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晚清政治史 【字体:

AG娱乐网ZHANGZHENGUO: QINGMOZERENNEIGERENYUANBIANZHIKAO

作者: 文章来源:AG娱乐网

摘要: 设置责任内阁是清末宪政史和政治史上的一件大事,影响既深且远。因关注点不同,兼之资料方面的限制,学界对责任内阁人员编制情况论述较少。据中国第一历史档案馆所藏档案考证,责任内阁由四类官员组成,分别为高级官员、次高级官员、中级官员和下级官员。官员的级别不同,其来源、职掌、数额和结构迥异。通过精算和估量可知,四级官员之总和达640人之多,规模庞大,编制复杂。考证清末责任内阁人员编制不仅有裨于准确把握责任内阁的性质,而且有助于了解责任内阁在民国初年之承续。

 

GUANJIANCI: QINGMO ZERENNEIGE RENYUANBIANZHI

 

宣统三年(1911年)四月,清廷决定仿效西方议政体制,裁撤军机处、内阁、会议政务处、宪政编查馆、吏部、中书科、稽查钦奉上谕事件处、批本处诸机构,设立新内阁,实行责任内阁制度。这是清末宪政史和政治史上的一件大事,影响既深且远,学界对此作了很多研究。但有关研究前后关注重点有所不同,初始“主要是在一般的立宪运动史、宪政改革史,尤其是关于立宪派的研究以及有关官制改革、国会请愿运动等论著中有所涉及”①,概述新内阁设置的过程、职掌、性质及其在宪政史上的地位。近来专题AG娱乐网论文逐渐增多,或探讨责任内阁创设的背景,或分析责任内阁的性质及其在清末宪政改革过程中的历史命运,或梳理责任内阁演变的过程及其阶段性变化,或研究责任内阁制出台后对时局的影响等,研究更加丰富,论述更为深入,颇值后来者参考和借鉴②。

 

然因关注点不同,兼之资料阙如,前辈学者对责任内阁运作的基础——人员编制情况,却鲜有论及。这不仅会影响对责任内阁职掌的了解和把握,还会影响对责任内官性质、地位的分析和评价。笔者查阅中国第一历史档案馆所藏军机处录副奏折,发现时任内阁总理大臣、庆亲王奕劻奏留责任内阁官员的档案,一方面可以据此考证责任内阁人员编制情况,较为准确地把握其组织结构和职掌范围;另一方面通过分析所留人员的原有身份和原属机构,可以厘清责任内阁的性质及其在清末政治史上的地位,进而加深对责任内阁的整体认知。

 

特简、简任官员之编制

 

AG娱乐网ZERENNEIGEZHICHUANGSHE,TIXIANYULIANGGEZHONGYAODEWENJIAN: YISHIXUANTONGSANNIANSIYUEBANXINGDE《NEIGEGUANZHI》,ERSHIXUANTONGSANNIANWUYUEBANXINGDE《NEIGESHUGUANGUANZHIJINEIGEFAZHIYUANGUANZHI》(YIXIAJIANCHENG《SHUGUANGUANZHI》),QIANZHEGUIDINGZERENNEIGEZHIJIBENZUZHIFANGSHI、DACHENGOUCHENGJIZHIZE,HOUZHEGUIDINGZERENNEIGEJIGOUZHISHEZHI、SHUGUANGOUCHENGJIZHIZHANGFENGONG。CONGZHEILIANGFENWENJIANKEJIAN,ZERENNEIGEGUANYUANSHEZHIMINGMUFANDUO,DIWEIYOUBIE,ZHIZHANGJIONGYI,ESHUBUTONG。JIUDIWEI、ZHIZHANGHEXINGZHILAIFEN,ZERENNEIGEGUANYUANYOULIANGBUFENZUCHENG: NEIGEDACHENHENEIGESHUYUAN。JIUXUANRENFANGSHILAIFEN,ZERENNEIGEGUANYUANYOUSIBUFENGOUCHENG: TEJIANGUANYUAN、JIANRENGUANYUAN、ZOURENGUANYUANHEWEIRENGUANYUAN。ZHEIWEIKAOCHAZERENNEIGERENYUANBIANZHIQINGKUANGTIGONGLEFENLEIJICHU。

 

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YOUCIKEJIAN,ZERENNEIGESUOSHUZHIYITING、SIJU、YIYUANGONGSHEGECHENG、TINGZHANG、FUTINGZHANG、JUZHANG、FUJUZHANG、YUANSHI、FUSHI13REN,JIANZHINEIGEDACHEN13REN,GONGJI26REN。ZHEISHIZHIDUMINGQUEJIZAIDE,YESHIZUIWEIRENMENSUOSHUZHIDEZERENNEIGERENYUANBIANZHIQINGKUANG。

 

奏任官员之编制

 

