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AG娱乐网XIONGYUEZHI: LVELUNTONGGUANGZHIJITIELUWENTIDEFUZAXING

作者: 文章来源:AG娱乐网

ZHAIYAO: CONG19SHIJI60NIANDAICHUDAO80NIANDAIMO,ZHONGGUOGUANSHENWEIRAOSHIFOUXIUJIANTIELUDEWENTIZHENGLUNBUYI。60NIANDAIZHUYAOSHITAOLUNRUHEFANGZHILIEQIANGCHASHOUDEWENTI;70NIANDAITAOLUNDESHIZAIAGYULEWANGGUOTAIWANHAIDAOXIUJIANTIELU;80NIANDAIZHONGQITAOLUNDESHIZAIZHONGGUONEIDIXIUJIANTIELU;80NIANDAIMO,TAOLUNDEJIYOUNEIDIXIUJIANTIELUWENTI,YEYOUJINGSHIKEFOUTONGXINGHUOCHEWENTI。ZANCHENGYIJIANZHUYAOSHIFANGBIANHUOWU、RENYUAN、XINXILIUDONG,CIJIJINGJISHEHUIFAZHAN,YOULIYUKANGDIWEIGUO;FANDUIYIJIANZHUYAOSHISUOWEI“ZIDI、RAOMIN、DUOMINSHENGJI”。QINGMOSHIDAFUDUITIELUGONGNENGDERENSHIYIYOUCHAYI,FANGZHILIEQIANGCHASHOUYUZHULUQIUFUQIUQIANGJIACHANYIQI,DANGQUANZHEZHIJIANDEZHENGZHENGYINSUYOUCHANZAJINLAI,SHIDEZHEIYIWENTIGENGWEIFUZA。

 

GUANJIANCI: TONGGUANGZHIJI TIELU LIHONGZHANG

 

一、有识之士对铁路的认知

 

TIELUHEHUOCHESHIJINDAIGONGYEGEMINGDECHANWU。1825NIAN9YUE27RI,RENLEILISHISHANGDIYITIAOTIELUZAIYINGGUOZHENGSHIJIANCHENGTONGCHE,TAJIYINGGUODAILAILEJUDADESHEHUIBIANHUA,BINGHENKUAIFENGMIXIFANGGEGUO,FA、MEI、DE、EDENGGUOJIAFENFENXIANQIXIUJIANTIELUDEGAOCHAO。RENLEIJIAOTONGCONGCIJINRUTIELUHUOCHESHIDAI。

 

ZHONGWENDUWUZHONG,ZUIZAOJIESHAOTIELUHEHUOCHEDE,SHI1835NIAN7YUE《DONGXIYANGKAOMEIYUETONGJICHUAN》SUOZAI《HUOZHENGCHE》YIWEN。WENZHONGYIDUIHUADEFANGSHI,JIESHAOLEHUOCHEDEGONGZUOYUANLIJIYUNXINGTEDIAN,TUCHUQISUDUFEIKUAI,ZAIZHONGLIANGDA,BUWEISHANSHUIZUGE,YUNXINGPINGWEN。①1840NIAN,DEGUOCHUANJIAOSHIGUOSHILAZAISUOZUO《MAOYITONGZHI》ZHONG,YEJIESHAOLEHUOCHEDEGONGZUOYUANLI、YUNZAINENGLI,CHENGHUOCHEYUNHUOSUDUKUAI,NENGLIDA,YIYIPIMAZHILINENGCHENGLIUPIMAZHIGONG,HUOCHEWUMAWULV,NENGGOURURUOCHAYIFEICHI。②

 

鸦片战争以后,关心世界知识的林则徐、魏源、梁廷枬、徐继畬、洪仁玕等人,都关注到铁路和火车。魏源编《海国图志》,摘录了郭实腊《贸易通志》中关于火车的介绍。洪仁玕在《资政新篇》中建议在中国二十一省建造二十一条铁路,以为全国之脉格。③尽管洪秀全并没有采纳这一建议,而且太平天国也没有条件采纳这些建议,但它在思想史上的意义还是相当明显的。

 

ZHONGGUOZAOQIYOULIHUOCHUSHIXIFANGDERENYUAN,JIHUWUYILIWAIDIDOUTANDAODUITIELUHEHUOCHEDEGUANGAN。SUIHEDEYOULIXIFANGDEBINCHUNMIAOSHU:

 

AG娱乐网CHEXIANGNEIZUONANNVDUOGUABUDENG,MEIJIANDACHUANGLIUSHAN,QIBISUIREN。CHEXIANGYOUSHIXIANMING,YINRUHOURUAN。……YAOLINGSANCI,CHESHIXING。CHUYOUHUANHUAN,SHUWUHOUJIRUBENMABUKEE。CHEWAIWUSHE、SHUMU、SHANGANG、QIANMO,JIEJICHIERGUO,BUKEBISHI。

 

DUOCISUISHIOUZHOUDEZHANGDEYIXIANGXIDIJISHULEHUOCHEYUNXINGDEYUANLIYUGEZHONGJUTIZHISHI,CHENGHUOLUNCHEXINGRUPINGTAI,MEILIANGZHANGERZHANGXU,TIELUNTIEZHOU;CHEXIANGFENTOU、ER、SAN、SIDENG,XIANGNEISHEBEIGEYI,PIAOJIABUYI;MEILIEYOUWULIUSHILIANGBUDENG,XIANYITIEHUANLIANZHI;CHEXINGDUOZHIDAO,QIPINGRUDI,YUSHANCHUANDONG,YUSHUIJIAQIAO。“CHEZHISUZHERIXINGWUQIANYULI,PINGSHIZERIXINGERSANQIANLIERYI。”④

 

AG娱乐网CENGCHUSHISHUGUODEGUOSONGDAOCHENG:

 

LAICISHUYUE,SHIJIANHUOLUNCHEZHIBIANLI,SANSIBAILIWANGFANJINJIBANRI,QIDISHISHENLIYIZHONGGUOYIXIUZAOHUOLUNCHEXIANGJIUQUANMIAN,QIEWEIYINGGUOFUQIANGSHIJIYUCI。⑤

 

AG娱乐网1859NIANYOULIOUZHOUDEGUOLIANCHENGMIAOSHUZUIWEISHENGDONG:

 

HUOLUNCHEZHE,TAIXIGEGUOYIZHIYUNHUOWU、ZAIKESHANGZHEYE,QIANSHIYUNIANSHIYOUCIZHI。YUCHUDENGANSHI,YAOJIANFANGWUQIZHENG,LIANLUOBUJUE,JUYOUBOLIMENHU,CHUYIWEICICHUZHIJIESHIYE。JIJINZHI,ZEJIANXIAYOUTIEGUI、TIELUN,SHIZHIQIWEIHUOLUNCHEYAN。SHAOYAN,YANFEILUNDONG,YUANSHENGYUFEI,HUANGZAIYUNWUZHONG,ZHENGSHILIANGANYUANSHENGTIBUZHU,HUOCHEYIGUOWANZHONGSHAN。SUIMUNIULIUMAZHIQI、ZHUIFENGCHITUZHIXUN,YIBUKETONGNIANERYUYI。⑥

 

TONGGUANGZHIJI,GUCHUIXUEXIXIFANGDEWANGTAO、ZHENGGUANYING、XUEFUCHENGDENG,DOUSHUJITIELUWENTI。

 

WANGTAOSHITIELUAGYULEWANGDEREQINGGUCHUIZHE,CENGZAIDUOPIANWENZHANGZHONGSHUJITIELUAGYULEWANG。TASHUO,ZHONGGUONANBEIDAOZU,HUOWUZHUANYUNKUNNAN,RUGUOXIUZHUTIELU,ZEYUANJINXIANGTONG,KEYIHUWEILIANLUO:

 

AG娱乐网BUDULISHANG,BINGQIELIGUO。FANWENYIZHIWANGLAI,JISHIZHICHUANDI,BUJIEERSU,HUACHIRUOSHEN,ELUANMIN,YUWAIWU,WUBUSHICIYAN。⑦

 

TAZHICHU,DIANBAOYUTIELU,XIGUOYIWEIZHIYAOZHITU,LIGUOLIMIN,MOKESHENGYAN,ERZHONGGUOYIWEIBUJIZHIWU,QIEYIWEIZHONGGUODUANBUNENGXING,YIDUANBUKEXING:

 

HUOWEIYUMINHUOYUFENGSHUIZHISHUO,QIANGYUKAIPI,BIZHIFENRANBUJING,SHIYILIMINZHERAOMINYE,CIBUYIZHEYIYE。HUOWEILUNCHEZHILU,ZAOSHANKAIDAO,YUSHUITIANHE,GAOZHEPING,BEIZHEZENG,QIFEIHAOFAN,JIANGHECONGCUO,JISHIJIEJUEERWEIZHI,TUZUYIBINGMINERHAIGUO,CIBUYIZHEERYE。

 

WUHU!SHIDAIZHONGGUOWEIZHIXINGER,ZHONGGUOZHIMINWEIZHIJIANER。SHESHIYOUSHAOYICHENGDUO,YOUJINYIJIYUAN,ZANXINGSHIBAN,ANJIANQIBIDUOZHIAIHU?

 

AG娱乐网QIETIELUZHISUOZHI,YIJIDIANXIANZHISUOTONG,QIXIAOXIZHILIUCHUAN,QINGKEKEZHI。GUOJIAYUYOUSHIZHISHI,YUNXIANGXU,ZHUANGQIXIE,ZAIBINGSHI,ZHENGPANNI,ZHIRIKEYIJISHI。⑧

 

ZHENGGUANYINGZAI1880NIANYIQIANXIECHENGDE《LUNHUOCHE》ZHONG,JIYANHUOCHEDEYICHU。TAZHUANSHUXIRENLUNTIELUAGYULEWANGZHIWULI,JIYUNFEIYINGYUKEZHUGUOYONG;YOULIYUDIAOBINGYUNXIANG;YOULIYUYUNZAIKUANGZANG;YOULIYUSHANGPINYUNSHU,HUTONGYOUWU;YOULIYUWENSHUCHUANDI,CAICHEYIZHAN。TARENWEIXIANGZHONGGUOZHEIYANGFUYUANLIAOKUO、DIQUCHAYIHENDADEGUOJIA,YOUYINGGANKUAIJIANZAOTIELU。⑨TALIEJUOUMEIGEGUOTONGGUOXINGJIANHUOCHETIELUHUODEJUDALIYIDEQINGKUANG,JIEHEZHONGGUODESHIJI,ZHICHU: “ZONGZHI,CHELUZHISHE,YOUBEIWUHUAN,YOUYIWUSUN。ZAIZHONGGUOJINRIDUANBUNENGZHIWEIHUANTUYI。”⑩

 

1880NIANYIHOU,SUIZHEZHONGGUOTIELUAGYULEWANGDEJINZHAN,CHAOYEGUANYUTIELUWENTIDEZHENGLUNBUDUAN,ZHENGGUANYINGYEZAIBUDUANXIUGAI、CHONGSHI、WANSHANTADUITIELUDELUNSHU,ZAI《SHENGSHIWEIYAN》BUTONGBANBENZHONGJUNYOUSUOFANYING。TAZAI1892NIANYIQIANWANCHENGDE《SHENGSHIWEIYAN》WUJUANBENZHONG,JIANGTIELUZHILIYOUXIANQIANDEWULIKUOZHANWEISHILI。SUOWEISHILI,CHULEQIANMIANYIJINGSHUJIDEWULI,HAIYOU: YOULIYUGUOJIADUIQUANGUODEKONGZHIGUANLI,GUANLIBUGANYUFA;YOULIYUQUANGUOLIANWEIYIQI,MAILUOGUANTONG,GUOSHIWEIZHIYIZHEN;YOULIYUKAITONGFENGQI,DUIYUNEIXIEBIYIYANGWUDESHIDAFUHUIYOUYINGXIANG;YOULIYUCAOLIANGYUNSHU,NENGJIESHENGCAOYUNJINGFEI;YOULIYUGESHENGSUOJIEJINGSHIXIANGLIANGDEANQUAN。TASHUO: “YOUSHILIERWUYIHAI,FUHEDANERBUXINGZAI?”(11)ZHENDUISUOWEITIELUKAITONGJIANGDUOMINSHENGJI、HUIHUAILUSHEFENMUDESHUOFA,TAZHICHU:

 

AG娱乐网BUZHITIELUZHIPANG,QIZUOYOUQILU,RENMAJIENENGXINGZOU,HUOCHESUOYUNHUOWUYINGYUMOUCHUXIEZAIZHE,RENGXUCHEMAJIEYUN,QIEWUCHANZHILIUTONGYIGUANG,ZERENFUZHISHENGJIYIZENG,HEHAIZHIYOU?TIELUYUSHANDIANSHUIQUJUNXURAOYUE,JIAKONGZAODONGYIKESHIXING,LUSHEFENMUYIYOUSHIYE,HEHAIZHIYOU?(12)

 

