODEXIAOGUO。NANJINGGUOMINZHENGFUJIANLIHOUSHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIYIGAIYIWANGDEFANGREN、SONGSANZHENGCE,CAIQUDUANRANCUOSHI,LIYONGQIZHUANYEXING、NEIBUXINGYUXINGYEYOUSHI,JIAQIANGDUISHANGHAIZHIYELVSHIDEJIANGUANHEYUESHU,JIANGJIAMAOLIUXUEWENPING、BUFUHELVSHIZIGEZHEQINGCHULELVSHIDUIWU。

 

NANJINGGUOMINZHENGFUSIFAJIGUANYUSHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIDUILIUXUEWENPINGZAOJIADALIZHENGZHIDEJUEXIN,DIAODONGLEMINZHONGCANYUZHILIDEJIJIXING,YIXIEMINZHONGYEZHANCHULAIJUBAOZAOJIAXIANYIZHE。1927NIAN5YUE7RI,GUANDEZHICONGBAOZHIHUOXISIFABULINGSHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIDIAOCHALUSHAOZONG、ZHANJIFENGDENGLVSHIWEIZAOBIYEZHENGPIANQULVSHIZHENGSHUAN,RENWEISIFABU“YISIFAZHIQUANNENGERCHENGQINGLVJIEZHIWUBI,GUWEIQINGTIANBAIRIQIXIASUOYINGER”,SHOUCIGULI,SHIMINGJUBAOWUCHENGYULVSHIYIJIABIYEWENPINGLINGQULVSHIZHENGSHUZHIYEYIYOUSANNIAN。ZHIRENQIBIYEWENPINGSHIYI200YUANJIAGEXIANGRIBENGOUMAIKONGBAIZHENGSHUZIXINGTIANXIE,ZHEINIAN2YUE21RISHANGHAIJIANGNANWANBAOYIYOUDENGZAI。GUANDEZHIZHICHU,WUCHENGYUZICHENGBIYERIBENFALVDAXUE,DANWANQUANBUDONGRIWENRIYU,KEWEIHUAJIZHIJI,GAIRIBENLIUXUEWENPINGZHENWEIYICHABIANZHI,YAOQIUSIFABU“XUNYUCHAJIU,YIJINGXIAOYOUERMIANJIANJIAOHUA”。DUIYUGUANDEZHIDEJUBAO,SIFABULINGJIANGSUGAODENGFAYUANDIAOCHA。JIANGSUGAOYUANJIANGWUCHENGYURIBENSILIDAXUEDAZHENGWUNIANQIYUEERSHIWURIBIYEZHENGSHU、DAZHENGDIERNIANDU、SANNIANDU、SINIANDUTINGJIANGBIJI、BIYEZHENGMINGSHU、YINGWENZHENGMINGSHUDENGLIUJIANBIYEWENPINGZHENGMINGCAILIAO,TIQINGLVSHIZHENBAWEIYUANHUIJIANDING,FAXIAN“SHANGWUXUWEI”,RANHOUYIBINGJIAOYOUSIFAXINGZHENGBUJIANDINGCHULI。SIFAXINGZHENGBUYIJUSHANGSHUDIAOCHAJIEGUORENDINGWUCHENGYUBIYEWENPING“SHANGWUXUWEI”,FAHAIZHENGSHUZHENGJIAN(DIERLISHIDANGANGUANZANG,QUANZONGHAOQI,ANJUANHAO2884)。

 