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《SHUGUANGUANZHI》BANBUHOUBUJIU,ZERENNEIGELIUYONG、TIANDIAORENYUANJIYIKAISHI。DAIZHIXUANTONGSANNIANLIUYUESHI,GEJIGOULIUTIANRENYUANDAZHIDINGXING。《DAGONGBAO》LIUYUEERSHIERRIKANZAILE“XUGUANJURENMINGYILANBIAO”YILAN,XIANGXILIEJULEXUGUANJUSUOLIURENYUANMINGDAN,QIZHONGQIANSHI111REN,LUSHI108REN,GONGJI219REN(11)。DANCISHIGUANZHIBANXINGWEIJIU,GEJIGOUSUOLIURENYUANSHIFOUCHENGZHI,SUOBANSHIWUSHIFOUTUOSHAN,XUYAOSHIBANYIDUANSHIJIANZHIHOUCAINENGDEZHI。JIZHIXUANTONGSANNIANBAYUE,YIKUANGDENGRENWEI,LIUTIANRENYUANYI“SHIBANSANYUE,SHANGWUYIWU,ZIYINGZOUQINGLIUGE,BIDEZHUANXINZHIWU”(12)。YUSHIZONGHEGEFANGMIANYINSU,YOUQISHIGEJIGOUSHIWUZHIFANJIANHECAIBINGYAMENRENYUANZHIDUOGUA,YUCHUJIU、SHIJIULIANGRIJUZOUQINGZHI,CHUDINGGEJIGOUYUANE。RUCHENGXUANTING30REN,QIZHONGQIANJUNJICHURENYUAN29REN,DIAOYONGRENYUAN1REN(13);ZHIGAOJU84REN,QIZHONGLIUYONGQIANNEIGERENYUAN69REN,QIANLIBURENYUAN9REN,WAIWUBURENYUAN2REN,LUJUNBURENYUAN4REN(14);XUGUANJU110REN,JUNWEIQIANLIBURENYUAN(15)。TONGJIJU24REN,QIZHONGLIUYONGQIANXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANRENYUAN8REN,DIAOYONGRENYUAN16REN(16);YINZHUJU25REN,QIZHONGLIUYONGQIANZHENGZHIGUANBAOJURENYUAN10REN,QIANNEIGERENYUAN2REN,QIANLIBURENYUAN1REN,QIANLIBURENYUAN3REN,DIAOYONGRENYUAN9REN(17)。

 

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YOUSHANGKEJIAN,CHUFAZHIYUANCANYI4YUANBUJIWAI,NEIGEYITING、SIJU、YIYUANGONGLIUYONG、DIAOYONGGUANYUAN305REN。YIGUANYUANDEXINGZHI、FENBUJIQIYUYUANYAMENDEGUANXILAIKAN,ZHEIXIERENYUANJUYOUYIXIATEDIAN:

 

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BUJINRUCI,LIUYONGDE305RENFENBUJIBUJUNHENG,CONGQIANMIANDETONGJIKEYIKANCHU,YOUDEJIGOULIUYONGDUODA110REN,YOUDEJIGOUJINLIU20DUOREN,XIANGCHAHENDA。ZHEIYUGEJIGOUSHIWUZHIFANJIANYOUZHIJIEGUANXI。ZHIGAOJU、XUGUANJUFENBIEFUZEYUANNEIGE、LIBUSHIWU,YOUQISHIXUGUANJU,ZHISIQUANBUWENGUANDEXUANREN、KAOHE、CHUFENDENGSHIWU,RENWUFANZA,ZERENQIZHONG,FEIDUOEBUZUYIRENQISHI。ERYINZHUJUDENGZHUYAOSHIFUZENEIGEGUANBAOZHIBIANPAI、KANYIN,SHIWUXIANGDUIJIANBIAN,WUYONGDUOSHEYUANE。ZAIZOULIUGUOCHENGZHONG,YISHIYAOKUANWEILIUYONG,WEIRENSHEQUE,ERYOUXUMINGDINGBILI,QUFENFANJIAN。ZAIZHEILIUYUJIANDEMAODUNBEIHOU,TIXIANDESHIZHUGUANYINSUYUKEGUANYINSUDEHUNZA,GANXINGYINSUHELIXINGYINSUDESHENTOU。

 