AG娱乐网XUEFUCHENGJIESHAOLEYINGGUOFAMINGTIELUHUOCHEDELISHI,HUOCHEZAIYUNSHUMEIKUANG、QIANKUANGJICUJINMAOYIFANGMIANDEJUDAZUOYONG,LUNSHULEHUOCHEYUMACHEDEBUTONGGONGNENG,SHUOMINGHUOCHEBINGBUHUIWANQUANQUDAIMACHE,YINGGUOCONGSHIMACHEYUNSHUYEDERENQICHUYEDANXINHUOCHEZHIXINGYINGXIANGQISHENGJI,DANSHISHIZHENGMING,HUOCHEBUDANBUHUIYINGXIANGMACHEYEDEFAZHAN,FANERHUICUJINMACHESHENGYI,JIDADICIJIJINGJI、SHEHUIDEFAZHAN。(13)

 

TONGGUANGZHIJI,DUITIELUJIESHAOZUIWEIXIANGSHI、ZUIWEIDAOWEIDESHIMAJIANZHONG。HAIZAI1879NIAN,MAJIANZHONGJIUJIESHAOLETIELUZAIOUZHOUJIBEIMEI、YINDUDENGDIFAZHANDELISHI,LUNSHUTIELUDUIYUYUNSHU、TONGXIN、CAIZHENGDEZHONGYAOYIYI。

 

MAJIANZHONGTEBIEJIESHAOLETIELUAGYULEWANGZHONGCHOUKUAN、CHUANGZAO、JINGLISANFANGMIANDEQINGKUANG,CHENGTIEDAOZHIXING,DONGFEIQIANWANJUKUAN,OUMEIRENCHOUKUANDEFANGSHI,HUOJIUJIYUSHANG,HUOQUJIYUGUAN,HUOGUANYUSHANGXIANGWEIHEBAN。QIJIUJIYUSHANGZHE,YOUGUANBUGUOWEN,RENQIZIJIGUZISHEJUZHE,QIBIDUANSHITONGXINGZHENGSHIJIANJIA,DEBUCHANGSHI,ZHONGYUDAOBI。YINGMEIJIEXINGCIFA。HUOGUANXIANCHUANGZAOERJIAOSHANGJINGLI,HUOSHANGXIANCHUANGZAOERGUANWEIJINGLI,ZEDEGUOCANYONGCIFA。XINGJUNMAOYILIANGBIANYAN,WEILIRUSHENWEI,ZHIZAOJINGLIZHIFEINANYUQUCHANG。YEYOUGUANSHANGHEBANZHIYIFA,ZEFARENCHUANGXINGZHI,ERDEAOFANGXINGZHI。ZHIYUJIANZAO,ZEDUDISHI,ZHITIEGUI,ZAOLUNCHE,SHEJUDIAN。DISHIYOUGAOBEI,TIEDAOBIANWANGLAI,ZESUOGUITIEDAOYIJINXIANGZHEN,SUOXIANGDISHIYIBANGCHUANHE。JINXIANGZHENZEHUKOUYINGFAN,BANGCHUANHEZEYUANXITANYI,BUDEYIERYUESHANJILING,ZESHENSHANLINGZUOYOUZHIGUERTUOQIDAO。MAJIANZHONGXIANGXIDIJIESHAOLETIELUHUOCHEGUANLIDEXIJIE,CHENGHUOCHEGONGNENGNENGFENYIWANZUOCHE、WANHUOCHEYUJIANWANZUOCHEHUOCHEZHIYONG。ZUOCHEYOUSHANGZHONGXIASANDENG,BUTONGDENGJISHOUFEIBIAOZHUNBUTONG。TAZHICHU,TIELUZAIYUGUOKE、BIANMINSHENGFANGMIANZUOYONGHENDA:

 

QIEWEIWAIYANGZICHUANGTIEDAOYILAI,QIZHILVYI,QIFEIWANQIAN,HUOYOUSHANGJIAJINGYING,HUOYOUGUOJIACHUANGZAO,SHENZHIGUANCHANGQIXIERSHANGSHOUQILI,QISUOYIGUWUZHAOLAIZHIZHE,WUWEIBUZHI。RENQINGHAOYIELAO,BUSHENXIANGYUAN,BIJIJIRANYICIWEIWU,LIANGYOUBUDEYIZHE。(14)

 

AG娱乐网MAJIANZHONGPIPINGZHONGGUODUITIELUYIYIRENSHIBUZU,RENWEIZHONGGUOTEBIESHIYIYUJIANZAOTIELU,LUNSHULETIELUZAIJIEYONG、KAIYUAN、JIUHUANFANGMIANDEJUDAZUOYONG,YOUQISHIZHONGGUOAGYULEWANGTIELUZAIGUOJIAANQUANFANGMIANDEJINPOXING。TASHUO,JINRIZHIYUWAI,HUANZHONGGUOZHIJIANGYU,WUFEITIEDAOYE,YING、E、FAZAIQIBENGUOYUQIZHIMINDISUOZHUDETIELU,YIJINGTONGDAOZHONGGUODENAN、XI、BEISANMIAN,YIDUIZHONGGUOXINGCHENGBAOWEIZHISHI:

 

WURUOBUCHENGQIWEIFAZHISHI,JIXINGXINGZUO,JIANGBUSHUNIANGEGUOZHITIEDAOYICHENG,YIDANYUGUOSHIHE,CHENGJIANQIEFA,ERWUZEJINGBAOWEIZHI,ZHENGDIAOWEIQI,TUIGUWEIXING,BIYIPINGLINGAGYULEWANGBIANCHUI,KONGEAGYULEWANGFUXIN,JUEAGYULEWANGLIANGXIANG,DUANAGYULEWANGJIEJI,YUKEWEIYE!QIESILUNCHUANSUOZHIHAISHANG,XIYANGGEGUOYUNBINGERZHIZHEWUYUSIXUNRI,JIEGUOYOUBOLUODEHAIERDAZHONGGUO,YIWUYUWUXUNRI,ERWUZIFUSHENGDIAOBINGDIANNAN,HUOZIGUANNEIDIAOBINGSAIWAI,NENGRUSHIZHISHENSUHU?YILUNCHUANZHIHUANYULUNCHE,ERRENZAISHUWANLIWAI,FANJUAGYULEWANGXIAN。SHENYIRIGEGUOZHIYILUNCHEHUANJI,AGYULEWANGHUQIEZHONGGUOSHUWANLIZHIJIANGYU,YANNENGCHUCHUFANGYU?SUOGUIYISHENGZHIJUNKEGONGSHUSHENGZHIYONG,YISHENGZHIXIANGKEJISHUSHENGZHISHI,SHOUWEIXIANGJIE,XIAERXIANGYUAN,WEIBIANYUMINJIYU,WEIGUOJIASHEBAOZHANG,WEITIEDAOWEINENG。CISUOYIDANGXINGERBURONGSHAOHUANZHEYE。

 

ZHENDUICHAOYEYOUGUANCHOUKUANWEINANDEWENTI,MAJIANZHONGRENWEI,CHOUKUANNANBUNAN,GUANJIANZAIYUDUITIELUYIYIDERENSHI。YANXIAGUOJIAXUYAOYONGQIANDIFANGTAIDUO,JINGFEIQUESHIKUNNAN:

 

DONGHAIYOUCHOUFANGZHIFEI,XICHUIKUNWANSHUZHILAO,HUADICHOULI,XISUOYIJIN,XINSHILUOYI,ZHENGQIUSHIDUO,JIANGLICHUOCHUI,SINONGYANGWU,YUYUCISHICHOUYIJUKUANNENGHUBUNENG?SHIBUCHOUKUANYUGUOTANG,ZHESIJIUZIYUMINJIAN,BUZHIMINJIANSHISHIJIUKONG,YIYOUGUOTANGQIANCHUANGBAIKONG,JIYOUERSANYINSHIYOUWANGJUBAN,JIUZHIGUZHANGNANMING,DUOKOUKEWEI,KUANGHULVCHENGQIANCAIWEIXIGU,GUANSHISHANGJIAWEIZHUMO,YIYOUCHASHI,JIBUNENGXIANGGUANFUYIXUE,FUBUNENGJIALVYIYIZIJIE,ERJIQIUHAOZHILI,YINZHIQINGJIAZHIBAIWANZHIJINYUANYIMEIHUOYOUSHEIWEIWEIZHI?

 

DANSHI,RUGUOYINSHILIDAO,JIUKEYIHUAJIEKUNNAN,“FUJIEZHAIYIKAITIEDAO,SUOWEIYIBIZHUCI,FEIRUOJIEZHAIYICHANGPEIKUAN,ERYICHANGXIZHILEI”。TASHUO,DAIKUANZHULUYESHIBUDEYIERWEIZHIDESHIQING,DANSHI,BUDEYIDESHIQINGYEYAOZUO,JIUXIANGZHONGGUOYAOXIANGYINGFADENGGUOCHANGHAIZHANZHENGPEIKUAN,YESHIBUDEYIDESHIQING。

 

AG娱乐网MAJIANZHONGJIESHAOLESHIJIEFANWEINEIGUOZHAIDEQIYUAN,SHUOMINGGUOZHAIGUYIYOUZHI,JINDAIYILAI,GENGWEIPUBIAN,XIANTONGZHIJIAN,OUMEIZHUGUOTIEDAO、JICHANG、DIANBAOZHISHU,RIXINYUEYI,DONGYONGHAOFAN,ZHUANSHIJIEDAI,SUOJIEZHAIE,DONGZHESHUWANZHAO、SHUBAIWANZHAONAIZHISHUQIANWANZHAO,YINDU、XINJINSHAN、FEIZHOUDENGCHU,DOUJIEYOUDALIANGWAIZHAI。MAJIANZHONGZHICHU,ZHEIXIEGUOJIA,LUNFUYUANZEBUGUANG,LUNSHENGCHIZEBUFAN,ERYUYOUQIJIE,ZEJIEZHIRENBUKESHENGSHU,JIEZHIYINBUKESHENGYONG,PEIHURUQUANYUAN,HAOHURUOJIANGHE。NEIME,ZHEILEIJIEDAIZUNXUNSHISHENMELUOJINI:

 

YUEQUXINZHIYOUBENYE,GAODAIZHIYOUFANGYE,CHANGFUZHIYOUQIYE,CISANZHEJIEZHAIZHIJING,ERXINGQUANZHIDAOZECUNHUQIREN。XIRENYUN: QUXIANZAIZHIYINCHANGJIANGLAIZHIXIWEIZHIZHAI,SHIJIANGLAIZHIXIZHIXIANZAIZHIYINWEIZHIXIN,GUFANQIJIEYURENZHE,BIYOUSUOSHI,HAOSHANGSHIQIXUJI,SUFENGSHIQITIANLU,GUOJIASHIQIFUSHUI,GUJICHENYIGUOJIZHIYINGXUWEIJIEZHAIZHINANYI。

 

AG娱乐网TAQUBIEZHAIWUDEBUTONGLEIBIE,ZHICHU,XIANGJIANZAOTIELUZHEILEIWAIZHAI,SHIHENRONGYIJIUNENGJIEDAODE:

 

ZHIYUJIEZHAIYIZHIDAOTU,YIPISHANZE,YIJUNHAIKOU,YIXINGTIEDAO,FANSUOYIWEIMINMOUSHENGZHIJU,JISUOYIWEIGUOKAICAIZHIYUAN,YUJIEZHAIYIXINGJUN,QIQINGSHIJIONGBUXIANGTONG,GURENRENZHENGLUN,YUNJIWUHE,BUZHAOZILAI,SHIQIYOUKUANZHIKEDI,YOUXIZHIKECHANGGUYE。

 

AG娱乐网TASHUO,QIANGRUYING、FA、AO、YIDALI,RUORUMILU、DOUNISI(TUNISI)、TUERJI(TUERQI)、AIJIDENGGUO,DOUYOUZHEIFANGMIANDEJINGLI。(15)

 

WEILESHIZHONGGUOTIELUAGYULEWANGNENGGOUSHUNLIJINXING,MAJIANZHONGJIANYI,KEYIXIANXIUZHUCONGTIANJINDAOBEIJINGDEYIDUAN,RENWEIQILIYOULIU: YISHICIDUANLUXIANYIYOUYIYINGGUORENKANCHAGUO,SHIBANERGONGBEI;ERSHIJULIJIAODUAN,RONGYIJIANCHENG;SANSHICIDUANWANGLAIGUANSHANGJIAODUO,NENGQIDAOHAODEXUANCHUANXIAOGUO;SISHIJINJINGDIWEIZHONGYAO,ZHEIDUANYUNXINGDEHAO,ZHONGGUOQITADIFANGGENGYIZHESHOU;WUSHIKEYITONGGUOZHEIDUANTIELUPEIYANGTIELUZHUANMENRENCAI,KEYITIAOXUANHUAREN,XUEZHIDAOTU,XUEZHITIEGUI,XUESHILUNCHE,XUESISHOUNA,TARIJIKEYONGYUNANBEITIELUXIANSHANG;LIUSHIZAIJUJIEWAIZHAIFANGMIANCONGYANGUANLI,WEIJIANGLAIZUOYISHIFAN,YIWEIJIANGLAIJUJIEWAIZHAIDAKAITONGLU。(16)