AG娱乐网1929NIANCHUN,SHANGHAIZHANGQINGZHILVSHIXIANGSIFAXINGZHENGBUJUBAOTANGXINGJIANDENG16RENWEIZAORIBENDAXUEWENPING,SHEXIANMAOLINGLVSHIZHENGSHU,PIANQULVSHIZIGE,BINGYIZHIZAISHANGHAIZHIXINGLVSHIZHIWU。SIFAXINGZHENGBUZELINGSHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIYUSHANGHAIDIFANGFAYUAN、JIANGSUGAODENGFAYUANGONGTONGCHECHA。SHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUISHOUJIAOTANGXINGJIANDENGBIYEWENPINGYUXIANGGUANZHENGMINGWENJIANJIAOCHENJINRONGDENGXIAOYOUCHAYAN,FAXIANLIANGRENBIYEWENPINGWUWENTI,ZHENGJIANFAHAI;QITAYOUYIWENZHECHENGBAOSHANGHAIDIFANGFAYUANJIANCHACHUJIANDING,BINGZHUANCHENGSIFAXINGZHENGBUCHAHE。TANGXINGJIANDENGBEIJUBAOZHEYAOQIULVSHIGONGHUIYINGGAIXIANDIAOCHAZHANGQINGZHISHIFOUSHEXIAN“NIEMINGWUGAO”,DANSHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIYAOQIUQIWUBIZAIYIXINGQINEICHENGSONGBIYEWENPINGJIZHENGMINGWENJIAN,JIAOYOUSHANGHAIDIFANGFAYUANXIANXINGCHAJIU。ZAISHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIYUXIANGGUANGUOJIAJIGUANDEDIAOCHAGUOCHENGZHONG,ZHANGJIYING、YANGYIZHISHENGQINGTUIHUI,SHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUILINGZHUN,DANRENGRANYAOQIUQIZAIYIXINGQINEIJIANGBIYEWENPINGJIZHENGMINGWENJIANSONGLAIZHUANCHENGSIFAXINGZHENGBUSHENCHA。YANGYIZHISHENGCHENGCENGRENHEILONGJIANGFAGUAN,BIYEWENPINGJILVSHIZHENGSHUJINGBEIJINGSIFABUSHENCHAHEGE,GUOMINZHENGFUFUHE“HAOWUXIACI”,JINYINJINGYINGSHANGYEWUXIAGUJILVSHIZHIWU,BUDEYISHENQINGTUIHUI,BINGFEIDUIGAOFAYOUSUOWEIXI,BUZHIYUBUGOURENZHEN,WEICUNANJUANBUXINGYUBENNIANSIYUESHIWURIWANJIANFENHUI,YIZHIWUCONGJIANCE。

 

MIANDUILVSHIGONGHUIQIONGZHUIBUFANG,BEIJUBAORENCHULESHENQINGTUIHUI,HAIYOUWEIBIKAILVSHIGONGHUIDIAOCHAZHIJIEJIAOYOUSIFAXINGZHENGBUSHENCHADE。CHENHANMINGSHENBIANZIJIZAOYIBUCONGSHILVSHIXINGYE,ZIWUTIJIAOWENPINGYIZHENGMINGZIGEZHIBIYAO,QIELIANNIANZHANSHI,WENPINGDENGZHONGYAOWENJIANZAOYISANCUNGEDI,NANYICHENGSONGCHAHE。LIANGYUMINGSHENGCHENGXIANGGUANZHENGMINGWENJIANRUHUISHIJIAOLVSHIGONGHUICHAYANSHANGWEIGUIHAI,SHANGSHUQINGXINGKEYOUCHENJINRONG、CHENHONGLAIXUEXIONGZHENGMING。DUIYUYANGYIZHIBIYEWENPINGSHIFOUJIAMAO,SHANGHAIDIFANGFAYUANPAIRENDAOSHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIDIAOCHA,LVSHIZHENGSHUYOUSIFAXINGZHENGBUZANSHIKOULIU。DUIYULIANGYUMINGBIYEZHENGSHUWEIZAOAN,SHANGHAIDIFANGFAYUANPAIJIANCHAGUANDAOLVSHIGONGHUIDIAOCHA,SHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUITIJIAOLIANGYUMINGZHENGMINGWENJIANYOU: GUOMINZHENGFUSIFABUDISANHAOLVSHIZHENGSHU、MIANSHIHEGEZHENGSHU、CHENJINRONGZHENGMINGSHU、SIFABUSHOUJUFUYINJIANLIANGZHANG、BIYEZHENGSHUGUANGDONGBIANLUANYISHISHUOMING。SHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIZHISUOYILIUZHIQIRUHUIZHENGMINGWENJIAN,SHIYINWEIMIANSHIHEGEZHENGSHUYULVSHIZHENGSHUSUOTIANRIQIYUERIDAOZHI,JINGJIANGSUGAOYUANJIANCHAGUANDIAOCHADEZHISHILIANGYUMINGZIJITIANXIECUOWU,SHANGHAIDIFANGFAYUANLINGSHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIJIANGQIMIANSHIHEGEZHENGSHUCHENGSIFAXINGZHENGBUGENGZHENG(SHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUI,1929: 147)。