AG娱乐网DISAN,LISHUYASHU,QUJUEXINJIUZHIZHANG。CHENGXUANTINGSUOGUANSHIXIANG,“YUANXIJIURIJUNJICHUZHIZHANG”,GUSUOLIURENYUANDUOWEIJUNJICHUGUANYUAN。DANGAITINGSHIWU“YOUYIYIBANLIHUIYIJIQUANGEWENDU、HUIJIDENGXIANG”,ZIRANJIAOJUNJICHUSHIWU“ZENGJU”,ER“CONGQIANZHANGJINGYUANEBENSHUWUDUO”,CHUYIDINGQUANLIUWAI,YOU“TIANDIAOTONGXIAOJIXUERENYUANYIYUAN,ZHUANBANHUIJISHIXIANG”。ZHIGAOJU“YUANXIJIURINEIGE”ZHIZHANG,CIWAI“YOUYOULIBU、WAIWUBU、LUJUNBUHUABOSHIXIANG”,GUCHULIUYONGQIANNEIGERENYUANWAI,HAIJIANGSANYAMEN“SUISONGRENYUAN,YIJINGFENBIEZHUOLIU”。XUGUANJUYUANXIJIURI“LIBUZHIZHANG”,GULIUYONGZHEJUNWEIQIANLIBUGUANYUAN。TONGJIJU“YUANXIJIURIXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANZHIZHANG”,GUQIRENYUANDUOCONGXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANGUANYUANNEIZHUOLIANGLIUYONG。DANYUANBIANCHAGUANRENYUANJIAOSHAO,YEYI“QIANGBANJIANCHA”,XIANZAIGEYUANYOU“DUOYIHUIYUANYAMENGONGZHI,SUOYUYUANEBUFUFENBU”,SUOYI“BUNENGBULIANGYUDIAOYONG”BIEYAMENRENYUAN。YINZHUJUYUANXIJIURIZHENGZHIGUANBAOJUZHIZHANG,GULIUYONGZHEDUOWEIGUANBAOJURENYUAN。DANYINZHUJUSHIWUFANMANG,YUANGUANBAOJUGUANYUANJINSHISHUYUAN,BUFUCHAQIAN,SUOYI“YOUZHUOLIANGTIANDIAOBINGLIUYONGLIBUSUISHIBOSONGSHUYUAN”(21)。FAZHIYUANJIEZHANGDESHIYUANXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANSUOSIZHI“KAOHEJINGWAICHOUBEIXIANZHENGSHIYI”,GU“JIANGQIANZAIXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANDANGCHALIUYUANBANSHI”RENYUANZHUOLIUSHISHUREN。ERGENGZHONGYAOZHE,FAZHIYUANJUYOU“HEDINGQUANGUOFALINGZHIZE”,BIANCHAGUANRENYUANCONGRENSHUHEYUELIJUNBUFUBUYONG,YUSHIYOUCONGQITAYAMENGUANYUANHEBIYESHENGZHONG“ZHUODIAO”JINGTONGFAZHIZHEJIN20REN(22)。

 

DISI,MINGCHENGBUDING,JUNYIYUANGUANZHISHI。YIKUANGDENGRENZOULIUNEIGESHUYUANYISHIGONGYOULIANGZHE,YIZHEWEIXUANTONGSANNIANBAYUECHUJIURISUOZOU“WEITINGJULIUYONGDIAOYONGRENYUANSHANGZIDELIQINGLIUGERENYONGSHI”(23),YIZHEWEIXUANTONGSANNIANBAYUESHIJIURISUOZOU“WEIFAZHIYUANLIUYONGDIAOYONGRENYUANQINGYULIUGESHI”(24)。LIANGZHEHOUJUNYOULIANGJUHUA: YISHISUOLIURENYUAN“RUMENGYUYUN,ZAIYOUCHENDENGZHUODINGEQUE,FENBIEDENGDI,LINGXINGZOUMINGBANLI”;ERSHICICILIUYONG、DIAOYONGGEYUAN,JUNYIYUANGUAN、YUANCHAZHISHI,“TONGSIBUQUEGAIGUANHOU,ZAIXINGKAIQUYUANGUAN、YUANCHA”(25)。SHUOMINGCICIZOULIURENYUANJINWEIGUODUXINGJUCUO,BUJINEQUEBUDING,DENGDIYIWEIQUFEN,SUOLIURENYUANJUNYIYUANGUAN、YUANCHAZHISHIJIXIN。JIUGUANCHENGERYAN,LIUYONGRENYUANYOUSHIDUXUESHI、SHIDU、LANGZHONG、YUANWAILANG、ZHUSHI、BITIESHI,YIJIDAOYUAN、ZHIFU、TONGZHI、TONGPAN、ZHIXIANZHIFEN;QIXINGZHIYOUSHIQUEGUANYUAN、HOUBURENYUAN、HOUXUANRENYUAN、BIYESHENGZHIBIE,JUNBUGUANQIANSHIZHIMING。JIUDENGDIERYAN,CANYI、QIANSHIDENGGUANYINGFENBUTONGDEDENGJI,YIBIEGAOXIA,BUNENGLONGTONGCHENGZHI。ZHIYUQUFENDENGJI,YINSHIJUDONGDANG,ZHIZHIQINGWANGYIWEINENGYOUDINGZHI。DANCONGNEIGEYINZHUJUBIANYINDE《XUANTONGSANNIANDONGJIZHIGUANLU》ZHIDENGJIHUAFENKEYIKANCHU,CHUYINZHUJUYISHI、YISHIHEFAZHIYUANCANYI、CANSHIBUFENDENGJIWAI,QINGTINGYICHUBUDASUANJIANGTINGJUYUANQIANSHIFENWEISIDENG,LUSHIFENWEISANDENG,FENBIEWEI: YIDENGQIANSHI、ERDENGQIANSHI、SANDENGQIANSHI、SIDENGQIANSHI,YIDENGLUSHI、ERDENGLUSHI、SANDENGLUSHI(26)。

 