 

二、对西方列强染指中国铁路的反应

 

ZUIZAOZAIZHONGGUOJIANGXIUZHUTIELUFUZHUSHISHIDESHIYINGGUOREN。

 

ZAOZAI1862NIAN,YINGGUOZHUHUASHIGUANFANYIMEIHUILIJIUZAIGUANGDONGCHANGDAOJIANZHUYOUGUANGDONGTONGWANGJIANGXIDETIELU,BINGDAODAYULINGYIDAITAKAN,HOUYINGONGCHENGGUODA,MEIYOUFUZHUSHISHI。1863NIAN,HUODONGZAISHANGHAIDEYIYINGSHANGYIHEYANGXINGWEISHOUDE27JIAYANGXING,TONGGUOSHANGHAIDAOTAIHUANGFANG,XIANGJIANGSUXUNFULIHONGZHANGTICHUXIUZHUYOUSHANGHAITONGWANGSUZHOUDETIELU,BINGCHOUJIANLETIELUGONGSI,DANZAOLIHONGZHANGJUJUE。(17)1864NIAN,YIHEYANGXINGYAOQINGCENGZAIYINDUCONGSHITIELUJIANZHUDEYINGGUOGONGCHENGSHISIDIWENSENLAIHUAKAOCHATIELUWENTI,SIDIWENSENTICHULEYIGEZONGHETIELUJIHUA,QIJIHUAYIHANKOUWEIZHONGXIN,DONGDAOSHANGHAI,XIDAOSICHUAN、YUNNAN,ZAITONGDAOYINDU,NANDAOGUANGZHOU,YOUCONGDONGXINGXIANZHIZHENJIANGBEIXINGDAOTIANJIN、BEIJING。ZHEIYANGYILAI,ZHONGGUODESIGETONGSHANGKOUAN,JISHANGHAIGUANGZHOU、HANKOU、TIANJIN,YESHIZHONGGUOZUIZHONGYAODESHANGYEZHONGXIN,DOUJIANGYOUTIELULIANTONGQILAI。CHUCIZHIWAI,TAHAIJIHUAJIANGSHANGHAIYUNINGBOLIANJIEQILAI,BINGJIANZHUCONGFUZHOUTONGWANGNEIDIDETIELU。(18)QIYIYIWEIWEIZHONGGUOZHENGFUJIESHOU。TONGNIAN,YINGGUOLINGSHIBAXIALIZHONGTIXIUZHUSHANGHAIZHISUZHOUTIELUZHISHI,ZAOSHUSHANGHAIDAOYINGBAOSHIJUJUE。(19)1865NIAN,YINGSHANGDULANDESHANZIZAIBEIJINGYONGNINGMENWAIPUSHEYITIAOXIAOTIELU,ZHANGYUEBANGONGLI,YIRENLITUIDONGHUOCHE,MUDESHIXUANCHUANTIELUZHILI,JINGSHIRENCHAWEIWEIWEN,HAIWEIGUAIWU,HOUBEIBUBINGTONGLINGXIALINGCHAICHU。(20)

 

YINGGUORENJIJIGUDONGZHONGGUOJIANZAOTIELU,XIANRANSHIWEILEKUODAQIZAIHUAQINLVEQUANYI。DUICI,QINGZHENGFUKANDEHENQINGCHU。ZHEIYANG,ZAI19SHIJILIUQISHINIANDAI,ZAIZHONGGUOJIANZAOTIELUYUBIANLIXIFANGLIEQIANGQINLVEJIHUCHENGWEITONGYIYU。YINCI,FANSHIWAIGUORENXIANGZHONGGUOTICHUJIANZAOTIELUJIANYI,QINGZHENGFUBIANYILVXIANGFANGSHEFAYUYIJUJUE。

 

AG娱乐网HAIZAI1863NIAN,SHANGHAIYANGSHANGBINGQINGJIANZAOSHANGHAIZHISUZHOUTIELUSHI,ZONGLIYAMENBIANYIZHISHILIHONGZHANG,CISHI“WANNANYUNXU”,BINGYAOQIU“MIZHITONGSHANGGEKOUAN,YITIFANGFAN”。(21)1865NIAN,ZONGSHUYOUTONGCHIDIFANGDAYUAN,DUIYUWAIGUORENYAOQIUKAISHETIELUZHISHI,WUBISHEFAZUZHI。(22)1866NIANZHI1867NIAN,ZONGSHUIWUSIHEDE、YINGGUOZHUHUASHIGUANCANZANWEITUOMADOUJIANYIZHONGGUOFANGZAOTIELUHUOCHE,ZONGSHUGAIJIAJUJUE。ZONGLIYAMENSUOCHILIYOU,YISHIDANXINKAITONGTIELU,YANGRENJINRUZHONGGUOTAISHEN,DUOSHENGZHIJIE,ZHIZAOYINHUAN;ERSHITIELUHUISHIZHONGGUOXIANZUJINSHI,GUOJIAANQUANSHOUDAOYINGXIANG;SANSHIYOUHAIMINJIANTIANDI、LUSHE,YOUQIYOUAIFENGSHUI;DISISHIFANGAIMINJIANSHENGJI,SHIBIHUIYINQIFENZHENG。ZAIZHEIZHONGGEJUXIA,LIANZHUZHANGXINGBANYANGWUDECENGGUOFAN、LIHONGZHANG、ZUOZONGTANGDENG,YEDOUCHIFANDUIYIJIAN,GENGBUYONGSHUONEIXIEFANDUIYANGWUDESHOUJIUGUANYUANLE。YINCI,ZAI19SHIJI60NIANDAI,KEYISHUO,CHAOTINGSHANGXIANEIWAI,WULUNKAIXINHAISHISHOUJIU,JUGUOYIZHIFANDUIZAIZHONGGUOXIUJIANTIELUHUOCHE。SHIRENSUOCHILIYOU,DADUOSHICONGZHONGGUOYULIEQIANGLIHAIDESHICHUFADE,HUORENWEITIELU“YOUDALIYUBI,YOUDAHAIYUAGYULEWANG”;(23)HUORENWEITIELUSHI“BIZUGUSHENQISHUO,YIJISONGTING,SHANGFEIQIZUIYAOZHIWU”;(24)HUORENWEIYANGRENGUDONGZHONGGUOJIANZAOTIELU,“QIXIANERYIJIANZHE,ZELONGDUANMOULIYE,QIYINERNANKUIZHE,ZEBAOZANGHUOXINYE”;(25)HUORENWEIYANGREN“SHIYUGUANGTONGQILUYUZHONGGUOYE,YIZHONGGUOZHIZHONG,ERJIEYOUGAIYIZHIBING,JIEYOUGAIYIZHIMIN,JIEWEIGAIYIRENYIWANGLAIZHILU。LUNCHUANSUOBUNENGZHI,LUNCHEJIEZHIZHI。SHIWUDIBUKEYIHAOZHAO,WUDIBUKEYICHONGTU,YIZHONGCHUAGYULEWANGBAIXINGZHIXIN”。(26)

 

1868NIAN,ZAIWEIYULIEQIANGXIUYUEZUOZHUNBEISHI,ZONGLIYAMENMINGQUEYAOQIUGEDIYUCHOUDIZHIWAIGUOXIUZHUTIELUDEYAOQIU,YUYIZHEYOUSHANGANZONGDUZUOZONGTANG、SHANDONGXUNFUDINGBAOZHEN、ZONGLICHUANZHENGSHENBAOZHEN、LIANGJIANGZONGDUCENGGUOFAN、JIANGXIXUNFULIUKUNYI、SANKOUTONGSHANGDACHENCHONGHOU、HUGUANGZONGDULIHONGZHANG、LIANGGUANGZONGDURUILIN、JIANGSUXUNFUSHUEDULIHANZHANG、ZHEJIANGXUNFUMAXINYI、SHUZHILIZONGDUGUANWENDENGYIDAPIGUANYUAN。TAMENQIANGDIAOFANGAIFENGSHUI,MINQINGBUBIAN。CENGGUOFANBIAOSHI,TIELURAOMINSHENGJI:

 

AG娱乐网TINGXIAOLUNCHUANRUNEIHE,ZEDAXIAOZHOUHANGSHUISHOUDUOGONGZHISHENGLUQIONGYI。TINGQICHUANGBANDIANXIANTIELU,ZECHELVRENNIANLVDIANJIAOFUZHISHENGLUQIONGYI……RULUNCHUANTIELUDENGSHI,ZIYANGRENXINGZHI,ZEYIWAIGUOERZHANNEIDIZHILI;ZIHUARENZHIFUHEYANGRENZHEXINGZHI,YIYIHAOQIANGERZHANDUOPINMINZHILI。JIEBUKEXING。(27)

 

DINGBAOZHENSHUO:

 

CISHIWEIHAIGUODA,SHIAGYULEWANGZHIGUOJIMINSHENGRIHAORIXUEYUMINGMINGZHIZHONG,BUKANSHEXIANG。(28)

 

LIHONGZHANGSHUO:

 

AG娱乐网(JIANZAOTIELU)ZAOAGYULEWANGSHANCHUAN,HAIAGYULEWANGTIANLU,AIAGYULEWANGFENGSHUI,ZHANAGYULEWANGSHANGMINSHENGJI,BAIXINGBIQUNQIKANGZHENGCHAIHUI,GUANBUNENGZHIQIZUI,YIBUNENGZELINGPEICHANG,ZHIJIMINBIAN。(29)

 

AG娱乐网ZONGLANZHENGGE60NIANDAICHAOYEFANDUIXIUJIANTIELUDEZOUZHANG、YILUN,KEYIKANCHU,QISHIZHONGGUOGUANSHENJISHAOYOURENDUITIELUHEHUOCHEYOUZHENQIEDELEJIE,YEJISHAOYOURENDUITIELUHEHUOCHEZAIGUOJIAJINGJISHEHUISHENGHUOZHONGDEZUOYONGYOUQIESHIDEYANJIU,ERSHISHUNZHEFANSHIYANGRENXIANGZUODEJIUYIGAIFANDUIDESILU,JIANDANDIYUYIPAICHI、JUJUE,YIZHIYUZAICHUANGBANJIANGNANZHIZAOJUDENGJUNGONGQIYEDETONGSHI,QUEFANDUIXIUJIANYUQIJINMILIANXIDETIELU,SANGSHILEZHONGGUOJINDAIHUAQIBUJIEDUANDEDADUANBAOGUIGUANGYIN。

 

DAOLE1870NIANDAI,YANGSHANGZAIZHONGGUOXIUJIANTIELUYISHI,QUDELETUPO,ZHEIJIUSHIWUSONGTIELUDEXIUZHU。

 

AG娱乐网HAIZAI1865NIAN,YINGSHANGJIUZUZHISONGHUTIELUGONGSI,QINGZHUSHANGHAIZHIWUSONGTIELU,BEISHANGHAIDAOYINGBAOSHIJUJUE。GUOLEYIDUANSHIJIAN,YINGSHANGYOUXIANGXINRENDAOTAISHENBINGCHENGHANHUTICHUXIUTONGZHIWUSONGDAOLUDEQINGQIU,SHENBINGCHENGYIJIFEITIEDAOERSHIYIBANXIULU,DANGJIYUNZHUN。(30)YINGSHANGYITOUTIANHUANRIDEBANFA,YU1876NIAN1YUEKAIGONGXIULU,7YUE3RI,SHANGHAIZHIJIANGWANDUANZHENGSHITONGCHE。12YUE1RI,SHANGHAIZHIWUSONGTIELUQUANXIANTONGCHE。

 

ZHEISHIZAIZHONGGUOTUDISHANGDIYICICHENGGONGDIJIANZAOTIELUXINGSHIHUOCHE,ZIRANYINQIGEFANGMIANGUANZHU。ZHEISHI,SHANGHAIDAOYIJINGHUANWEIFENGQUGUANG。FENGLIJIYUYINGGUOZHUHULINGSHIMAIHUATUOJIAOSHE,YAOQIUJINZHI。FENGBIAOSHI,RUGUOBUNENGJINZHIHUOCHETONGXING,TAQINGYUANWOGUIERSI,KEJIANQITAIDUZHIJIANJUE。

 

1876NIAN8YUE3RI,HUOCHEZAIJIANGWANBEISHOUYIWAIYASIYIMINGSANSHIYUSUIHUAREN,ZHEISHIZHONGGUODIFANGZHENGFUDETAIDUBIANDEGENGWEIQIANGYING。JINGDUOCIJIAOSHE,1877NIAN10YUE,QINGZHENGFUSHOUHUIZHEITIAOTIELU,XUANJIJIANGQICHAIHUI,HUOCHEYUTIEGUIBEIYUNWANGAGYULEWANGGUOTAIWAN,YIHOUYOUBEIYUNDAOBEIFANG,WEIXIUZHUKAIPINGMEIKUANGTIELUZHIYONG。

 

三、修还是不修?