 

DUIYUZHANGQINGZHIJUBAOTANGXINGJIANDENGLVSHIWEIZAORIBENLIUXUEWENPINGAN,JINGGUOXIANGGUANSIFAJIGUANYUSHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIDEGONGTONGNULI,DATICHAQINGLEBEIJUBAORENWEIZAOLIUXUEWENPINGANZHENXIANG。DANGRAN,DUIDALIANGLIURIWENPINGZHENWEIDEQINGCHA,JINYIKAOSHEHUIJUBAOYIJILVSHIGONGHUIDEDIAOCHASHINANWANCHENG。YISHILVSHIGONGHUIQUANLIYOUXIAN;ERSHIQINGCHASHIYUNIANDEZHIYELVSHI,BUJINJIBUFENLVSHIDAILAIBUBIAN,ERQIEYOUWEI“FALVBUJIUJIWANG”YUANZE,DAOZHIBUFENLVSHIDUILVSHIGONGHUIDEBUMAN。

 

XIANGBIJINZHIJIAMAOZHERUHUIERYAN,DUIYIHUNRULVSHIXINGYEZHONGDEZHIJIAZHEDEQINGLIXIANDEGENGJIAJIANNAN,YUDAODEZULIYEGENGDA。GENJUYIYOUDEDANGANJIZAIYUYANJIUXIANSHI,JINGGUOGAIZUBINGSHIXINGWEIYUANHUIZHIDUDESHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIDUIJIAMAOWENPINGDEQINGLIMINGXIANBIQITALVSHIGONGHUIYANGERENZHEN,ZHEIJIUZAOCHENGLECHITONGYANGDEWENPINGHUOQULVSHIZIGEZHEZAIQITADIQUKEYIZHIXINGLVSHIZHIWU;ZAIJIASHANGSHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUI“ZANXING”WEIYUANHUIZHI,YULVSHIZHANGCHENGGUIDINGDEHUIZHANGZHIDUBUTONG,ZAODAOBUFENHUIYUANDEDIZHIHEBUMAN;CIWAI,MINGUOLVSHISHIXINGLVSHIGONGHUIYUSIFAJIGUANSHUANGZHONGZHILIMOSHI,BINGMEIYOUMINGQUESHUANGFANGDECHUFAQUANXIAN。YINER,SHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIDUILIUXUEWENPINGZAOJIADECHULI,BUJINZAODAOBEIJIANGUANZHEDEDIZHI,ERQIEYUDAODUISHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIWEIYUANHUIZHIDUBUMANZHEDEPENGJI,ZHEIXIEBUMANZHEJILVSHIGONGHUIZAOCHENGLEHENDADEYALI。

 

四、近代社会组织参与社会治理

 

AG娱乐网SUIZHEJINDAISHEHUIZHUANXINGYULVSHI、YISHI、HUIJISHI、JIZHEDENGXINXINGGONGGONGAGYULEWANGXINGYEDECHUXIAN,DUIZHEIXIEZIYOUZHIYEZHEDEZHILIYIJINGNANYISHIYONGCHUANTONGSHEHUIGUANLIFANGSHI,YINERJINDAIGUOJIAYIZHI、MOFANGXIFANGSHEHUIZHILIJINGYAN,JIJITUIDONGSHEHUIZUZHIJIANGOUYUSHEHUIZHILI。SHEHUIZUZHIYINCICHENGDANLEGUOJIABUFENGUANLIZHINENG,QIZHONGLVSHIGONGHUIJUYOUMINGXIANDEGONGFARENXINGZHI(LIYANCHENG,2013)。LVSHIGONGHUIZUOWEIZHUANYEXING、ZHIYEXINGSHEHUIZUZHI,DUIJIA“YANGWENPING”ZHILIXIANGBIGUOJIAJIGUANDEWAIBUJIANGUANERYANJUYOUMINGXIANDEYOUSHI。MEIGUO“SHEHUIXUEFAXUE”LUOSIKE·PANGDEZHICHU,LVSHIZHEIYIZHIYEBIXUJUBEIZHUANYEZUZHI、ZHUANYEZHISHIHEGONGZHONGAGYULEWANGJINGSHEN,ZHUANYEZUZHIYOUWEIZHONGYAO,YINWEIZHIYOUTONGGUOZHUANYEZUZHIYANGESHENCHAZIGEHEZHIXINGZHIYEGUIFAN,LVSHICAINENGBAOCHIZHIYEDEZHUANMENXING。LVSHIGONGHUIYOUXIAOZHILILIURIWENPINGZAOJIADELISHIBIAOMING,GUOJIASHOUQUANLVSHIGONGHUIJINXINGSHEHUIZHILISHISHIFENBIYAODE。MINGUOZHENGFUTONGGUO《LVSHIZHANGCHENG》YUSHOUQUANLVSHIGONGHUIZHIDING《LVSHIGONGHUIZHANGCHENG》DENGLIFAFANGSHI,GUIFANLELVSHIGONGHUIDEZHILIJIAOSEYUCANYUJIZHI,JIANGOULEGUOJIAYUSHEHUIDESHUANGZHONGZHILIMOSHI(LIYANCHENG,2014)。