AG娱乐网DIWU,SHIWUFANZA,QUFENKECHUBANLI。GETING、JU、YUANSHIWUFANZA,YIXUGUANJUWEILI,《SHUGUANGUANZHI》ZHONGGUIDING,QIZHIZHANGYOULIU: “YI、NEIWAIJIANREN、ZOURENGEGUANLVLIJIHE、CUNCHUSHIJIAN;ER、NEIWAIJIANRENGEGUANKAIDANQINGJIANSHIJIAN;SAN、NEIWAIZOURENGEGUANZIGESHENCHASHIJIAN;SI、NEIWAIWEIRENGEGUANCEBAOJILVLICUNCHUSHIJIAN;WU、GUANYUWENGUANKAOSHISHIJIAN;LIU、GUANYUWENGUANCHUFENSHIJIAN”(27)。BAOKUOWENGUANDEKAOSHI、XUANREN、KAOHE、SHENCHAYIJICHUFENDENGSHI。MIANDUIRUCIFANZADESHIWU,WEIYOUZAICIXIFEN,FANGNENGDEXINYINGSHOU、YOUTIAOBUWEN。ERXIFENDEFANGFA,ZAIJINGXINSHEGEBUYUANYIJIYICAIZHILIBUJUNYOULIKEJIAN(28),JIANZHAOZHIWULEIBIE,ZAIXUGUANJUXIAFENSHE“KE”、“CHU”,SHIDANGMINGZHI,FENQUANDINGZE。《SHUGUANGUANZHI》BANXINGBUJIYIYUE,XUANTONGSANNIANLIUYUEERSHISANRI,XUGUANJUXIASHEZHIKE、CHUMINGCHENG,JIUZAIBAOKANSHANGBEIKANDENGCHULAI。RU《SHENBAO》“NEIGEXUGUANJUZHINEIMU”YIWEN,JIXUGUANJUXIASHE6KE、2CHU,FENBIEWEI: DIYIKE、DIERKE、DISANKE、DISIKE、DIWUKE、DILIUKEHEJUANCECHU、SHUWUCHU;“SHUHUWENXUANSIZHEWEIDIYI、DISAN、DISI、DILIUSIKE”,“SHUHUKAOGONGSIZHEWEIDIER、DIWUERKE”(29)。BUJINDENGZAILEGEKE、CHUMINGCHENGJIQIPAIXU,HAIDAZHIHUAFENLETAMENZHIJIANDEZHIQUANFANWEI,KEJIANCISHIXUGUANJUZHIKE、CHUSHEZHIYIJIBENDINGXING。ZHIYUGEKECHURENYUANPEIZHIQINGKUANG,QIJIBENYUANZESHI“MEIKE、MEICHUGESHEZONGSISHIYIZHELIANGYUAN”,FENBIEWEIKEZHANG、FUKEZHANG,ZONGHEYIKEZHISHI;“FENGUANSHIYIZHERUOGANYUAN”,WEIKEYUAN,“SHISHIZHIFANJIAN,DINGEZHIDUOGUA”(30)。QIZHONG,DIYIKE14REN,DIERKE14REN,DISANKE15REN,DISIKE18REN,DIWUKE12REN,DILIUKE16REN,JUANCECHU13REN,SHUWUCHU9REN,RENSHUDUOGUABUYI(31)。XUGUANJURUCI,QITATING、JUYIRAN。YOUCIKEJIAN,KECHUZHISHEZHI,YIFANGMIANXIHUALETING、JUSHIWUBANLISHIWUDEZHIZE,SHIZERENNEIGEQUANZEGENGWEIMINGQUE,LINGYIFANGMIANQIANGHUALEZHIQUANFENGONG,TISHENGLEXINGZHENGXIAOLV。ZHEISHIJIUYOUBUYUANGUANZHIHEXINXINGKECENGZHIZAIQINGMOGUANZHIGAIGEZHONGDEZUNXUNHEFANGXIAO。

 

委任官员之编制

 

RUQIANSUOSHU,XUANTONGSANNIANLIUYUE《DAGONGBAO》KANZAINEIGEXUGUANJUZANLIUQIANSHI111REN、LUSHI108REN,ERZHEHEJI219REN。TONGNIANBAYUE,YIKUANGDENGRENZOULIURENYUANSHIJINLIUXIA110REN。YISHI219REN,YISHI110REN,XIANGCHA109REN,CHABIEJIDA。JIUJINGSHIZOULIUSHIDUIRENYUANYOUYOUJINGJIAN,HAISHISUOLIURENYUANYUBAOKANJIZAILEIBIEBUTONG,ZHEIGUANXIDAOZERENNEIGERENYUANDEJUTIBIANZHI,BUNENGBUYOUSUOSHENLUN。

 