 

AG娱乐网ZAIWUSONGTIELUJIAOSHEDETONGSHI,QINGTINGYIXIEGUANYUANTICHULEZHONGGUOZIJIXIUZHUTIELUDEZHUZHANG。CISHISHIYU1877NIAN1YUE9RI(GUANGXUERNIANSHIERYUESHILIURI),FUJIANXUNFUDINGRICHANGJIANYUCIQIANRIBENDUIAGYULEWANGGUOTAIWANDEQINFAN,XIANGCHAOTINGTICHUZAITAIWANXINGBANLUNLUKUANGWUDEZOUZHE。TAZHUYILUNSHULELUNLU(JITIELU)KUANGWUBUXINGZHISHIHAI、CHUANGBANLUNLUKUANGWUZHISHILIYUQIBUBILVDEYIJIAN,BAOKUOLUNLUKUANGWUBUXING,ZEJIAOTONGBUBIAN、FANGWEIKUNNAN、DIBINGSUICHUKEYIDENGANERAGYULEWANGZHUBINGJINTUILIANGNAN、WENBAONANTONG、TUFEINANZHI、JUNXIANGNANJI、PENGHULIEDAONANYUJIANGU;LUNLUKUANGWUCHUANGBANYIHOU,ZEQUANDAOJUNQINGKESHUNXIERDE、WENBAOWUYANZHIZHIYU、JUNDUIDIAODONGLINGBIAN、BIANYUDIKANGDIRENHAISHANGLAIFAN、YIKEMIANSHOUWENYIZHIHAI、BIANYUZHILIDANGDIRENMIN、BINGYONGCAOLIANGENGJIAFANGBIAN。SUOWEIQIBUBILV,BAOKUOBUBIDANYOULUNLUKUANGWUZHIXINGHUISHANGRENLUMU,YINTAIWANKUANGTUSHENDUO,LUNLUBUZHIAIJITIANLU;BUBIDANYOUJINGFEIWENTI,KEYIZHUBUJINXING;BUBIDANYOUXINGJIANLUNLUSHIFAYANGREN,TARIQUANJUYAOHAIWEIYANGRENSUOPANJU,YINWEIAGYULEWANGGUYANGRENWEIGONGJIANG,GONGJUNZEYANGRENKECHE,ZHONGGUORENKECONGZHONGYIMIANJUXING,YIMIANXUEXI;BUBIDANYOUTAIWANXINGBANLUNLUYIHOU,ZHONGGUONEIDIXIAOYOU,YINWEITAIWANYUNEIDIQINGXINGBUTONG,KUANGQIESHIZHONGGUOZIXINGJUBAN,BINGFEIRUSHANGHAIXIYANGRENSIZAO。(31)

 

DINGRICHANGDEZOUYI,DEDAOLIHONGZHANG、SHENBAOZHENDENGRENDEZHICHI,YEDEDAOZONGLIYAMENDEKENDING,RENWEI:

 

JUBANLUNLUWEIJINGLIQUANTAIYIDAGUANJIAN,YOUSHUMUQIANDANGWUZHIJI。BINGQINGCHIXIADINGRICHANG,SHENDUDISHI,TUOSUCHOUCE,WUDANGLIWEIQINAN,BIANNEIRANGWAI,JUNYOUBIYI。(32)

 

QINGTINGPIZHUNLEDINGRICHANGDEZOUYI,XIALINGTILIUYIBUFENGUANSHUIYULIJINGONGDINGRICHANGXIUJIANLUNLUSHIYONG。(33)

 

ZAICIZHIQIAN,ZUOWEICHANGDAOYANGWUDEZHONGJIANRENWULIHONGZHANG,YIJINGKAOLVDAOZHONGGUOXIUJIANTIELUWENTI。1872NIAN,TAZHIXINDINGRICHANG,BIANYISHUJIZHEIYIWENTI。(34)1874NIANTAOLUNHAIFANGWENTISHI,LIHONGZHANGGENGQINGCHUDIBIAOSHI,XINGZAOTIELU,SHIZHONGGUONENGFUNENGQIANGDEGUANJIANYIBU。(35)TONGNIANDONG,TAXIANGGONGQINWANGYIJICHENTIELULIYI,BINGQINGXIANSHIZAOZIQINGJIANGPUZHIBEIJINGDEYIDUAN,YIYIYIWEIRAN,DANBIAOSHIWURENGANZHUCHI。(36)CISHISUIBEIGEZHIXIALAI。1879NIAN,YIZOUQINGCHAOTING: BAOKUOTIELUZAINEIDEYANGWUGESHI,YINGYOUNANYANGDACHENDENGSUISHIZHUODUQINGXING,ZOUMINGBANLI。(37)ZAICIQIANHOU,ZANCHENGXINGJIANTIELUDERENRIYIZENGDUO。GUIZHOUHOUBUDAOLUOYINGLIU、HANLINYUANSHIDUWANGXIANQIAN、ZUODOUYUSHIZHIHEJUNJIBIAOZANCHENG。YOUCIKEJIAN,DAO70NIANDAIZHONGHOUQI,YIYOUYIBUFENGUANYUANRENSHIDAOZHONGGUOCHUANGBANTIELUHUOCHEDEBIYAOXINGYUZHONGYAOXING。

 

DINGRICHANGSUOZOU,SHIZAIAGYULEWANGGUOTAIWANHAIDAOXIUJIANTIELU,DIKUANGRENXI,HANYOUHUIHUAITIANMULUMUZHISHI,CHAOTINGYOUMINGQUEBIAOSHIZHICHI,SUOYI,MEIYOUYINQISHENMEZHENGYI。DINGRICHANGZAIZOUZHEZHONGTEBIESHENSHUHAIDAOYUNEIDIBUTONG,DIXINGBUTONG,MINQINGBUTONG,ZONGLIYAMENYEZHONGSHENZHEIDIAN。ZHEISHUOMINGCHAOTINGZAIPIZHUNTAIWANZHULUZHIYISHI,YIKAOLVDAOHAIDAOYUNEIDIDECHAYI。GUORAN,1880NIANDAICHUQI,LIUMINGCHUANTICHUZAINEIDIXIUZHUTIELUSHI,YINQILEXUANRANDABO。

 

AG娱乐网1880NIANDI,QIANZHILITIDULIUMINGCHUANFENGZHAOJINJINGCHOUYIKANGEJUNWU,SHOUCHANGZAIZHONGGUONEIDIXIUZHUTIELU。TAZAIZOUZHEZHONGRENWEI,EGUO、RIBENDOUYINWEIYOUTIELUHUOCHE,RIYIQIANGDA,YIJINGDUIZHONGGUOXINGCHENGWEIXIE;TIELUAGYULEWANGZAIJINGJI、JUNSHI、ZHENGZHI、WAIJIAODENGFANGMIANDOUZHIGUANZHONGYAO,SHIZIQIANGZHIDAOGUANJIANSUOZAI,ZHONGGUOJIANZAOTIELUKEBURONGHUAN:

 

ZIQIANGZHIDAO,LIANBINGZAOQIGUYICIDIJUXING,RANQIJIKUOZEZAIYUJIZAOTIELU。TIELUZHILIYUCAOWU、ZHENWU、SHANGWU、KUANGWU、LIJUAN、XINGLVZHEBUKEDANSHU,ERYUYONGBINGYIDAOYOUWEIJIBUKEHUANZHITU。ZHONGGUOFUYUANLIAOKUO,BEIBIANMIANGENWANLI,PILIANEJIE,TONGSHANGGEHAIKOUYOUYUGEGUOGONGZHI。HUAJIANGERSHOUZEFANGBUSHENGFANG,CHIZHUWANGLAIZEBIANZHANGMOJI。WEITIELUYIKAI,ZEDONGXINANBEIHUXIXIANGTONG,SHIDISUOQUXIANGJICEYING,SUIWANLIZHIYAO,SHURIKEZHI,SUIBAIWANZHIZHONG,YIHUERJI,WUZHENGDIAOCANGHUANGZHILV,ZHUANSHUJIANNANZHIYU……RUYOUTIELUSHOUFEIZUYIYANGBING,ZELIKAKEYIZHUOCAI,BINGWUYANGPIAOTONGXINGZHIBING,YUGUOBIANMINZHIDAO,WUYUYUCI。QIEERENSUOYIXIEAGYULEWANG,RIBENSUOYIQINGAGYULEWANGZHE,JIEYINZHONGGUOSHOUYIYUZHIJIAN,WEINANGOUAN,BUNENGFENXING。RUOYIDANXIAZAOTIELUZHIZHAO,XIANLUZIQIANGZHIJI,ZEQISHILIZHEN,BIZUWENZHI,BIXIANZHENZHE,BUDUEYUEYICHENG,RIBENKUISIZHIXINYIKECONGCIQIANXIAOYI。

 

TAJIANYIXIUZHUYOUJIANGSUQINGJIANGPUJINGSHANDONGDAOBEIJING、YOUHANKOUJINGHENANDAOBEIJING,YOUBEIJINGDONGTONGSHENGJINGHEXITONGGANSUDESITIAOTIELU。YOUYUGONGCHENGHAOFAN,JIQIEBUNENGBINGJU,YINGXIANXIUQINGJIANGPUZHIBEIJINGYIDUAN。(38)

 

AG娱乐网LIUMINGCHUANDEJIANYI,JIANGTIELUAGYULEWANGTISHANGLEQINGZHENGFUDEYISHIRICHENG。TINGZHIYAOBEIYANGDACHENLIHONGZHANGHENANYANGDACHENLIUKUNYITUOYIJUZOU。LI、LIUFUZOU,JUNZANCHENGXIANXIUQINGJIANGZHIBEIJINGYILU。

 

LIHONGZHANGQIANGDIAO: “RENXINYOUZHUOERQIAO,QIYONGYOUPOERJING,FENGSHANGYOUFENERHE,CITIANDIZIRANZHIDASHI,FEIZHILISUONENGQIANGEYE。”TARENWEI,JINSIWUSHINIANJIAN,XIFANGGEGUOZHISUOYIRIZHENFUQIANG,JIUZAIYUQIYOULUNCHUANYITONGHAIDAO,YOUTIELUYIBIANLUXING;RIBEN、EGUOYEYINWEIYOUTIELUERFAZHANXUNSU。TALIEJUXINGJIANTIELUYOUJIULI: YISHIBIANLIJIAOTONG,GAIBIANMINFENG,CIJIJINGJI;ERSHIBIANLIJUNDUIDIAODONG,YOULIGUOFANG;SANSHIBIANLIJIAQIANGJINGSHIYUNEIDILIANXI,YOULIYUGONGWEIJINGSHI;SISHIYOULIYUZHENZAIBAOMIN;WUSHIYOULIYUCAOLIANG、JUNMI、JUNHUO、JINGXIANGDENGZHUANYUN;LIUSHIYOULIYUWENSHU、YOUJIAN、XINXICHUANDI;QISHIYOULIYUMEITIEKUANGYUNSHU,ZENGJIALIYUAN;BASHIYOULIYUYANGHUO、TUHUOJIAOYI,CUJINJINGJI;JIUSHIYOULIYUGUANMINBINGSHANGRENYUANLIUDONG。TAHAIJIUSUOWEITIELUZHIKAIBIANYUDIRENLAIFAN、YINGXIANGCHEFUFANSHUSHENGJI、POHUAIMINJIANTIANLUFENMUDENGFANDUIXIUJIANTIELUDESHUOFA,YIYIJINXINGLEBOCHI。DUIYULIUMINGCHUANJIEDAIWAIZHAIYIXIULUDEYIJIAN,LIHONGZHANGTICHULESANTIAOYUZUOFANGFANDEBUCHONGYIJIAN: YISHIDANXINYANGRENZHIBACHIERTIELUBUNENGZIZHU,JIANYIYUYANGRENMINGLIJINYUE,BUDEGANYUWUSHI,YIQIEZHAOGONG、GOULIAODENGSHIYI,JUNYOUZHONGGUOZUOZHU;ERSHIDANXINYANGRENGUIMOUZHANJUTIELU,JIANYIBUZHUNYANGRENFUGU,JIANGLAIWANYIJINGYINGKUIDUAN,HAIZHAIKUNNAN,YEZHIZHUNYITIELUWEIZHIXIN,BUDEJIANGTIELUDIJIAOYANGREN;SANSHIDANXINYINTIELUZHIZHAIYINGXIANGZHONGGUOCAIZHENG,JIANYIYUYANGRENYIMING,ZHEILEIZHAIWUYUHAIGUANWUSHE,DANYOUGUOJIAZHIDINGRIHOUSUOSHOUTIELUZHILILUXUFENHAI。(39)TARENWEI,TIELUBANLIDEFA,ZE“LIGUOLIMIN,KEDAKEJIU”。(40)

 