 

JINDAIWENPINGZAOJIAYUFANLANJIJINDAISHEHUIZHUANXINGZAOCHENGLESHIFENYANZHONGDEWEIHAI。JINDAIZHONGGUOFASHENG“JIQIANNIANWEIYOUZHIBIANJU”,ZAIXIFANGXIANJINSHEHUIZHILIZHIDUDECHENTUOXIA,CHUANTONGDEGUANLIZHIDUDEBIDUANWANQUANXIANLUCHULAI。KEJUJIAOYUPEIYUCHUDECHUANTONGGUANLIRENCAIWANQUANBUNENGSHIYINGJINDAISHEHUIZHUANXINGDEXUYAO,LIUXUEYUXINSHIXUETANGTIDAILEKEJUJIAOYU。WENPINGSHIXINSHIRENCAIPEIYANGDEXIANGZHENG,GUOJIAYUSHEHUIJIEZHUYUWENPINGLAILUYONGRENCAI。WENPINGDALIANGZAOJIADEWEIHAIXIANERYIJIAN。JINDAILIUXUEWENPINGZAOJIAJIZHONGZAILIURIFAZHENGWENPING,ZHEIXIEYIZHIBANJIEDERENCAIDUIJINDAIZHONGGUOZHENGZHIZHIDUJIANGOUYUSHEHUIZHILIYANZHONGYINGXIANGSHIBUYANERYUDE。QIZHONGDUIMINGUOLVSHIZHIDUDEBULIYINGXIANGYOUQIJUDA。LVSHIJIANFUWEIQUAN、RENQUANBAOZHANGYUQUANLIZHIHENGDEGONGNENG,YIWENPINGZAOJIAFANGSHIHUNRULVSHIXINGYE,YANZHONGSUNHAILELVSHIZHIYEDAODEHEZHIYENENGLI。MINGUOLVSHICHOUMINGZHAOZHU,BEISHIWEI“JINVLVSHI”、“DAOBILI”,YUCIBUWUGUANXI(LIYANCHENG,2014)。YINCIJINDAIGUOJIAYULVSHIGONGHUIDUILIUXUEWENPINGZAOJIAGONGTONGJINXINGZHILI。

 

AG娱乐网JINDAIGUOJIAZHILIXIAOGUOBUJINRURENYI。ZHENDUIDALIANGJIAMAOLIURIWENPINGMENGPIANLVSHIZHENGSHUHUNRULVSHIXINGYEWENTI,BEIYANGZHENGFUCENGCAIQURENZHENGZHUCEDENGCUOSHIJINXINGZHILI,SHOUXIAOSHENWEI,NANJINGGUOMINZHENGFUYESHITUTONGGUOFUYAN、ZHONGXINHUANLINGLVSHIZHENGSHUJIAQIANGZHILI,QUEWEISHIXIANYUQIMUBIAO。GUOJIADUILVSHIDENGZIYOUZHIYEZHEDEZHILI,BIXUDEDAOSHEHUIZUZHIDECANYU,GONGTONGZHILI。

 