DUIBILIANGFENRENYUANMINGDAN,KEFAXIANBAYUEFENSUOZOULIUZHI110REN,JUNBAOHANZAILIUYUEFENBAOKANJIZAIDE111MINGQIANSHIMINGDANZHONG,QUEWULINGLUSHI108RENDEMINGDAN。JIBAYUEFENSUOLIURENYUAN,JINWEIXUGUANJUQIANSHI,BUHANLUSHI。YOUXUGUANYIJUKEYITUIZHI,QITATING、JU、YUANSUOLIURENYUANYEYINGWEIQIANSHI,WEIFAZHIYUANJIAOWEITESHU,SUOLIURENYUANZHONGHAIBAOKUOCANSHI。ZHEISHIDIYIDIANXUYAOSHENMINGDE。

 

AG娱乐网JU《SHUGUANGUANZHI》GUIDING,QIANSHI“CHENGGECHENGJITINGZHANG、JUZHANGZHIMING,FENRENGETINGJUSHIWU”;ERLUSHIZHISHI“CHENGSHANGGUANZHIMING,SHANXIEWENJIAN,BANLISHUWU”(32)。KEJIAN,XIANGBIJIAOQIANSHI,LUSHIDEDIWEIJIAODI,ZHIWUCIYAO,BEIJIANXUANSHIYONGDESHIJIANHUOGENGWEIKAOHOU。DAIZHIXUANTONGSANNIANBAYUENEIGEDACHENZOULIUQIANSHISHI,LUSHIGEYUANBEI“PAILINGRENCHA”DESHIJIANBUZHANG,SHIYOUSHILIE,BINGBUMINGXI,ZHIYOUZAIGUOYIDUANSHIJIAN,DENGDAIKAOCHAQIMAN,“SHIQINEIYOUWUGUOSHI,ZAIXINGPANDINGQULIU”(33)。SUOYI,ZERENNEIGEZUIZHONGLIUXIADUOSHAOLUSHI,ZHIZHIXUANTONGSANNIANBAYUEHAIBUDEERZHI。YINCI,TONGJIZERENNEIGEYUANEHEBIANZHIQINGKUANGQUESHUXIANRANBUKENENG。ZHEISHIDIERDIANXUYAOSHENMINGDE。

 

DANTONGGUOFENXIDANGSHIYIXIEBAOKANDEBAODAO,HAISHIKEYIDUINEIGELUSHIDELAIYUAN、CENGJIJIQISHUEZUOYIKUICEDE。

 

AG娱乐网《DAGONGBAO》BAYUECHUQIRISUOZAI《XINNEIGEGUANZHIZHIYIBAN》YUE: “XINNEIGEGUANZHI,XIANYILIDINGRUZOU,WENQIGAILVE,XIQIANSHIGEYUANFENYI、ER、SANDENG,YIJIUNEIGEJIJUNJICHU、LIBUPINZHIXIANGDANGRENYUAN□YONG。QILUSHIYIFENSANDENG,RENGYOUGAISANSHUJIURILUSHI、GONGSHI、TENGLUGEYUANZHONGZEYOUXUANBA,XIANYIPAILINGRENCHA。WEICIXIANGRENYUANXUSHIBAN□GEYUE,SHIQINEIYOUWUGUOSHI,ZAIXINGPANDINGQULIU。”(34)CONGZHONGTOULULIANGFANGMIANDEXINXI: YISHILUSHIDELAIYUAN,YOUCAICHEZHIJIUNEIGE、JUNJICHUYIJILIBUSANGEYAMENZHONGYUANYOUZHILUSHI、GONGSHI、TENGLUGEYUANZHONGZEYOUXUANBA;ERSHILUSHIDECENGJI,FENWEISANDENG,FENBIEWEIYIDENGLUSHI、ERDENGLUSHIHESANDENGLUSHI,JIAOZHIQIANSHISHAOYIDENG。

 

CHULUSHI、GONGSHI、TENGLUWAI,ZERENNEIGELUSHIHAIYOUYIGELAIYUAN,JIYICAIBUYUANYAMENZHIBITIESHI。CONG《SHENBAO》XUANTONGSANNIANLIUYUEERSHISANRIZAI《NEIGEXUGUANJUZHINEIMU》YIWENKEYIKUITANYIBAN: “QIZUILINGRENCHILENGZHE,ZEWEIBITIESHIZHIYIWU。BITIESHIGUANJIESHENBEI,RENLEIYOUZA,GEBUZHONGDUOZHANQIDABAN,LIBUYOUBUSHAO。GAIBUCAIHOU,JIUSHIYOULISIYUANKUXUEYULIBUYOUCHAZHE,DOUFEITENGYUXUGUANJU。DANXUGUANJULIUYUANWUDUO,ERBITIESHIYOUKEWUSUONENG,BUDEBUZAITAOTAIZHILIE。CIBEIDANFANWUDI,NAILIANHEQUANBUBIZHENG,KENQIUJUZHANGYUANGAILUSHI。XIANWENYOUBIZHENGGAILUSHIZHE,DUOZHISANSHIYUYUAN。CIBEIPINGRIZHIGAOQIYANG,ZICHAIYUSIYUANZHILIE,YUTANGGUANYOUJIUZHEYINENGCHONGKEYUAN。DADIZIHUAELIE,GONGSHIMANGRAN,HUADAOCHIFANYIHOU,YILIUYANBIANYIDUNQU,SHENYOUQIANRENDAIHUADAOZIZHE,QICAINENGKEXIANG。XIANZAIJIGAILUSHI,ZIYISHANXIEWEIZHUANZHI,NAILIANRIDAOTONG,RENGJIUCESHENGEKEZHIJIAN,CHAOYANKUANGXI,RENDUOYANCHONG,ZHUANLINGBANSHIZHEDUOSUOFANGAI。GEKEKEYUANYITONGSHIDUONIANBURENXIAZHUKEZHILING,ZHIKECHIZHIYIBI。CIYIXINGUANTINGXIANXIANGZHIYIDUANYE。”(35)FEICHANGXINGXIANGDIKEHUALEQINGDAIDEDUTEQUNTI——BITIESHIDESHEHUIDIWEI、GONGZUONENGLI、GONGZUOTAIDUHESHENGHUOCHOUTAI,WEIZHUNQUEDIBAWOZERENNEIGEDERENYUANZHUANGKUANG,YUCEZERENNEIGEDEGONGZUOXIAOLV,PANDUANZERENNEIGEDEXINGZHITIGONGLEYIGESHIJIAO。