ZAILIHONGZHANG,LIUKUNYIZOUFUZHIQIAN,HANLINYUANSHIDUXUESHIZHANGJIAXIANGYIXIANGCHAOTINGTICHUFANDUIYIJIAN。TARENWEILIUMINGCHUANZHIYIYOUSANBI,YISHIQINGJIANGPUNAISHUILUTONGQU,RUOJIANCHENGTIELU,SHANGJIAXINGLVFUCOUPIANTIAN,QIRENAOBICHAOGUOSHANGHAI、TIANJIN,BIYOUYANGRENWANGLAI,CONGPANGJIYU,JIEDUANYAOQIU,BIYOUBUCEHOUHUAN;ERSHITIELUYANXIANBIPOHUAITIANMU、WULU、FENMU、QIAOLIANG,HUOCHETONGXINGBIYINQICHONGTU,YIHAIMINJIAN;SANSHIHUOCHETONGXING,ZHUANYUNHUOWU,BIYUYIYOUZHIZHAOSHANGJUZHENGLI,TIANJINMATOUJIANGYINCIERSHUAI,HUOCHEYIWEIYOUCIERDUOHUOLI。(41)CHAOTINGJIANGZHANGJIAXIANGDEYIJIANYEYINFAQUNCHENTAOLUN。

 

AG娱乐网ZHENDUIZHANGJIAXIANGDEDANYOU,LIHONGZHANGZAIFUPIANZHONGYIYIJINXINGJIESHIYUPIBO,ZHICHUYANGRENSHIFOUYAOXIE,QUANSHIZHONGGUOGUOSHIZHIQIANGRUO,BUZAIQINGJIANGPUZHIFANRONGYUFOU;TIELUZHANDIHENZHAI,HUOCHETONGXINGSHIYOUQIZHAKAIBI,YUMINBINGWUBUBIAN;ZHIYUHUOCHEYULUNCHUAN,ZAIYUNHUOLUXIAN、YUNXINGSUDUFANGMIANGEYOUTEDIAN,KEYIBINGXINGBUBEI。(42)LIHONGZHANGZHICHU,SHIDAFUDUIYUXIUZHUTIELUZHILEIWEIHEHUIYOUNEIMEDUODEYIJIYUFANDUIYIJIAN:

 

DADIJINLAIJIAOSHEGEWU,SHIXIZHONGGUOCHUANGJIANZHIDUAN,SHIDAFUJIANWAIWURIPO,POYOUFAFENZIQIANGZHIYI。RANYUZIQIANGBIXIANLICAI,ERYIZHEZHEZHIWEIYANLI;YUZIQIANGBITUZHENZUO,ERYIZHEZHECHIWEIXISHI;ZHISHAOSHEYANGWU,ZEGENGYOUBIYIBUXIEZHIJIANHENGGENXIONGZHONG。BUZHIWAIHUANRUCIQIDUO,SHIJIANRUCIQIJI,DUANFEIKONGTANSUONENGYOUJI。AGYULEWANGCHAOCHUSHUQIANNIANWEIYOUZHIQIJU,ZIYINGJIANSHUQIANNIANWEIYOUZHIQIYE,RUOSHISHIBIJUSHOUCHENGFA,KONGRIJIYUWEIRUOERZHONGWUYIZIQIANG。(43)

 

AG娱乐网LIUKUNYIZAIFUZOUSHIMINGQUEBIAOSHIZHICHILIUMINGCHUAN、LIHONGZHANGYIJIAN,BINGQIANGDIAOXIUZHUTIELUZAIZHENGDIAO、ZHUANSHUFANGMIAN,SHIZAISHENSU,WEIWULUNZHIYUSUOGONGXIAO。ZHIYUZHANGJIAXIANGSUODANYOUDEWENTI,JIEKEYIBIANTONGJIEJUE。TADUIYUTIELUXINGJIANYIHOUJIANGHUIYINGXIANGMINJIANSHENGJIFANGMIAN,YOUSUODANXIN。TAXIWANGCHAOTINGCANZHUOYITONG,QUANHENGQINGZHONG,MOUDINGERHOUDONG,JIANGHAOSHIBANHAO。(44)

 

AG娱乐网DUIXIUJIANTIELUCHIFANDUIYIJIANDEHAIYOUJIANGDIAOSHUNTIANFUCHENGWANGJIABI、HANLINYUANSHIDUZHOUDERUNDENG,QIZHONG,YIJIANZUIWEIXITONGDESHILIUXIHONG。LIUXIHONGZAIZOUZHEZHONGLUNSHUHUOCHE“BUKEXINGZHEBA,WULIZHEBA,YOUHAIZHEJIU”,YIGONG25TIAO。GUINAQILAI,KEFENWEIYIXIAQITIAO:

 

AG娱乐网YISHIJINGFEINANCHOU。HUOCHEZHIXING,XUYAOJUEJINGFEI。ZHEIBIJINGFEIRUGUODEZIMINJIAN,XULAIGONGSIFANGNENGBANLI。ZHONGGUOXIANGWUCILEIGONGSI,QIANXIENIANCHUANGBANLUNCHUANZHAOSHANGJU,JIGUBANLI,YINYINGLIBUDUO,RENJIEYUANHUI。XIANZHONGGUOMINLIDAKUN,SUOYINANYIBANLI。ZHEIBIJINGFEIRUGUOYOUGUOKUBOFA,GENGBUKENENG。GUOJIAGONGTANGBUCHONGYIJIU,JUNFEIDUANQUE,JUNSHIQUEFAYISHI;JIMINDENGDAIJIUJI,QITAXUYAOYONGQIANDEDIFANGGENGDUO。YINGGUOJINSANDAO,YOUSHIQITIAOTIELU,HUAFEIJINQIANSANSHIDUOZHAO,ZHONGGUODIFANGSHUSHIBEIYUYINGGUO,DIXINGFUZA,RUGUOYAOZAOXIANGYINGGUONEIMEDUOTIELU,ZEYAOJINGFEISHUSHIWANWAN,ZHONGGUOHECHUNENGCHOUDERUCIJUKUAN?

 

AG娱乐网ERSHIMINQINGNANQIA。ZAOTIELURUZUYUSHAN,ZEXUZHASHANZAODONG;RUZUYUJIANGHAI,ZEXUZAOSHUIDIERRONGJUTIEQIZHONG。ZHEIMEZUO,ZAIXIFANGMEIYOUZHANGAI,YINWEITAMENXINFENGTIANZHUJIAO、JIDUJIAO,BUXINFENGSHUI,DANZAIZHONGGUOBUXING,SHIBIBEIMINZHONGSHIWEIBUXIANG,RANGSHANCHUANZHISHENBUAN,YERONGYIYINCIZHAOZHIHANLIAOZHIZAI。ZHULUBIZHANMINTIAN,SHIDINONGMINHENNANZAIHUODEHESHIDETUDI,QISUODECHANGDIYINQIANHENRONGYIZUOSHIXUANKONG,CIHOUMOUSHENG,NANYOUZHELUO。

 

SANSHIHUOLINANDUO。XIFANGSHANGRENCOUGUBANLITIELU,BANSHIZHIRENZAIZAIZHASHI,ZHONGGUOQINGKUANGZEBURAN,FALINGJIUCHI,BANSHIZHIRENYAOMETANWUZIFEI,YAOMEDUZHILANGFEI,FUJIANCHUANZHENGJUJIUSHIQIANCHEZHIJIAN,XIANZAIRUGUOXINGBANTIELU,HENNANHUOLI。XIYANGGEGUOGUANKOUGUANLIGUIJUYANGE,HUOCHETINGLIUSHIJIANJIAODUAN,TONGXINGSHUNCHANG,ZHONGGUOZEGESHENGGESHU,GUANKABUYI,SHIBIYANWUCHEXING。XIYANGRENCHUXINGXINGLIHENSHAO,ZHONGGUORENCHUXINGXINGLIHENDUO。ZHONGGUORENZHANJUKONGJIANDAZEMEICHEZAIRENBISHAO。XIYANGRENAILVYOU,ZHONGGUORENBUAILVYOU。ZHONGGUOYUXIYANGMAOYIHUOWUGEJUTEDIAN。ZHONGGUOSHIYONGZHIWU,DADUOBUYIYUXIYANG,SUOXIAODAZONG,JINSICHALIANGXIANG,ERXIYANGSUOXUSICHAQISHISHIYOUXIANDE。SUOYI,ZHONGGUORUKAITONGHUOCHE,BUGUOTUBIANYANGREN,WEIZULIYUZHONGGUO。

 

SISHINANYUGUANLI。HUOCHESUDUFEIKUAI,LUMIANSHAOYOUBUPING,HENRONGYIFASHENGSHIGU,YINCI,TIELUHUOCHEZHIGUANLIBIXUYOUZHUANMENRENCAI,YEYAOYOUXIANGYINGDEFAGUI。ZHONGGUOZHEIFANGMIANDOUBUJUBEI。XIFANGSHEHUIZHIANGUANLILIANGHAO,JISHAODAOQIESHIJIANFASHENG,ZHONGGUOZEBUSHI。CIQIANSHANGHAIWUSONGTIELUMAIHUIYANGRENTIELU,GANGYIGEYUEJIBEIRENJIEQUTIEDUAN,SHIDEHUOCHEBUNENGTONGXING。ZHONGGUONEIDISHANLINCONGJING,CHANGYOUDAOZEI,HUOCHESUOJING,YIFADAOQIEANJIAN。KEJIANGUANLIZHINAN。

 

WUSHIRENCAINANMI。JIANZHUTIELUXUYAOZHUANMENJISHURENCAI,ZHONGGUOQUESHAO。ZHULUZHIFA,FEIYANGJIANGZUOBUHAO;HUOCHESHANGDEZHUDUOWUJIAN,BAOKUOPULUZHITIEGUI、ZHILUNZHIYOUSHUI,ZHONGGUODOUBUNENGZHIZAO。RUGUOYIQIEYILAIYANGREN,ZEHUAFEIGENGJU。TUERQIYINWEIFANGZAOXIYANGTIELU,JIELEDAPIWAIZHAI,JIEGUOJIZHIWANGGUO。

 

AG娱乐网LIUSHIPOHUAISHEHUIJIEGOU。HUOCHETONGXINGZHIDI,YUANYOUJINGJIJIEGOU、MINQINGFENGSUDOUJIANGSHOUDAOYINGXIANG。“XIANGPIXIAOMIN,BAIMUZHIRUYIYANGSHISHUKOU,YOUYOUYUCAI,QIJUJINCHENGSHIZHE,ZESUORUBEIERMONENGRUZHI,TONGDOUDAYIZESUORUSHUBEIERYIMONENGRUZHI。HEZHE?SHANGJIASUOBUDAO,SHIYUWUZISHENG,LISHICUYI,CIWAIGENGWUTAQIUYE。JINXINGHUOCHE,ZEHUOWULIUTONG,QUXIEJIEBIAN,RENXINBIZENGSHECHI,CAICHANRIYIXUMI。”

 

QISHIWEIHAIGUOJIAANQUAN。RUGUOZHUTIELUTONGHUOCHE,ZEYUANYOUSHANCHUANGUANSAIXICHENGCHIQUTANTU,WAIGUOJUNDUIRUQINRONGYI。TIELUZHILIYUXINGBINGSHISHIHUBINGLIZHIQIANGRUO,BINGLIQIANGZEAGYULEWANGKESUYICUODI,BINGLIRUOZEDIFANYINYICUAGYULEWANG。RUGUOWAIGUORENSHENRUNEIDI,ZENEIDICUNYUYIWEIYANGRENSUOHUOSUOYONG。

 

AG娱乐网ZUIHOU,LIUXIHONGZONGJIESHUO:

 

CHENCHANGPIZHI,XIYANGRUFUSHANGDAJIA,JINBAOCHONGYING,HUIHUOZISI。FANQIJUZHIYINGCHOU,YISHITONGPU,DONGYONGQIJU,JIEWEISHISHUSHIJIASUOWEIJINGJIAN。DANGQISHIYANCHIFA,ZONGBEIHECHIERMOZHIGANCHOU,RANYISHICAILIEXINGGAO,ZHONGBURUSHISHUYIZEZHIYUAN。SHIWEISHIJIAZHE,DUKEZIDI,GEZHIQIZHIYEYISUQIJIAZHENG,BIHAOSHANGYIBUGANQINGSHIZHI。RUOXINXIANHUACHI,SHEJISHIERXIAOQISUOWEI,ZEYICANZHIFEIJIZUZIDANGQICHAN。AGYULEWANGGUOCHAOQIANLONGZHISHIFEIYOUHUOCHEYE,RANERLINYIKUCHONG,MINFENGWUFU,BIANTAZHIJIWUYINDU,XIYANGYIXIAOGONGERCHENGCHEN。JINZHIDASHIFUJIZHE,YIXINGZHENGBUXIU,MINSHIBUQINER。JILIESHENGZHISUOYIMINGSHANGFA、QUANNONGGONGZHE,CHILINGZHUCHENPINGCHUASIYIYU,SHILIJUXINGZHI,JIKEFUZHENQIANGSHENG,HEWEIXIAOZHONGGUOSUOBUNENGXIAOZAI!(45)

 