JINDAISHEHUIZUZHIZHILIGENGJUYOUSHI。JINDAISHEHUIZUZHIDUIYUZHUANYEXING、XINGYEXINGDEXINXINGZHIYEJIECENGDEZHILIXIANGDUIYUGUOJIAGUANLIGENGJUZHENDUIXING。YINCI,JINDAIXIFANGGUOJIABUJINLIYONGSHEHUIZUZHIDUIGUOJIAQUANLIJINXINGFENQUANYUZHIHENG,ERQIEDUIDUOYUANHUADESHEHUIJINXINGYOUXIAOZHILI。JINDAIZHONGGUOYIZHIXIFANGSHEHUIZHILIMOSHI,DANZAIDADUOSHUSHIQIZHILIXIAOGUOBUJINRURENYI。GUOJIASUIRANSHOUQUANLVSHIGONGHUIDUIRUHUIZHEBIYEWENPINGJINXINGZAISHENCHA,DANZAIDADUOSHUSHIQIZHISHILIUYUXINGSHI。YAOSHIXIANSHEHUIZUZHIYOUXIAOZHILI,HAIXUYAOTIGAOSHEHUIZUZHIZHILINENGLI,SHIXIANQIZHILITIXIDEXIANDAIHUA。NANJINGGUOMINZHENGFUGAIBIANLE“SIFABUDANG”TIZHI,JIAQIANGLEDUISIFADANGHUAKONGZHI,DUILVSHIGONGHUIYESHIXINGLEGUOMINDANGDEZHIDAOHEYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGDEDANGHUAKONGZHI,CIJUSUILVZAORENMENGOUBINGYUFEIYI,DANTIGAOLELVSHIGONGHUIZHILINENGLI,QUDELEJIAOHAODEZHILIXIAOGUO,QUESHIBUZHENGDESHISHI。SHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIJINGGUOGUOMINDANGGAIZUHOU,GAIBIANLEYIWANGSHUYUJIANGUANHUOBUZUOWEI,BUJINZAILIURIWENPINGZAOJIADEZHILIFANGMIANFAHUILEZHONGYAOZUOYONG,ERQIEZAIZHILIOUMEIHANSHOUWENPINGMAIMAIFANGMIANYEQUDELEJUDADECHENGGONG(ZHAOXIA,2014)。JINGGUONANJINGGUOMINZHENGFUZUICHUDEJINIANZHUOYOUCHENGXIAODEZHILI,JIA“YANGWENPING”SHENGXINGDEJUMIANJIBENSHANGDEDAOEZHI。

 

SHEHUIZUZHIYOUXIAOZHILI,GUOJIADEZHICHIYUPEIHEBUKEHUOQUE。SHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIDUILIUXUEWENPINGZAOJIADEZHILI,ZAODAOLAIZIBAOKUOLVSHIXINGYEZAINEIDEDUOZHONGDIZHI。SHANGHAIYUANLAOLVSHICHENZEMINZAISANDITICHUHUIFUHUIZHANGZHIDU,FANDUIWEIYUANHUIZHIDU,DEDAOXIANGDANGDUODEHUIYUANLVSHIXIANGYING,JIECIBIAODADUILVSHIGONGHUIGAIGEYUZHILIBUMANERYI。SHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUISHIXINGRUHUIZHIYUANJIESHAORENZHIDUZENGJIALEBUFENLVSHIRUHUIDENANDU,WANGSIJILVSHIBIANXIANGSIFABUZHIKONGSHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIDUDUAN、YUEQUAN,ZHIZEGAIZHIDUQUEFAFALVYIJU,SHENZHIZHICHULIANJIARUGUOMINDANGYEMEIYOURUCIYANLIDESHOUXU,WANGSIJIHAIBIAOSHI,LVSHIGONGHUIZANXINGHUIZEGUIDINGJIAOYANXUEXIAOWENPING、LVSHIZHENGSHUZHIBUGUOSHIRUHUISHOUXUERYI,BINGMEIYOUFUYULVSHIGONGHUILINGDAOYOUJUJUERUHUIDEQUANLI(DIERLISHIDANGANGUANZANG,QUANZONGHAOQI,ANJUANHAO2938)。SIFAXINGZHENGBUSUIZHIJIERUDIAOCHA。

 

SHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIXIANGSIFABUBIAOMING,LVSHIGONGHUIYANGESHENCHALIUXUEWENPING“BUNENGJIANHAOTONGREN”,YIZHIZAODAOWUKONG。ZHENDUISHIFENYANZHONGLIUXUEWENPINGZAOJIA,SHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUICAIQUCUOSHIJINXINGZHILI,YINCIZHAOZHIXIANYUAN。LVSHIGONGHUIZUNSHOULVSHIZHANGCHENG,DUNCUZUJIELINSHIFAYUANJINZHIWEIRUHUILVSHIHUOFEILVSHIZHIXINGZHIWU,YOUBUXING“KAIZUIDUOREN”。WEILVXINGLVSHIGONGHUIDEJIANGUANZEREN,SHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIDIBIAOSHIYAOJIXUJIANCHICHAYANWENPING,JUJUEZAOJIAZHERUHUI(DIERLISHIDANGANGUANZANG,QUANZONGHAOQI,ANJUANHAO2938)。SIFAXINGZHENGBUZHICHILVSHIGONGHUIDUILIUXUEWENPINGZAOJIADEZHILI,ZHICHUSHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIBUCUNZAILANQUANWUDUANZHICHU,WANGSIJIDESUQIUBUGUOSHIDUIRUHUISHOUXUGUOYANBIAOSHIBUMANERYI,YAOQIUWANGSIJIANZHAOLVSHIGONGHUIYAOQIUJIARULVSHIGONGHUI,FUCONGLVSHIGONGHUIDEJIANGUAN(DIERLISHIDANGANGUANZANG,QUANZONGHAOQI,ANJUANHAO2938)。YOUCIKEZHI,ZHENDUIZHUANXINGDEJINDAISHEHUI,GUOJIAYUSHEHUIDEGONGTONGZHILICAIHUIXINGZHIYOUXIAO。JINDAIGUOJIAYUSHEHUIZUZHIDUILIURIWENPINGZAOJIADEGONGTONGZHILIDELISHIJINGYANZHIDEAGYULEWANGJIEJIAN。

 

ZUOZHEJIANJIE: ZHAOXIA,HUBEIDAXUEWAIGUOYUXUEYUAN,HUBEI WUHAN 430062,Email: zhaoxiaxia@hotmail.com。

 

YUANWENCANKAOWENXIAN:

AG娱乐网[1]FEIZHENGQING(1985).JIANQIAOZHONGGUOWANQINGSHI(XIA).BEIJING: ZHONGGUOSHEHUIKEXUECHUBANSHE.

AG娱乐网[2]GAOPINGSHU(1984).CAIYUANPEIQUANJI(3).BEIJING: ZHONGHUASHUJU.

AG娱乐网[3]GUANBAOYING(2013).ZHENGFUGONGGONGAGYULEWANGDEFALVJIANGOUYANJIU.HUBEIDAXUEXUEBAO(ZHEXUESHEHUIKEXUEBAN).1.

AG娱乐网[4]LIYANCHENG(2013).LUNMINGUOLVSHIGONGHUIDEGONGFARENXINGZHI.HUBEIDAXUEXUEBAO(ZHEXUESHEHUIKEXUEBAN).4.

[5]LIYANCHENG(2014).MINGUOSHIQILVSHIZHIYEDAODEDEGUIFANYUJIANGUAN.LUNLIXUEYANJIU.2.

AG娱乐网[6]SHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUI(1930).SHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIBAOGAOSHU: 27.SHANGHAI: SHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUI.

AG娱乐网[7]SHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUI(1929).SHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUIBAOGAOSHU: 25.SHANGHAI: SHANGHAILVSHIGONGHUI.

[8]SIFABU(1927).MINGUOSIFALIGUI.NANJING: SIFABU.

[9]ZHAOXIA(2014).GUOJIAYUSHEHUIZUZHIDUILIUXUEWENPINGDEGONGTONGJIANGUAN.HUAZHONGSHIFANDAXUEXUEBAO(ZHEXUESHEHUIKEXUEBAN).2.

AG娱乐网[10]ZHONGGUOSHIXUEHUI(1953).WUXUBIANFA(2).SHANGHAI: SHENZHOUGUOGUANGSHE.

[11][MEI]RENDA(1998).XINZHENGGEMINGYURIBEN-ZHONGGUO1898-1912.NANJING: JIANGSURENMINCHUBANSHE.

[12][RI]QINGLIUDUHENG(1907).RIBENRENZHIDUIZHONGGUOLIUXUESHENG.SHENBAO.4YUE16RI.



推荐信息

ZUIXINREMEN

专题栏目


返回首页 | | |

    中国社会科学院近代史研究所 版权所有:AG娱乐网