 

AG娱乐网ZHIYULUSHIDEBIANZHI,HUOKEYIYUELVETUICE。XUANTONGSANNIANLIUYUEERSHISIRI《DAGONGBAO》ZAIYOU“XUGUANJULUSHIZHIYILANBIAO”,FENBIEKE、CHU,XIANGXIDENGZAILEGELUSHIMINGDAN。GEKECHUZANLIULUSHIRENSHUYICIWEI: SHANZHECHU12REN,DIYIKE14REN,DIERKE14REN,DISANKE13REN,DISIKE15REN,DIWUKE13REN,DILIUKE14REN,JUANCECHU7REN,SHUWUCHU6REN,GONGJI108REN(36)。RUGUOBIZHAOQIANSHIZOULIUZHILI,108MINGLUSHIYINGGAIJUNNENGLIUREN。ZHEIYANGYILAI,JINXUGUANYIJU,BUJIZHENGFUJUZHANG,YINENGLIUXIA218REN。

 

XUGUANJUQIANSHI、LUSHIDEESHUCHAYI“DAZHIXIANGTONG”,LUSHIZOULIUBILV“JINSHULIUYONG”,YICILEITUI,ZERENNEIGE1TING、4JU、1YUAN,DAYUENENGLIUJIN300MINGLUSHI。DANJU《SHUGUANGUANZHI》SUOZAI,YINZHUYIJUFUZEGUANBAO、FALING、ZHIGUANLUJIQITAGELEIGUANWENSHUDEBIANJI、YINSHUA、FAXING,HEGELEIGUANYINDEZHUZAO、BANFASHIJIAN,ZHIZHANGBIJIAOTESHU,CHUSHEQIANSHI、LUSHIWAI,HAIZHIYOUYISHIRUOGANYUAN,“CHENGJUZHANGZHIMING,BANLIYINZHUSHIWU”;YISHIRUOGANYUAN,“CHENGSHANGGUANZHIMING,BANLIYINZHUSHIWU”(37)。YISHI、YISHIJUNWEIZHUANYEXINGJIAOQIANGDEJISHUGUANYUAN,XUCONGZHUANMENRENYUANZHONGJIANXUAN。YINZILIAOKUIFA,ZHEIBUFENRENYUANSHUEBUDEERZHI,YIWUKETUICE。

 

AG娱乐网ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,CHUYINZHUJUYISHI、YISHIYINZILIAOQUERUWUFATUICEWAI,JINGGUOJINGSUANHETUICE,ZERENNEIGEYUANEFENBIERUXIA: GUOWUDACHEN13YUAN;GECHENG1YUAN;CHENGXUANTINGZHENGFUTINGZHANG2YUAN;ZHIGAO、XUGUAN、TONGJI、YINZHU4JUZHENGFUJUZHANG8YUAN;FAZHIYUANZHENGFUYUANSHI2YUAN;FAZHIYUANCANYI4YUAN;FAZHIYUANCANSHIHEGETING、JU、YUANQIANSHI305YUAN;GETING、JU、YUANLUSHIYUE300YUAN。GONGYUE640REN,SHUEPOWEIPANGDA。

 