LIUXIHONGCENGJINGDANRENZHUYINGFUSHI、ZHUDEGONGSHI,DUIXIFANGHUOCHETIELUYOUQIESHENJINGLIHETIYAN。TALUNSHUHUOCHETIELUBUSHIHEZHONGGUOGUOQING,BINGFEIFUFANKONGLUN,YOUDEQUESHUZHENZHIZHUOJIAN,RUSUOSHUHUOCHESUODAOZHICHUNENGGAIBIANYUANYOUJINGJIJIEGOU、MINQINGFENGSU,HUOCHEGUANLIXUYAOZHUANMENZHISHI,DOUSHIBUKANZHILUN。DANSHI,YOUDESHUYUKUADAQICI,RUZIJINCHOUCUOWENTI、RENCAIPEIYANGWENTI;YOUDEXIANSHUWEIYANSONGTING,RUHUOCHEHUIWEIJIGUOJIAANQUAN。YIZHONGYILUN,RUGUOJINSHIYULOUPIANMIUZHISHUO,ZEXINZHEBUDUO,WEIHAIYIXIAO;RUGUOZHENZHIYUMIUSHUOJIAOCUOHUNZA,ZEXINZHEYIZHONG,WEIHAIYIDA。LIUXIHONGSUOLUNJIUSHIHOUZHE,JIASHANGTACHUSHIXIFANGDEJINGLI,ZHEIJIUSHIDETADEYILUNJUYOUFEITONGXUNCHANGDEYINGXIANGLI。GUORAN,QIZOUZHESHANGCHENGYIHOU,DIERTIANJIXIAYUZHI:

 

AG娱乐网TIELUHUOCHEWEIWAIYANGSUOSHENGXING,RUOYICHUANGBAN,WULUNLISHAOHAIDUO,QIEXUFEIZHISHUQIANWAN,ANDEYOUCIJUKUAN?RUOJIEYONGWAIZHAI,LIUBIYOUDUO。DIEJUTINGCHENCHENZOU,QIANYITIELUDUANBUYIKAI,BUWEIWUJIAN。LIUMINGCHUANSUOZOU,ZHUWUYONGYI。JIANGCIGEYULINGZHIZHI。(46)

 

AG娱乐网LIUXIHONGDEZHEIYIZOUZHE,CIXITAIHOUDEZHEIYIJUEDING,SHIDEZHONGGUOTIELUAGYULEWANGDELISHIYOUXIANGHOUYANCHILEZHISHAOQINIAN。

 

1883NIAN,FAGUOXIANGYUENANZENGBING,ZHONGFAZHANZHENGYICHUJIFA。LIHONGZHANGYOUTICHUXIUJIANTIELUWENTI:

 

HUOCHETIELULIYISHENDA,DONGXIYANGJUNYISHENGXING,ZHONGGUOZUYUFUYI,ZHIJINWEINENGSHIBAN。JIANGLAIYUQIUFUQIANGZHIDIZHICE,SHECIMOYOU。TANGHAIDUOTIEJIAN,LUDUOTIEDAO,CINAIZHENSHISHENGWEI,WAIRENDUANBUGANQINGYUCHENGBINGDONGHE。(47)

 

CIHOU,ZANCHENGYUFANDUIXIUJIANTIELUDESHENGYINDOUHENQIANGLIE。FANDUIZHEBAOKUONEIGEXUESHIXUZHIXIANG、SHANDONGDAOJIANCHAYUSHIWENHAI、SHANXIDAOJIANCHAYUSHIZHANGTINGLIAO、ZHEJIANGDAOJIANCHAYUSHIWANGZHENGYUAN、TAIPUSISHAOQINGYANMAODENG,TAMENZHONGTICIQIANDUORENSHUOGUODETIELUYOUHAILUN,BAOKUOJINGFEIKUNNAN、JIEZHAIYIHUAN、WAIYIJIYUDENG。

 

JIUZAILIANGFANGMIANYIJIANXIANGCHIBUXIASHI,1884NIAN4YUE9RI(GUANGXUSHINIANSANYUESHISIRI),CHAOTINGFASHENGZHONGDARENSHIBIANDONG。ZHIZHANGZHONGSHUERSHIYUNIANDEGONGQINWANGYIBEIBAMIANJUNJIDACHENZHIWU,BEILIQINWANGSHIDUOTIDAI,CIXITAIHOUMINGSHIDUOYUDAOZHONGYAOSHIJIANYIDINGYAOYUCHUNQINWANGYIXUANSHANGBAN。CISHISHICHENG“JIASHENYISHU”。YIXUANWEIGUANGXUHUANGDISHENGFU,DUIXIUJIANTIELUCHIZANCHENGTAIDU。CIHOU,CHAOTINGDUIYUTIELUDETAIDUFASHENGLEZHONGYAOBIANHUA。YIGEBIAOZHIXINGSHIJIANSHIXUZHIXIANGSHOUDAOCHIZE。

 

AG娱乐网1884NIAN10YUE31RI(GUANGXUSHINIANJIUYUESHISANRI),NEIGEXUESHIXUZHIXIANGSHANGZOUCHENG,XIYANGRENQUANZHONGGUOXINGJIANTIELU:

 

YILIDONGAGYULEWANG,SHIYIHAIZHONGAGYULEWANG,AGYULEWANGSHOUQIHAI,ZEBIXIANGQILI,ERZHONGGUOFUHEERSONGYONGZHIZHE,WUFEIWEIFEIJIJINSHENZHIDI,ERZHIGUOJIAZHILIHAIYUBUGUYE。

 

TACHENSHUOXINGJIANTIELUBAHAI: YI、TIELUXINGERDUOSHANGCHUANYEWU,YINGXIANGSHANGRENSHENGJI;ER、XINGJIANTIELUBIRANZHANYONGXIANQIANZHILIHUANGHEDEJINGFEI,ZHIWUSHUXIAOMINZHIKUNKUYUBUGU,SANGSHIMINXIN;SAN、ZIQINGJIANGPUJIANZAOTIELU,YANGRENJIANGRANZHIQIDI,ZHIZAOYANGFANG,ZENGSHEHUOZHAN;SI、JIANZAOTIELU,YANGRENBIRANXIAOFA,RUGUOYUNXU,ZEWUYIKAIMENYIDAO,RUGUOJUJUE,ZEQIXINXINGRONG;WU、TIELUYIJIAN,ZHONGGUOGUANSAIJINSHIQIXIAN,JIANGHEYIZILI?LIU、TIELUYIBEIPOHUAI,KONGDUANCHIDI,HUOCHEJIBUNENGXING,JINANFANGFAN;QI、HUOCHETONGXING,CHUANDIWENBAO,ZEXIANQIANYIZHANQUANFEI,LULUCHETUOJUGUIWUYONG,YINGXIANGYUANYOURENYUANSHENGJI;BA、JUJIEWAIZHAI,QIHUANWUQIONG。ZONGZHI,TIELUZHISHI,“LIXIAOERHAIDA,LIJINERHAIYUAN,LIXIANERHAIYIN。BISUOWEILIZHE,ZAIWUNIANZHIZHONG,CHENSUOWEIHAIZHE,ZAISHINIANYIWAI。”(48)

 

AG娱乐网1885NIAN1YUE10RI(GUANGXUSHINIANSHIYIYUEERSHIWURI),XUZHIXIANGZAISHANGYIZHE,ZHIZE:

 

CHANGDAOCISHUOYUZANCHENGCISHUOZHE,FEIJIANJICHAN,ERZHIGUOJIAZHIDAHAIYUBUGUYE,JIEYIZHIKUANYIZENGYIZHILI,YONGYIZHIFAYISUIYIZHIJI。(49)

 

XUZHIXIANGSUOSHUO“BAHAI”,BINGWURENHEXINXIANDENEIRONG,DANTAZHIZEZHUZHANGXIUJIANTIELUDEDACHENSHIWEILE“FEIJIJINSHEN”,SHI“ZHIGUOJIAZHILIHAIYUBUGU”,SHI“JIEYIZHIKUANYIZENGYIZHILI,YONGYIZHIFAYISUIYIZHIJI”,ZESHIDUILIUMINGCHUAN、LIHONGZHANG、LIUKUNYIDENGRENDEZHENGZHIWUXIAN,SHIFOUDINGZHEIPIDACHENDUIDAQINGWANGCHAODEZHONGCHENG,ZHEISHICIXITAIHOUSUOBUNENGRONGRENDE。GUANGXUSHINIANSHIYIYUEERSHIWURI,SHANGYUQIANZEXUZHIXIANGSUOZOUBINGBUPINGXINLUNSHI,ZHEGANSIXINGZIDI,SHUSHUWANGDAN,ZHEJIAOBUYICHU。(50)XUYOUCISHOUDAOJIANGSANJIDIAOYONG、BUZHUNDIXIAODECHUFEN。

 

ZHONGFAZHANZHENGJIESHUHOU,CHAOTINGXIAZHAOGECHENGONGQIECHOUSHANHOU,TIELUYOUBEIZUOWEIZHONGYAONEIRONGTILECHULAI。LIHONGZHANGBIAOSHI,FASHIQIHOU,ZHAITAIGAOZHU。KAIYUANZHIDAO,DANGXIAOXIFACAIMEITIE、ZAOTIELU、XINGSHANGZHENG。KUANGZANGGUWEIMEIFU,TIELUSHIYOUYUANLI。(51)1885NIAN,MINZHEZONGDUZUOZONGTANGBINGGU,LINZHONGYISHUYAN:

 

AG娱乐网TIELUYIFANGZAOYE。WAIYANGYIJINGSHANGWEIBEN,YUZHONGGUOQINGXINGYUANYOUBUTONG,RANYINSHANGZAOLU,ZHIBINGZHUANYUNLINGTONG,WUWANGBULI。QIWEIJIANYIQIAN,ZUNAOGUSHEN,YIJINGGAOCHENG,MINYINERFU,GUOYINERQIANG,RENWUYINERBEISHENG,YOULIWUHAI,GUYOUMINGZHENG。TIANXIASULUNFENFEN,JIUBUBIYUZHIBIANBAI……QINGSIHAIFANGDACHENPAIDINGZHIHOU,CHILINGYIBAN。(52)

 

1886NIAN,QINGTINGSHEZHIHAIJUNYAMEN,RENMINGCHUNWANGZONGLIJIEZHIYANHAISHUISHI,YIQINGJUNWANGYIKUANG、DAXUESHIZONGDULIHONGZHANG、DOUTONGSHANQING、SHILANGCENGJIZEWEIZUO。LIHONGZHANGZOUQINGJIANGTIELUSHIWUTONGGUIHAIJUNYAMENGUANLI。1887NIAN,HAIJUNYAMENZOUQINGXIUZHUJINGUTIELUHETAIWANTIELU,CIXITAIHOUPIZHUN。CIHOU,JINGUYUTAIWANTIELUDONGGONGXINGJIAN。

 

AG娱乐网1888NIAN,JINGUTIELUJUNGONGTONGCHE,LIHONGZHANGTICHUJIUSHIJIANGTIELUJIEDAOTONGZHOU,HAIJUNYAMENSUIJIQINGBAN。YUCITONGSHI,LIHONGZHANGCHENQINGHEGUANGXUDIDAHUNZHIJI,XIUJIANLEZHUANGONGCIXI、GUANGXUDIYUYONGDEXIYUANTIELU,YIBIANRANGQINGCHAOZUIGAOTONGZHIZHEGANSHOUHUOCHEDEYOUYUEXING。XIUZHUJINTONGLUYUXIYUANTIELULIANGJIANSHILIANZAIYIQI,ZAIJINGSHIYINQILEYICHANGHENDADEFENGBO。XIANHOUSHANGZOUBIAOSHIFANDUIDEYOUERSHIDUOREN,BAOKUOYUSHIYULIANYUAN,TURENSHOU、WUZHAOTAI、ZHANGBINGLIN、LINBUQING、XUHUILI、WANGWENJIN、LIPEIYUAN、CAOHONGXUN、WANGRENKAN、GAOZHAOZHONG、HEFUKUN,GUOZIJIANJIJIUSHENGYU,HUBUJISHIZHONGHONGLIANGPIN,ZUOSHUZIZHUCHEN,HUBUSHANGSHUWENGTONGHE、SUNJIANAI,LIBUSHANGSHUKUIRUN,CANGCHANGSHILANGYOUBAICHUAN,NEIGEXUESHIWENZHI,DAXUESHIENCHENG,SHANGSHUXUTONG,SHILANGSUNYUWEN。FANDUIYIJIANGUINAQILAI,HAISHITIELUJIANGWEIDISUOYONG、RAOLUANSHEHUI、DUOMINSHENGJI、HENGLIZAIGUAN,SHOUHAIZAIMINDENG,DOUSHICIQIANYIERSHINIANJIANFANDUIXIUJIANTIELUDELAODIAO。ZHIYOUYITIAOSHIXINDE,JIJINGSHIZHONGDI,SHOUSHANZHIQU,BUNENGQINGSHI。DUICI,LIHONGZHANGXIELE《YIBOJINGLIAOJIANZUTIELUGEZOU》DENG,YUYIBOCHI。HAIJUNYAMEN、JUNJICHUJIANGFANDUIYIJIANGUINAWEI“ZIDI、RAOMIN、DUOMINSHENGJI”SANDUAN,YUYIPIPING,QINGHUANGSHANGJIANGGEYUANZOUFAJIAOYOUGUANJIANGJUNDUFUFUYI,YAOCENGGUOQUAN、BIANBAODI、ZHANGZHIDONG、LIUMINGCHUAN、WANGWENSHAODENGSHIDUOWEIJIANGJUNDUFUDUIYUJINTONGTIELUGESHUSUOJIAN,XUNSUZOUFU。JIEGUO,DUOSHURENZANCHENGJIXUXINGBANTIELU。LIANGJIANGZONGDUCENGGUOQUANJIANGDEZUIWEIJIANJIETOUCHE:

 

AG娱乐网TAIXITIELUZHILI,GEGUOJIETONG,ZHONGGUOSUOYUMOFANGERSHOUQILIQUANZHE,YIFEIYIRI。CHENYUQIEYIWEIBUKAIYUJINRI,BIKAIYUJIANGLAI,SHIBIWEIZHIYE。YUQIHUIYICHENGZHIGUPIAOERBUZUQUXIN,BURUOJIANZIQIANGZHIDINGJIAN,ERXIANLISHIJI。GAIRENQINGLEYUGUANCHENGERNANYUTUSHI。JIRUCHUSHIWAIYANGYIYI,DANGNIANQUNCHENBIYIBUXIEZHEJUDUO,YOURENYANJI,JIHEBUYANERERZOU?BUSHUNIANERRENRENSIFEN,LEYUQUSHI。WUTA,ANYUSUOXIER。FUFENGYUNLEIYUZHIBIANYE,XIJIANZHIERWEICHANG;JIANGHUAIHEHAIZHIXIANYE,XIXINGZHIERWUJU。TIELUYISHI,WEIZHONGGUOQIANDAISUOWEIWEN,YIDANCHUANGBAN,XIAOMINHAIYI,WUGUAIQIRAN。DAILUOCHENGYIHOU,XIANGZHISUOCHENGYOUHAIZHE,WEIBIJINRAN;ERZHENGBINGYUNCAO,SUIFASUIZHI,ZHUANGHUODAKE,SHUWANGSHULAI,DAIRULUNCHUAN、DIANXIANZHIGONGCHENGBIANLI,YOUKEJUEQIBIRANZHE。(53)

 

AG娱乐网HUANRAOZHEJINTONGTIELUDEZHENGLUN,CHIXUDAO1889NIAN。ZHEIYICI,FANDUIXIULUDESHENGLANG,YUANCHAOGUOYIWANG,JUANRUDERENSHUDUO,DIWEIYEGAO。DANSHI,YOUYUGUANJIANRENWUYIXUAN、LIHONGZHANGDEJIANCHI,YINGDECIXITAIHOUDEZHICHI,XIULUSHIYICAIDEYIXIANGQIANTUIJIN。

 

四、矛盾夹缠

 

CONG19SHIJI60NIANDAICHUQI,DAO80NIANDAIMO,WEIRAOZHONGGUOYAOFOUXIUJIANTIELUWENTI。ZHENGLUNYIZHIMEIYOUTINGZHI。60NIANDAI,ZHUYAOSHITAOLUNRUHEFANGZHILIEQIANGCHASHOUDEWENTI;70NIANDAI,TAOLUNDESHIZAIAGYULEWANGGUOTAIWANHAIDAOXIUJIANTIELU;80NIANDAIZHONGQI,TAOLUNDESHIZAIZHONGGUONEIDIXIUJIANTIELU;80NIANDAIMO,TAOLUNDEJIYOUNEIDIXIUJIANTIELUWENTI,HAIYOUJINGSHIKEFOUTONGXINGHUOCHEWENTI。

 

ZONGKUOERSHIDUONIANJIANZANCHENGYUFANDUIDEYIJIAN,MEIYOUDUOSHAOBENZHICHAYI,ZHIYOUJUTIBIAOSHUBUTONG。ZANCHENGYIJIANZHUYAOSHIFANGBIANHUOWU、RENYUAN、XINXILIUDONG,CIJIJINGJISHEHUIFAZHAN,YOULIYUKANGDIWEIGUO,LUNSHUZUIXIANGJINDESHIDINGRICHANGDE“SHIHAI、SHILIYUQIBUBILV”YULIHONGZHANGDEJIULISANFANGFANSHUO;FANDUIYIJIANJIZHONGQILAI,JIUSHIRIHOUHAIJUNYAMENGUINADE“ZIDI、RAOMIN、DUOMINSHENGJI”,SUOWEIYINGXIANGLUMUFENGSHUIYEZAI“RAOMIN”ZHILIE,LUNSHUZUIXIANGJINDESHILIUXIHONGDE“BUKEXINGZHEBA,WULIZHEBA,YOUHAIZHEJIU”。

 

AG娱乐网ZAIQIWUCENGMIANSHANG,TONGGUANGZHIJIZHONGGUOCONGXIFANGYINJINDEZUIZHONGYAODEYOUSANXIANG,JIJUNXIE(BAOKUOQIANGPAOYUJUNJIAN)、LUNCHUANYUTIELU。ZHEISANGEFANGMIANYINQIDESHEHUIFANXIANGGEBUXIANGTONG。JUNXIEFANGMIANJIHUMEIYOUSHENMEFANDUIDEYIJIAN,RUGUOGUANYUANZHIZHONGYOUSHENMEFENQIDEHUA,NEIZHUYAOJIZHONGYUJINGFEIWENTI。ZHEISHIYINWEI,ZHONGGUOYUXIFANGXIANGBI,JUNXIELUOHOUSHIXIANERYIJIANDE,FANGZAOWAIGUOJUNXIEDUIZHONGGUOJINGJIJIEGOU、SHEHUIJIEGOUMEIYOUSHENMECHUDONG。LUNCHUANFANGMIAN(ZHUYAOSHIMINYONGLUNCHUAN),SHAOYOUZHENGLUN,KAISHISHISHEJIYUANYOUCHUANGONGSHENGJIWENTI,JIZHIHAIYUNQUDAIHEYUN、DAOZHIYUANYOUCAOYUNYUANGONGSHIYECHENGWEILIUMIN,ZHEICAICHENGWEIBIJIAOYANZHONGDESHEHUIWENTI,DANSHI,FANWEIHAIBIJIAOYOUXIAN。XIUZHUTIELUZHISUOYICHENGWEIWENTI,YINQISHEJINEIMEGUANGFANWEI、CHIXUNEIMEZHANGSHIJIANDEZHENGLUN,ZHUYAOYINWEI,DIYI,TIELUHUOCHESHIQUANXINDESHIWU,BAOKUOTIEGUIDEPUSHE,HUOCHEFEICHIDEDONGLIYUYUANLI,ZAIKEZAIWUDEQIANGDAGONGNENG,ZAIGUORENYUANYOUDERENZHIFANWEILI,MEIYOUKEBIDELEISIWU。TIELUZHIYUTULUSHILU,HUOCHEZHIYUMACHELUOCHE,DAIBIAODESHILIANGLEIBUTONGCHENGDUDEWENMING。DIER,TIELUXIUZHU、HUOCHEYUNXINGDERENWEISECAITEBIEQIANGLIE,BINGBUXIANGLUNCHUANNEIYANGSHUNZHEYUANYOUJIANGHEHANGDAOHANGXING,ERSHIZIPIXIJING,FENGSHANKAILU,YUSHUIDAQIAO,NAWANQUZHI,YOUPOBIPING,DUIYUANYOUSHENGTAIHUANJINGGAIBIANDELIDUHENDA,DUIYUANYOUSHANHE、TIANMU、LUSHE、LINGMUQUEYOUCHONGJIYUPOHUAI。DISAN,TIELUXIUZHU,HUOCHEYUNXING,QUESHIHUIGAIBIANXIANGGUANDIQUDEJINGJIJIEGOU、SHEHUIJIEGOU,GAIBIANMINQINGFENGSU,SUOWEI“DUOMINLIQUAN”DEWENTIBINGFEIKONGXUELAIFENG。DISI,DUIYUJIPINJIRUODEZHONGGUOLAISHUO,XIULUDEZIJINLAIYUAN,CHENGRUMAJIANZHONGSUOSHUO,ZHIYOUJIEDAIWAIZHAIYITU,ZHEIDUIYUSHANGBULEJIEWAIZHAIZUOYONGLIANGMIANXINGDEGUANSHENLAISHUO,QIDANYOUBINGFEIQIRENYOUTIAN。ZHEISIGEFANGMIAN,DOUSHITIELUHUOCHEBUTONGYUJUNXIE、LUNCHUANDEDIFANG,SHITIELUHUOCHEZAITONGGUANGZHIJIYINQIZHUDUOYIJI、ZHENGLUNDEGENYUANSUOZAI。

 

TIELUHUOCHEZAITONGGUANGZHIJIYINQIDESHEHUIFANXIANG,ZUIJUYOUFENGCIYIWEIDE,MOGUOYULIHONGZHANGDENGRENZAI19SHIJI80NIANDAIPIBODEYIJIAN,QIAQIASHITAZIJIZAI60NIANDAISHUOGUODEHUA。SHIBIJIAOXIAMIANLIANGDUANHUA:

 

(TONGXIAN、TIELU)CILIANGSHIDAYOULIYUBI,YOUDAHAIYUAGYULEWANG,ERTIELUBITONGXIANYOUSHEN。CHENYUZONGLIYAMENCHANGLUNJIZHI。GESHENGGUANMINJIEYIWEIBUBIAN,YANGRENTANLIWUYAN,ZHIZAIBIXING。SHUNIANYILAI,ZONGWEIDECHENG,GUYOUNEIWAITONGSHANGYAMENHELIJIANJU,BIYIMINGZHIMINQINGBUYUAN,SHINANQIANGBIYE。HUANYUESHIRUOZAIYIJI,ZHIYOURENGZHIQIANSHUO,ZAOAGYULEWANGSHANCHUAN,HAIAGYULEWANGTIANLU,AIAGYULEWANGFENGSHUI,ZHANAGYULEWANGSHANGMINSHENGJI,BAIXINGBIQUNQIKANGZHENGCHAIHUI,GUANBUNENGZHIQIZUI,YIBUNENGZELINGPEICHANG,ZHIJIMINBIAN。(54)

 

AG娱乐网HUOYOUWEITIELUYIKAI,ZEZHONGGUOZHICHEFUFANSHUJIANGWUYIMOUYISHI,KONGXIAOMINSHIQISHENGJI,BIZISHIDUAN。BUZHIYINGGUOCHUZAOTIELUSHI,YIYOULVDUOMINSHENGJIZHE,WEIJIERBANGLUZHIYAOZHENYIMACHEYINGSHENGZHEQIEBEIYUNANGRI。GAITIELUZHILINDADAO,ERZHOUXIANXIANGZHENZHISHAOPIZHE,QISONGKEYUNHUORENGLAIMACHE、MINFU,TIELUZHISHIYIJIFAN,FUCHEYIYINZHIZENGZHONG。ZHIRUOHUOCHESHENGXING,ZEYOUJIASHIZHIREN,YOUXIULUZHIGONG,YOUXUNLIAOZHIDING,YOUSHANGXIAHUOWU、SIHOULVKEZHIZAYI,YUEFUGONGXU,JIEZUYIYANGSHIFUCHU,QISHAORAOYUCAIZHE,ZEKEYIZENGSHELVDIAN,GUANGMAIGUFEN,ZUOQUANZIMU,GUYOUTIELUYIERQIANLI,ERMINZHIYIYIMOUSHENGZHEDANGBUXIASHUSHIWANREN。KUANGMEITIEDENGKUANGYOUCIDAKAI,PINMINZHIZISHIQILIZHEGENGBUKESHENGJI,CIJIEKUOMINSHENGJIZHIMINGZHENGLE。HUOYOUWEIYUMINJIANTIANLU、FENMUYOUAIBIDUOZUNAO。BUZHIGUANDAOKUANGUANG,TIELUSUOJINGBUGUOZHANGYUZHIDI,YUTIANLUFENMUSHANGBUXIANGFANG。JIYUGUANDAOSHAOZHAIZHICHU,YIBIMAIDIYOUJIJIAZHI;QIFENMUDANGDAOZHE,BUNANSHAOYUZHEYIBIZHI。(55)

 

