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AG娱乐网JINGDEXIANG: LANKEDESHIJIESHILINIANJISHIJIAN

作者: 文章来源:AG娱乐网

ZHANGQIYILAI,LANKEBEISHIWEIMINZUGUOJIASHIXUEDEBIZU。ERZHANHOU,SUIZHELIANBANGDEGUOSHIXUEJIEDUIMINZUGUOJIASHIXUEDEFANSIYUPIPAN,LANKEDEMINGZIYEBUKEBIMIANDIBEIHUARULEDEGUOSHIXUESHIDEFUZICHANQINGDAN。ZUIJINJINIAN,ZAIQUANQIUSHILANGCHAODETUIDONGXIA,DEGUOSHIXUEJIEDUIBENGUODESHIJIESHIXUECHUANTONGJINXINGLEHUIGUYUSHULI。YINLANKEZAIQIWANNIANZHUANXIEGUODUOJUANBEN《SHIJIESHI》,SUOYIQISHIJIESHILINIANJISHIJIANYESHIRENMENRAOBUGUOQUDEYIBISHIXUEYICHAN。

 

AG娱乐网SHIJIESHIYINGGAISHIRENLEIGUANLIANSHI

 

兰克在82岁高龄时宣布要撰写一部《世界史》。作出这一决定,并非一时兴起。事实上,从1818年起在奥得河畔的法兰克福担任中学历史教师,到1825年在柏林大学任教,兰克讲授的便是普遍史AG娱乐网或世界史。在其以往出版的近代欧洲民族国家史著作的序言里,经常有涉及世界古代与中世纪史的铺垫。

 

不仅如此,兰克一直怀有撰写一部符合自AG娱乐网史学理念的《世界史》的学术雄心。这一雄心源自他对19世纪初欧洲世界史书写的不满。从1736年起,英国史学界推出了60AG娱乐网多卷本以各民族史为单位的世界史巨著,彻底改变了欧洲学术界以往受《圣经》影响的狭隘的世界史观念。德国学者纷纷效仿,并试图超越这部巨著。一个重要的突破点便是,英国史学界的世界史著作虽然几乎涉及世界各民族的历史,但缺乏内在的联系性与系统性,只能算是一部各民族历史的汇编,而从康德到费希特再到黑格尔,德国哲学家都提出自己的世界史体系。他们通常把人类历史解释为一部逐步实现自AG娱乐网完美的进步史,并把欧洲置于其先锋位置。

 

早在19世纪30年代初,还是柏林大学副教授的兰克就对此类历史哲学式的世界史理念做出了尖锐的批判。兰克指出,一方面,这种进步历史观在哲学界仍然颇有争议,不是哲学界的一致意见;另一方面,它只是以某几个民族的历史为依据,而视其他民族的历史为不存在或不重要。如果放眼世界各民族的历史,就不难看出,其实它们自古至今都处于极其不同的状况之中。在兰克看来,历史哲学是一种不成熟的哲学AG娱乐网。哲学家们依据少数历史事实创建了自己的概念体系,他们重视的是概念之间的逻辑性,而忽视了概念与事实之间是否一致。在使用其概念体系解释世界历史时,哲学家们常常只挑选符合其体系的事实,而对那些不符合其体系的事实视而不见。因此,历史哲学不能胜任世界历史的研究与书写。与此相反,历史学虽然研究具体个案,与对整个世界历史的宏观把握似乎相距很远,但若历史学家在做好个案研究的同时,注重历史事物之间的关联性,立足于微观而放眼宏观,从少到多,从小到大,却是有可能在未来实现对整个人类历史的理解与解释的。

 