ANZHAOSHUEGUDINGYUFOU、ZHIZHANGYIJIXUANRENFANGSHIZHIBUTONG,ZHEIXIERENYUANKEFENWEISILEI: DIYILEIWEIGUOWUDACHEN,BAOKUOZONGLIDACHEN、XIELIDACHENHEGEBUDACHEN。CILEIRENYUANDIWEIZUIGAO,QUANZEZUIZHONG,WEIGAOJIGUANYUAN。YUYOUQUECHU,YOUHUANGDITEZHIJIANSHOU,WEIZHI“TEJIAN”。DIERLEI,WEIGETING、JU、YUANZHUZHANGGUAN,BAOKUOGECHENG、ZHENGFUTINGZHANG、ZHENGFUJUZHANG、ZHENGFUYUANSHIHEFAZHIYUANCANYI。CILEIRENYUANSHUEGUDING,ZHIZHANGQINGXI,DIWEIJIAOGAO,QUANZEZHONGYAO,WEICIGAOJIGUANYUAN。YUYOUQUECHU,YOUNEIGEXUGUANJUKAILIESHIGERENYUANMINGDAN,QINGZHIJIANYONG,WEIZHI“JIANREN”。DISANLEIWEIGETING、JU、YUANSHIWUGUAN,BAOKUOGETINGJUYUANQIANSHI、YINZHUJUYISHIHEFAZHIYUANCANSHI。CILEIRENYUANSHUEDAZHIQUEDING,ZHIZHANGXIANGDUIQINGXI,DANGUANCHENGBUDING,YUGAOJIGUANYUAN、CIGAOJIGUANYUANXIANGBI,DIWEIXIANGDUICIYAO,CHUYUZHONGJIANCENGJI,WEIZHONGJIGUANYUAN。YUYOUQUECHU,TINGJUQIANSHI、YISHIYOUXUGUANJU,FAZHIYUANQIANSHIYOUFAZHIYUANYUANSHI,JUNTIGONGFUHEZIGEZHEERREN,NIDINGZHENGPEI,ZOUQINGHUANGDIQINJIANYIRENBUSHOU,WEIZHI“ZOUREN”。DISILEIWEIGETING、JU、YUANBANSHIYUAN,BAOKUOGETINGJUYUANLUSHIHEYINZHUJUYISHI。CILEIRENYUANSHUEBUDING,ZHIZHANGBUMING,GUANCHENGBUDING,ZAIXINNEIGEGUANYUANZHONGDIWEIZUIDI,ZHIZEZUIQING,WEIXIAJIGUANYUAN。YUYOUQUECHU,JUNYOUGETING、JU、YUANJIANXUANRENYUAN,TINGJULUSHI、YISHIBINGBAOGECHENGJUEDING,FAZHIYUANLUSHIBINGBAOYUANSHIJUEDING,WEIZHI“WEIREN”(38)。

 

ZONGZHI,ZERENNEIGEGUANYUANBIANZHIBIJIAOFUZA,QUANZEYOUZHONG、ZHONG、JIANZHIFEN,DIWEIYOUGAO、ZHONG、XIAZHIBIE,SHUEYIYOUQUEDING、DAZHIQUEDINGHEBUDINGZHIYI,ZHEISHIQIRENYUANBIANZHIHERENYUANJIEGOUDETEDIAN。TONGGUOKAOCHA,KEYICONGZHENGTISHANGJIASHENDUIZERENNEIGEDERENZHIHEBAWO,YENENGDUIMINGUOCHUNIANNEIGEJIGOUDESHEZHIHERENYUANBIANZHIQINGKUANGYOUYIGUANTONGLEJIE。

 

ZUOZHEJIANJIE: ZHANGZHENGUO,BOHAIDAXUEZHENGZHIYULISHIXUEYUANJIANGSHI。JINZHOU 121000

 

注释:

 

李细珠: 《论清末预备立宪时期的责任内阁制——侧重清廷高层政治权力运作的探讨》,《明清论丛》第八辑,紫禁城出版社2008年版,第1页。

 

李细珠: 《论清末“皇族内阁”出台的前因后果》,《中国社会科学院近代史研究所青年学术论坛》2006年卷,社会科学文献出版社2007年版;《论清末预备立宪时期的责任内阁制——侧重清廷高层政治权力运作的探讨》,《明清论丛》第八辑,紫禁城出版社2008年版;《丙午官制改革与责任内阁制的命运》,《晚清改革与社会变迁》(晚清史论丛第二辑),社会科学文献出版社2009年版。另肖光辉: 《清末民初关于责任内阁的理解、运用与争论》,《江苏社会科学》2005年第2期;侯春奇: 《清末责任内阁研究》,河南大学硕士论文2007年: 陈晓东: 《袁世凯内阁的法制意义》,《历史教学》2005年第12期;何善川: 《论袁世凯内阁与清末国家政体近代化》,《徐州师范大学学报》1998年第4期等。

 

③中国第一历史档案AG娱乐网馆藏宫中朱批奏折,档号: 04—01—13—0436—042。另《政治官报》第1264号,宣统三年四月十一日,“折奏类”,台湾文海出版社1965年版,第195页。

 

AG娱乐网④《ZHENGZHIGUANBAO》DI1264HAO,XUANTONGSANNIANSISHIYIRI,“ZHEZOULEI”,DI194YE。

 

⑤中国第一历史档案馆藏宫中朱批奏折,档号: 04—01—13—0436—041。另《政治官报》第1264号,宣统三年四月十一日,“折奏类”,第197页。

 

⑥中国第一历史档案馆藏宫中朱批奏折,档号: 04—01—01—1111—041。

 