AG娱乐网ZHEILIANGDUANHUADOUSHICHUZILIHONGZHANGDEZOUZHE,BUTONGZHICHU,QIANZHEXIEYU60NIANDAI,HOUZHEXIEYU80NIANDAI。LIANGXIANGDUIZHAO,KEYIQINGCHUDIKANCHU,LIHONGZHANGRIHOUSUOPIBODE,ZHENGSHIZIJIXIANQIANSUOJIANCHIDE。YIGERENDUIMOUGEWENTIDEKANFA,SUIZHESHIJIANDETUIYI,HUANJINGDEGAIBIAN,FASHENGYIXIEBIANHUAHUOZHEGENBENDEBIANHUA,YESHIZHENGCHANGDE。DANSHI,LIHONGZHANGQIANHOUYIJIANBUYIYANG,ZHUYAOHAIBUSHIYINWEIZIJISIXIANGDEGAIBIAN,ERZHUYAOSHISHUOHUADUIXIANGBUYIYANGYUSHUOHUAMUDEBUYIYANG。60NIANDAI,TASHUONEIFANHUA,MUDESHIPAIJULIEQIANGDUIZHONGGUOTIELUAGYULEWANGDERANZHI;80NIANDAI,TASHUONEIFANHUA,MUDESHIZHONGGUOZIJIANTIELU。JINDAIZHONGGUOSUOZOUDEXIANDAIHUADAOLUSHIHOUFAXING、WAISHUOXINGDE,XIANGXIFANGXUEXIYUFANDUIXIFANGQINLVEJIUCHANZAIYIQI。JIZHONGZAILIHONGZHANGSHENSHANG,60NIANDAIFANDUIXIFANGRANZHITIELUAGYULEWANGSHIWEILEZIQIANG,80NIANDAIZHUZHANGZHONGGUOZIJIANTIELUYESHIWEILEZIQIANG。FANDUIXIFANGRANZHISHI,RENHEFANDUIDEJIEKOUDOUKEYIZHAOCHULAI;ZHUZHANGZHONGGUOZIJIANSHI,DUIRENHEFANDUIDESHUOFADOUKEYIZHAODAOBOCHIDELIYOU。YUSHI,CHUXIANLEKANSIZIXIANGMAODUNDEXIANXIANG。SHENBAOZHENZAICHAICHUWUSONGTIELUSHICENGYOUJUMINGYAN: “ZHONGGUORUYUZHENXING,ZETIELUZHIKAIBIBUNENGMIAN,RANBUKESHIZHONGGUOTIELUKAIZHIZIAGYULEWANG。”(56)TAMINGZHITIELUSHIZHONGGUOZOUXIANGZIQIANGDEBIRANZHILU,DANTABUNENGYUNXULIEQIANGSIZIJIANZAODEWUSONGTIELUCHENGWEIZHONGGUOTIELULISHIDEKAIDUAN,BUNENGYUNXULIEQIANGCHASHOUZHONGGUOTIELUAGYULEWANGSHIYE,YOUQIBUNENGYUNXULIEQIANGCHASHOUZHONGGUOTIELUAGYULEWANGSHIYEZHEIJIANSHIYUTASHENBAOZHENDEMINGZILIANXIZAIYIQI。XUEXIXIFANGXIANJINWENMINGYUFANDUIXIFANGJINGJIQINLVE,ZAITIELUZHEIYIWENTISHANGJIZHONGTIXIANCHULAI。ZHEIYESHILIHONGZHANG、SHENBAOZHENDENGRENCHUJINGGANGADEGENYUANSUOZAI。

 

ZUOZHEJIANJIE: XIONGYUEZHI,SHANGHAISHEHUIKEXUEYUAN LISHIYANJIUSUO,SHANGHAI 200235 XIONGYUEZHI,NAN,1949NIANSHENG,JIANGSUHUAIYINREN,SHANGHAISHEHUIKEXUEYUANLISHIYANJIUSUOYANJIUYUAN,FUDANDAXUEJIAOSHOU,ZHUYAOYANJIUFANGXIANGWEIZHONGGUOJINDAISHI、SHANGHAISHI。

 

ZHUSHI:

 

①《HUOZHENGCHE》,《DONGXIYANGKAOMEIYUETONGJICHUAN》。

 

②GUOSHILA: 《MAOYITONGZHI》,XINJIAPOJIANXIASHUYUANDAOGUANGERSHINIANBAN,DI44YE。

 

AG娱乐网③HONGRENGAN: 《ZIZHENGXINPIAN》。

 

④ZHANGDEYI: 《HANGHAISHUQI》,ZHONGSHUHE: 《ZOUXIANGSHIJIECONGSHU》,ZHANGSHA: YUELUSHUSHE,1985NIAN,DI486YE。

 

⑤GUOSONGDAO: 《GUOSONGDAOSHIWENJI》,ZHANGSHA: YUELUSHUSHE,1984NIAN,DI88YE。

 

AG娱乐网⑥GUOLIANCHENG: 《XIYOUBILVE》,DI38~39YE。

 

⑦WANGTAO: 《XINGLI》,《TAOYUANWENLUWAIBIAN》。

 

⑧WANGTAO: 《JIANTIELU》,《TAOYUANWENLUWAIBIAN》。

 

⑨ZHENGGUANYING: 《LUNHUOCHE》,《ZHENGGUANYINGJI》(SHANGCE),SHANGHAI: SHANGHAIRENMINCHUBANSHE,1988NIAN,DI79YE。

 

⑩ZHENGGUANYING: 《LUNHUOCHE》,《ZHENGGUANYINGJI》(SHANGCE),DI80YE。

 

AG娱乐网(11)(12)ZHENGGUANYING: 《TIELUSHANG》,《ZHENGGUANYINGJI》(SHANGCE),DI653YE。

 

AG娱乐网(13)XUEFUCHENG: 《CHUSHIYINGFAYIBISIGUORIJI》,GUANGXUSHILIUNIANSANYUECHUQIRI,ZHANGSHA: YUELUSHUSHE,1985NIAN,DI121~122YE。

 

(14)(15)MAJIANZHONG: 《TIEDAOLUN》(1879),《SHIKEZHAIJIYAN》(JUANYI)。

 

(16)MAJIANZHONG: 《TIEDAOLUN》(1879),《SHIKEZHAIJIYAN》(JUANYI)。

 

(17)(19)《清总理衙门档案AG娱乐网》,宓汝成: 《近代中国铁路史资料》,北京: 中华书局,1963年,第3页。

 

(18)KENDEZHU、LIBAOHONGDENGYI: 《ZHONGGUOTIELUFAZHANSHI》,DI4~8YE,JIANMIRUCHENGSHU,DI6YE。

 

(20)LIYUERUI: 《CHUNBINGSHIYECHENG》,DI204YE。JIANMIRUCHENGSHU,DI17YE。

 

(21)MIRUCHENG: 《ZHONGGUOJINDAITIELUSHIZILIAO》(DI1CE),DI4YE。

 

(22)MIRUCHENG: 《ZHONGGUOJINDAITIELUSHIZILIAO》(DI1CE),DI19~20YE。

 

(23)《CHOUBANYIWUSHIMO》(TONGZHICHAO)JUAN55,DI13YE。

 

(24)CHONGHOUZOU: 《CHOUBANYIWUSHIMO》(TONGZHICHAO)JUAN41,DI27YE。

 

(25)GUANWENZOU,《CHOUBANYIWUSHIMO》(TONGZHICHAO)JUAN41,DI42YE。

 

(26)《CHOUBANYIWUSHIMO》(TONGZHICHAO)JUAN45,DI46YE。

 

(27)CENGGUOFANZOU,《CHOUBANYIWUSHIMO》(TONGZHICHAO)JUAN54,DI1~4YE。

 

AG娱乐网(28)DINGBAOZHENZOU,《CHOUBANYIWUSHIMO》(TONGZHICHAO)JUAN52,DI27YE。

 

(29)LIHONGZHANGZOU,《CHOUBANYIWUSHIMO》(TONGZHICHAO)JUAN55,DI13YE。

 

(30)HAIYOULINGWAIYIZHONGSHUOFASHI,SHENBINGCHENG“SIXIASHIZHIDAOZHEIGEJIHUA(ZHIWUSONGTIELUJIHUA)DE,BINGQIESHUOZAITADERENQINEIJIANGBUJIAZUNAO。DANSHI,DANGZHEIGESHIYEHAIMEIYOUWANCHENGQIAN,TAJIULIRENLE”。BEIHUAJIEBAOGUAN: 《ZHONGGUOZHIHUIGU,1873—1877NIAN》,DI65YE。JIANMIRUCHENGSHU,DI36YE。

 

(31)《GUANGXUERNIANSHIERYUESHILIURIFUJIANXUNFUDINGRICHANGZOU》,《YANGWUYUNDONG》(ER),DI346~353YE。

 

(32)《GUANGXUSANNIANERYUEERSHISIRIZONGLIYAMENYIDENGZOU》,《YANGWUYUNDONG》(ER),DI358~359YE。

 

(33)CHAOTINGPIZHUNZAIAGYULEWANGGUOTAIWANXIUJIANTIELUYIHOU,DINGRICHANGJINXINGLEJIANKUDENULI,HOULAIYINWEICHAOTINGPIZHUNDEJINGFEIMEIYOUSHIJIDAOWEI,DINGRICHANGYOUYINSHENGBINGERBEIMIANQUZHIWU,SUOYI,TAIWANTIELUNEISHIMEIYOUJIANCHENG。

 

(34)LIHONGZHANG《FUDINGYUSHENGZHONGCHENG》,TONGZHISHIYINIANJIUYUESHIYIRI,《LIWENZHONGGONGQUANSHU》PENGLIAOHANGAOJUAN12,DI26YE。

 

(35)LIHONGZHANG: 《CHOUYIHAIFANGZHE》,TONGZHISHISANNIANSHIYIYUECHUERRI。《LIWENZHONGGONGQUANSHU》ZOUGAOJUAN24,DI22YE。

 

AG娱乐网(36)LIHONGZHANG: 《ZHIGUOSONGDAOHAN》,《LIWENZHONGGONGQUANSHU》,PENGLIAOHANGAOJUAN17,DI12~13YE。

 

AG娱乐网(37)《GUANGXUWUNIANSHIYIYUESHISANRIZONGLIYAMENYIDENGZOUZHE》,《YANGWUYUNDONG》(YI),DI203YE。

 

AG娱乐网(38)LIUMINGCHUAN: 《GUANGXULIUNIANSHIYIYUEERRIQIANZHILITIDULIUMINGCHUANZOU》,CONGKANBEN《YANGWUYUNDONG》(LIU),DI138YE。

 

(39)《GUANGXULIUNIANSHIERYUECHUYIRIZHILIZONGDULIHONGZHANGZOU》,《YANGWUYUNDONG》(LIU),DI141~143YE。

 

AG娱乐网(40)《GUANGXULIUNIANSHIERYUECHUYIRIZHILIZONGDULIHONGZHANGZOU》,《YANGWUYUNDONG》(LIU),DI149YE。

 

(41)《GUANGXULIUNIANSHIYIYUEERSHIYIRIHANLINYUANSHIDUXUESHIZHANGJIAXIANGZOU》,《YANGWUYUNDONG》(LIU),DI139~140YE。

 

(42)《GUANGXULIUNIANSHIERYUECHUYIRIZHILIZONGDULIHONGZHANGZOU》,《YANGWUYUNDONG》(LIU),DI148YE。

 

AG娱乐网(43)《GUANGXULIUNIANSHIERYUECHUYIRIZHILIZONGDULIHONGZHANGZOU》,《YANGWUYUNDONG》(LIU),DI149YE。

 

AG娱乐网(44)LIUKUNYI: 《YIFUCHOUZAOTIELULIBIPIAN》,《YANGWUYUNDONG》(LIU),DI151~152YE。

 

AG娱乐网(45)《GUANGXUQINIANZHENGYUESHILIURITONGZHENGSHISICANYILIUXIHONGZOUZHE》,《YANGWUYUNDONG》(LIU),DI165YE。

 

(46)《QINGDEZONGSHILU》JUAN126,DI18YE。JIANMIRUCHENGSHU,DI103YE。

 

(47)LIHONGZHANG: 《LUNFABINGJIANJINJIANCHENTIEJIANTIELUZHILI》,GUANGXUJIUNIANLIUYUEERSHIERRI,《LIWENZHONGGONGQUANSHU》YISHUHANGAO,JUAN14,DI25YE。

 

AG娱乐网(48)XUZHIXIANG: 《LUNTIELULIHAIZHE》,《JIADINGXIANSHENGZOUYI》(JUANSHANG),《YANGWUYUNDONG》(LIU),DI167~168YE。

 

(49)《GUANGXUSHINIANSHIYIYUEERSHIWURINEIGEXUESHIXUZHIXIANGZOU》,《YANGWUYUNDONG》(LIU),DI172YE。

 

(50)《DONGHUALU》(GUANGXUCHAO),JUAN66,DI18YE。

 

(51)《QINGSHIGAO》JIAOTONGZHI,DI4428YE。

 

(52)《JIAOTONGSHILUZHENGBIAN》(DI1CE),DI38YE。

 

(53)《GUANGXUSHIWUNIANYIYUEERSHIJIURILIANGJIANGZONGDUCENGGUOQUANZOU》,《YANGWUYUNDONG》(LIU),DI236~237YE。

 

(54)LIHONGZHANGZOU,《CHOUBANYIWUSHIMO》(TONGZHICHAO)JUAN55,DI13YE。

 

(55)LIHONGZHANG: 《GUANGXULIUNIANSHIERYUECHUYIRIZHILIZONGDULIHONGZHANGZOU》,《YANGWUYUNDONG》(LIU),DI145YE。

 

(56)HEQI、HULIYUAN: 《〈QUANXUEPIAN〉SHUHOU》。




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