AG娱乐网DANGRAN,LANKEDUIYINGGUOSHIXUEJIADESHIJIESHIZHUANXIEFANGFAYESHIBUMANYIDE。ZAIQI《SHIJIESHI》DEQIANYANZHONG,LANKEMINGQUEZHICHU,GEMINZUSHIDEHUIBIANHAIBUNENGCHENGWEISHIJIESHI。YINWEIZHEIZHONGHUIBIANHUSHILEGEMINZUZHIJIANDEXIANGHUGUANLIAN,ERRENLEIGONGTONGTIDECUNZAI,SHIXIANERYIJIANDE。YINCI,LANKEXINMUZHONGDESHIJIESHI,SHIYIBURENLEIJIAOWANGYURONGHESHI。

 

WEISHENMEMEIYOUGUDAIZHONGGUO

 

LANKEZAIQI《SHIJIESHI》DEQIANYANLIYESHUOMINGLEZHEIBUZHUZUOSUOBUNENGBAOKUODENEIRONG,RUDIQIUYURENLEIDEQIYUAN、WENZICHUXIANYIQIANDERENLEILISHI。TARENWEI,DIQIUYURENLEIDEQIYUANWENTI,ZHINENGYOUZONGJIAOYUZIRANKEXUELAIHUIDA。LISHIXUEZHINENGYANJIUYONGYOUWENZIJIZAIDEYIJILISHIYIJIKEJIEDUDERENLEILISHI。RANGZHONGGUODUZHEGANDAOKUNHUODESHI,LANKEYEBAGUDAIZHONGGUOPAICHUZAIQISHIJIEGUDAISHIZHIWAI。LANKEBUTONGYIYIWANGBA“MOUGEDONGFANGMINZU”SHIWEISHIJIELISHIDECHUFADIANDEZUOFA,BINGTICHULESIHUFUHEQISHIJIESHILINIANDELIYOU: BUNENGCONGCHUYU“YONGJIUDETINGZHIZHUANGTAI”DEMINZUCHUFA,LAILIJIESHIJIELISHIDENEIZAIYUNDONG。ZAITAKANLAI,ZHONGGUORENDEGUDAIWENMINGSUIRANSHIBUKEFOURENDESHISHI,DANZHONGGUORENZHANGQICHUYUZIAGYULEWANGFENGBIYUTINGZHIZHUANGTAI,MEIYOUYUQITAMINZUFASHENGMIQIEJIAOWANG,ERYIGEMINZUZHIYOUZAIYUQITAMINZUFASHENGMIQIEJIAOWANGSHICAISUANZHENZHENGJINRULESHIJIELISHI。

 

AG娱乐网SHISHISHANG,ZHONGGUOZIGUYILAIYUQITAMINZUMIQIEJIAOWANGDELIZISHUBUSHENGSHU,QIZHONGYEBUFAJUYOUSHIJIELISHIYIYIYUGUIMODEXIANLI,RUHANWUDIDAJIXIONGNUDEZHENGCEPOSHIBUFENXIONGNUBULUOXIQIAN,YOUCIYINFA“MINZUDAQIANXI”,ZUIZHONGTUIDONGRIERMANRENJINFANGULUOMADIGUO,SHENKEYINGXIANGLEOUZHOUNAIZHISHIJIELISHIDEFAZHANJINCHENG,DENGDENG。LANKEZAIQI《SHIJIESHI》ZHONGSUIRANYETIDAOLE“MINZUDAQIANXI”,DANRENWEITABUSHIRIERMANRENRUQINGULUOMADIGUODEZHUYAOTUIDONGLI,YOUCICUOGUOLEXIANGDONGFANGJINYIBUTANSUOOUZHOULISHIJINCHENGDESHIJIEXINGGUANLIANDEQIJI。

 