AG娱乐网⑦《ZHENGZHIGUANBAO》DI1310HAO,XUANTONGSANNIANWUYUEERSHIBARI,“ZHEZOULEI”,DI460、462YE。XUZHUYIDESHI,《SHUGUANGUANZHI》ZHONGBINGWEIMINGQUEGUIDINGGECHENGJIZHENGFUTINGZHANG、JUZHANG、YUANSHIZHIYUANE,DANCONGXUANTONGSANNIANWUYUEERSHIQIRIDESHANGYUKEZHIJUNWEIYIYUAN: “(XUANTONGSANNIAN)WUYUEERSHIQIRI,NEIGEFENGSHANGYU: NEIGEGECHENGZHUHUASHIKUIBUSHOU;NEIGECHENGXUANTINGTINGZHANGZHUZHAOTINGZHENBUSHOU: FUTINGZHANGZHUYINGXIUBUSHOU;NEIGEZHIGAOJUJUZHANGZHUYANGSHOUSHUBUSHOU,FUJUZHANG,ZHUYULONGBUSHOU;NEIGEXUGUANJUJUZHANG,ZHUBAOMINGBUSHOU,FUJUZHANGZHUZHANGKAIBUSHOU;NEIGETONGJIJUJUZHANGZHUYANGDUBUSHOU,FUJUZHANGZHUZHANGGUOGANBUSHOU;NEIGEYINZHUJUJUZHANG,ZHULUZONGYUBUSHOU,FUJUZHANGZHUHUANGRUIQIBUSHOU”: “NEIGEFAZHIYUANYUANSHIZHULIJIAJUBUSHOU;FUSHIZHUZHANGZONGXIANGBUSHOU”。(《ZHENGZHIGUANBAO》DI1310HAO,XUANTONGSANNIANWUYUEERSHIBARI,“YUZHI”,DI449YE。)

 

AG娱乐网⑧《ZHENGZHIGUANBAO》DI1310HAO,XUANTONGSANNIANWUYUEERSHIBARI,“ZHEZOULEI”,DI460YE。LINGJIANNEIGEYINZHUJUBIAN: 《XUANTONGSANNIANDONGJIZHIGUANLU》,“JINDAIZHONGGUOSHILIAOCONGKANCHUBIAN”,TAIWANWENHAICHUBANSHE1968NIANBAN,DI12—14YE。

 

⑨《ZHENGZHIGUANBAO》DI1310HAO,XUANTONGSANNIANWUYUEERSHIBARI,“ZHEZOULEI”,DI459YE。

 

⑩中国第一历史档案AG娱乐网馆藏军机处录副奏折,档号: 03—7460—087。

 

(11)(30)(36)《DAGONGBAO》XUANTONGSANNIANLIUYUEERSHIERRIZHI“XUGUANJURENMINGYILANBIAO”,DI2ZHANGDI3YE。

 

(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(37)中国第一历史档案馆藏军机处录副奏折,档号: 03—7460—087;03—7460—088;03—7460—091;03—7460一090;03—7460—089;03—7460—092;03—7461—039;03—7461—039、03—7461—040;03—7460—087;03—7460—087;03—7461—039;03—7460—087;03—7461—039;03—7461—040;03—9302—010。

 

AG娱乐网(26)NEIGEYINZHUJUBIAN: 《XUANTONGSANNIANDONGJIZHIGUANLU》,DI12—14YE。

 

(27)《ZHENGZHIGUANBAO》DI1310HAO,XUANTONGSANNIANWUYUEERSHIBARI,“ZHEZOULEI”,DI461YE。

 

(28)XINSHEBUYUANSUIYOUBUTONG,DANDATILAISHUO,JUNFENWEISANJI,JIBUXIASHESI,SIXIASHEKE,JIKEYISIYIBUSANJITIZHI。JIUSHELIBUYESHIRUCI,WEIBUTONGZHE,KEJIMINGCHENGBIJIAOFUZA,HUOCHENG“KE”,HUOCHENG“CHU”,HUOCHENG“JIA”,BUYIERZU。

 

AG娱乐网(29)(35)《SHENBAO》XUANTONGSANNIANLIUYUEERSHISANRIZHI“JINYAOXINWEN·NEIGEXUGUANJUZHINEIMU”。

 

(31)《SHENBAO》XUANTONGSANNIANLIUYUEERSHISIRIZHI“NEIGEXUGUANJUGEKECHURENYUANMINGDAN”。

 

(32)中国第一历史档案馆藏军机处录副奏折,档号: 03—9302—010。法制院佥事职掌稍异,其“承院使及副使之命,掌文牍、会计及一应庶务”。见中国第一历史档案馆藏军机处录副奏折,档号: 03—9302—011。

 

AG娱乐网(33)(34)《DAGONGBAO》XUANTONGSANNIANBAYUECHUQIRIZHI“XIAOXI·BEIJING·XINNEIGEGUANZHIZHIYIBAN”。

 

(38)“特简”、“简任”、“奏任”和“委任”四种选任方式之划分,参中国第一历史档案AG娱乐网馆藏军机处录副奏折,档号: 03—9302—010;《政治官报》第1310号,宣统三年五月二十八日,“折奏类”,第460页。

 




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