LANKEBAGUDAIZHONGGUOSHIWEICHUYU“YONGJIUDETINGZHIZHUANGTAI”,QISHISHILUORULEHEIGEERSHIJIELISHIZHEXUEDEXIANJING,JIESHOULEHEIGEERDUIGUDAIZHONGGUODEGUDINGYINXIANG,ERBUSHIXIANGTABENRENYIZAIYAOQIUDENEIYANG,DUILISHIGEANJINXINGJUTIDEYANJIU。LANKEJIANGGUDAIZHONGGUOPAICHUZAIQISHIJIESHIZHIWAI,QISHIYOUZHEGENGWEIXIANSHIDEYUANYIN。ANZHAOLANKEZISHENYANGEDESHIXUEYANJIUGUIFAN,LISHIXIEZUOBIXUJIANLIZAIYUANSHIZILIAODEJICHUZHISHANG,DANDUIYUCHUYUMAODIEZHINIAN、SHENGHUOZAIOUZHOUWENHUAZHONGDETALAISHUO,XUEXIBINGTONGXIAOHANYU、HUODEBINGSHIYONGZHONGGUOLISHIWENXIAN,DOUSHIBUKEYUYUEDEZHANGAI。ZHEISHIDEGUODUZHEPUBIANRENWEIDEZHONGGUOSHIYIGEZIAGYULEWANGFENGBI、ZIGUBUBIANDEMINZUDE“DINGLUN”,BIANCHENGWEIRAOGUOZHEIXIEZHANGAIDETUOCI。

 

NANYIBAITUODEOUZHOUZHONGXINZHUYI

 

1877年开始到1886年去世,兰克先后推出了六卷本《世界史》,此后他的助手又在其遗稿基础上整理出版了三卷本,共为九卷本(16册)。在时间上,《世界史》只写到15世纪,因此只是一部世界古代与中世纪史,并且是以欧洲史为核心的。因兰克在此前已经完成了15AG娱乐网世纪以来欧洲民族国家的历史,所以他的《世界史》等于是为其近代欧洲史补充了古代中世纪的基础。

 

LANKEHENQINGCHU,JINJINSHIOUZHOUSHIHAIBUNENGCHENGWEISHIJIESHI,TABIXUZOUCHUOUZHOUDEJIAMEN,DANTABUGUOSHIZAIOUZHOUDENANDAMENKOU“LIULEGEWAN”,JIUXUNSUFANHUILESHUXIDEOUZHOUJIAYUAN。SHOUOUZHOUZHONGXINZHUYILINIANYIJIZHISHIJIEGOUDEYINGXIANG,LANKESUOZHUANXIEDESHIJIEGUDAIYUZHONGSHIJISHIZHISHIYIBULVEDAIYOUFEIOUZHOUBEIJING、YUJINZHONGDONGDEFEIOUZHOUWENHUALVEYOUGUANXIDEOUZHOUGUDAIYUZHONGSHIJISHI。ZHICHENGZHEIZHONGYUOUZHOUYIWAIDESHIJIEZHANDIANBIANDE“SHIJIESHI”DE,SHIYIZHONGTESHUDESHIJIELISHIZHEXUE,JISHIJIELISHIDEHEXINSHIOUZHOUDUOMINZUGUOJITIXIDEQIYUANYUFAZHANDELISHI。LANKERENWEI,ZHEIYITIXIQIYUANYUGUAIJI,YINWEIZAINEILIZUIZAOXINGCHENGLEYIGEAIJI——SHANMITEDUOMINZUTIXI。ZAIYIHOUDELISHIJINCHENGZHONG,ZHEIYITIXIYOUJIANGOUZHOUGEMINZUXINAJINQU,ZHUBUXINGCHENGLEXINDEYUELAIYUEGUANGFANDE、YIOUZHOUWEIHEXINDEJINDAISHIJIETIXI。HUANJUHUASHUO,LANKEDESHIJIESHIXIEZUOYOURUZAIGENZONGYIGEGUOJIZHENGZHILONGJUANFENGDEXINGCHENGYUFAZHANGUOCHENG,TAYOUXIAODAODA,ZUIZHONGXIJUANQUANRENLEI。ERQITAMINZUBEIJUANRUZHIQIANDELISHI,ZEBEIPAICHUZAIZHEIYISHIJIELISHIZHIWAI。

 

AG娱乐网YINGGAISHUO,ZHEIZHONGSHIJIESHIZHUANXIEFANGFASHIJISHANGYEYOUBEIYUQILISHIZHUYIDEGETILINIAN。ZHONGSUOZHOUZHI,LANKEZAIPIPANJINBUZHUYISHIXUEGUANSHICENGJINGSHUOGUO,MEIGESHIDAIDOUSHIZHIDASHANGDIDE,DOUYOUQIZISHENDEJIAZHI,YINCITAFANDUIJIANGYIGELISHISHIDAIJINJINSHIZUOTONGXIANGZUIJIAZHUANGTAIDEYIGEGUODU。ANZHAOTONGYANGDELUOJI,MEIYIGEMINZUDERENHEYIGESHIDAIDELISHIYEDOUYOUQIDULIDEJIAZHI。JIBIANMOUXIEMINZUMEIYOUYUQITAMINZUFASHENGMIQIEGUANXI,MEIYOUCANYURENLEIDEDARONGHEJINCHENG,YEBUYINGGAIJIANGTAMENPAICHUZAISHIJIELISHIDEZHUANXIEFANWEIZHIWAI。

 

BUNANKANCHU,LANKEDESHIJIESHIBINGBUSHIYIBUWANZHENGDE、WUSUOBUBAODESHIJIESHI。TAYIRANCUNZAIYIXIEKONGBAIYUQUEXIAN,YIFANGMIANYINWEIGUDAIYUZHONGSHIJISHIQIRENLEIGEMINZUZHIJIANDEJIAOWANGKEGUANSHANGJIAOSHAO,LINGYIFANGMIANYOUYUXUDUOJIAOWANGDELISHIHAIMEIYOUBEIFAXIAN。GENGZHONGYAODESHI,GEMINZUDULIHUOJIBENDULISHENGCUNDELISHI,JINGUANWENMINGSHUOGUOLEILEI,QUEBEIPAICHUZAIWAI。ZAILILUNSHANG,LANKEYERENSHIDAOMINZUSHIYUSHIJIESHIZHIJIANDEBIANZHENGGUANXI。TARENWEI,SHIJIESHIBUYINGGAITUOLIMINZUSHI,CHENGWEIXUHUANDELISHIZHEXUE,DANYEBUNENGZAIMINZUSHISHANGTINGBUBUQIAN。ZAIJUTIDESHIJIANSHANG,TAQUEXUANZEOUZHOUYUJINZHONGDONGDEMINZUSHIWEIQISHIJIESHIDEQIDIANYUZHONGDIAN。SHIJISHANG,GENGWEIHELIDEZUOFAYINGGAISHI,BAYIZHIDEBAOKUOZHONGGUO、YINDUZAINEIDESUOYOUGUDAIWENMINGZUOWEISHIJIELISHIDEDUOGEQIDIAN,ZAICHANSHUQIDULIFAZHANDETONGSHI,GENZONGTAMENZHIJIANDEJIAOWANGBINGZUIZHONGZHUBUXINGCHENGRENLEIDARONGHEDELISHI。

 

ZONGZHI,LANKEDESHIJIESHISHIJIANSHIBUWANMEIDE、LINGRENSHIWANGDE,DANTAZAISHENGMINGDEZUIHOUSUIYUEXIANGSHIJIESHIGAOFENGTIAOZHANDEYONGQISHIZHIDEQINPEIDE。ZAIZAICITIJILANKEDESHIHOU,RENMENHUOXUYINGGAIYISHIDAO,TABUJINSHIMINZUGUOJIASHIXUEDEBIZU,ERQIEYESHISHIJIESHIYUQUANQIUSHIXIEZUODEYIWEIXIANQU。

 

(ZUOZHE: JINGDEXIANG,DANWEI: ZHONGGUOSHEKEYUANSHIJIESHISUO)



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