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AG娱乐网QIUZHIHONG: QINGMOFAZHIXIGUANDIAOCHAZAITANTAO

作者: 文章来源:AG娱乐网

摘要: 清末新政期间,为了给编订和审核新法律提供参考和借镜,同时还出于筹备立宪、推进宪政的需要,清政府自上而下开展了一场声势浩大的包括民事习惯、商事习惯、诉讼事习惯、地方行政习惯等在内的法制习惯调查活动。在调查活动中,中央的宪政编查馆、修订法律馆、地方督抚以及新型法政人才扮演了不同角色,其作用值得肯定。

 

关键词: 预备立宪 法制习惯调查 宪政编查馆 修订法律馆

 

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清末新政期间,为了给编订和审核新法律提供参考和借镜,同时还出于筹备立宪、推进宪政的需要,清政府自上而下开展了一场声势浩大的包括民事习惯、商事习惯、诉讼事习惯、地方行政习惯等在内的法制习惯调查活动。此项法制习惯调查,构成了清末法制改革的重要内容,亦是传统中国在“西法东渐”的法律近代化过程中,国家政权在立法实践层面重视本土法律资源,并对其进行全面整理、利用的一次努力与尝试。近年来,随着国内外法学界对民国北洋政府时期民事习惯调查报告资料的整理再版以及先行研究的开展,特别是一批清末法制习惯调查报告资料陆续浮出水面以后,清末的法制习惯调查逐渐引起法学界和史学界研究者的兴趣和关注,以清末民事、商事习惯调查为主要内容的法制习惯调查逐渐成为国内学界、特别是法学界研究的热点,相继出现一批从不同角度对清末法制习惯调查进行考订、论述的论著。[①]本文在既有研究基础上,根据中国第一历史档案馆藏的录副奏折、宪政编查馆、修订法律馆等卷宗档案文献,从清末新政尤其是预备立宪的历史脉络中,重新梳理清末法制习惯调查的历史实态,同时结合时人的日记、笔记以及各类公牍文章等史料,探讨新型法政人才在法制习惯调查中扮演的角色与作用,而这些内容,均是以往的研究所尚未重视的。[②]

 

 

AG娱乐网YIGAIGEJIULV、ZHIDINGXINLVWEIJIBENNEIRONGDEFAZHIGAIGESHIQINGMOXINZHENGDEZHONGYAOYIHUAN,ERZHONGSHIBENTUFALVZIYUAN,JINERKAIZHANFAZHIXIGUANDIAOCHAZESHIQINGMOXINZHENGJINRUYUBEILIXIANJIEDUANHOU,QINGZHENGFUJIANGXIULVZONGZHIYOU“CANZHUOGEGUOFALV,XIXINKAODING”[③],DIAOZHENGWEI“CANKAOGEGUOCHENGFA,TICHAZHONGGUOLIJIAOMINQING,HUITONGCANZHUO,TUOSHENXIUDING” [④]ZHIHOU,SUOJINXINGFAZHIGAIGEDEZHONGYAONEIRONG,QIZHONG,XIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANHEXIUDINGFALVGUANSHIYUXIANZHENGGAIGEYOUQISHIFAZHIGAIGEMIQIEXIANGGUANDEZHONGYAOJIGOU。

 

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AG娱乐网ZHENGSHICHUYUSHENHEHEBIANDINGXINFALVDEXUYAO,YIJIYUBEILIXIANCHOUBEIGUIHUADEDIAOZHENG,XIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANHEXIUDINGFALVGUANJUNZHUYIDAOKAIZHANXIGUANDIAOCHADEBIYAOXINGHEJINPOXING。ZUOWEIFAZHIGAIGEDEYIXIANGZHONGYAOJUCUO,XIGUANDIAOCHABEITISHANGYICHENGBINGXUNSUZAIQUANGUOFANWEINEIZHANKAI。

 

(一)宪政编查馆之法制习惯调查: 统摄地方司法行政各类习惯

 

QINGMODEFAZHIXIGUANDIAOCHAZUIZAOSHIZAIXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANXITONGNEIZHANKAIDE。MUQIANGUONEIWAIXUEZHEPUBIANRENWEI,QINGMOFAZHIXIGUANDIAOCHAZHAOSHIYUGUANGXUSANSHISANNIANJIUYUESHILIURI(1907NIAN10YUE22RI)XIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANDACHENZOUQINGYUGESHENGSHELIDIAOCHAJUDEZOUZHE。SHIJISHANGZANSHUHEILONGJIANGXUNFUCHENGDEQUANZAOZAIGUANGXUSANSHISANNIANBAYUEYIRI(1907NIAN9YUE18RI)DEZOUZHEZHONG,JIUYITICHUZAI“GEXINGSHENGJIESHEDIAOCHAJU”DEJIANYI,SHI“DIAOCHAGUONEIXIGUANYIZICAIYONG”WEI“YUBEILIXIANZHIFANGJISHIXINGXIANZHENGZHIXU”DEBAXIANGBANFAZHIYI。[⑦]CHENGDEQUANDEJIANYIZAIMOUZHONGCHENGDUSHANGKESHIWEIGESHENGSHELIDIAOCHAJUDEYIGEDONGYIN。ERXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANZHUDACHENZAIGUANGXUSANSHISANNIANJIUYUESHILIURIDEZOUZHEZHONGDUIGESHENGSHELIDIAOCHAJUDEYIYIZUOLEGENGJUTIDECHANFA,BINGQIEQIANGDIAOXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANZAIGESHENGSHELIDIAOCHAJUZHIMOSHI,NAISHIFANGXIAODEGUOFAZHIJU,YOUXIANLIKEXUN;MINGQUEGESHENGDIAOCHAJUSHIJISHANGGUI“BENSHENGDUFUGUANLIZHUCHI”,SUODEGEXIANGDIAOCHAZILIAO,“CHENGYOUBENSHENGDUFUZISONG”XIANZHENGBIANCHAGUAN;GUIDINGGESHENGSHELIDIAOCHAJUZHIDIAOCHAXIANGMU,YIHUODIAOCHAFANWEI,NAISHIHANGAIDIFANGSIFA、XINGZHENGLIANGDALEI,JUNSHIWEISHIXINGXIANZHENGAGYULEWANG、ZUOZHUNBEI。JUTIERYAN,GESHENGDIAOCHAJUSHEFAZHIKE,QIDIYIGUFUZEDIAOCHAGESHENGMINQINGFENGSU,DIFANGSHENSHIBANSHIXIGUAN,MINSHIXIGUAN,SHANGSHIXIGUANYIJISUSONGSHIXIGUAN;QIDIERGUFUZEDIAOCHAGESHENGDUFUQUANXIANNEIZHIGEXIANGDANXINGFA,YIJIXINGZHENGGUIZHANG;QIDISANGUFUZEDIAOCHAGESHENGXINGZHENGSHANGZHIYANXIJIQILIBI。[⑧]

 

宪政编查馆奏请各省设立调查局的提议当日即得到清政府的批准,[⑨]从而正式拉开清末法制习惯调查活动的大幕。之后,全国22个行省的调查局陆续在各省城设立,蔚然成风。西英昭、江兆涛根据《政治官报》档案分别整理出16(包括9个时间不确)以及23个调查局的开局时间及各自负责人的情况,[⑩],并且普遍认为直隶调查局是设立最早的地方调查机构,开办于光绪三十三年十二月,时文中亦有《直隶设立调查局之先声》的报道。[11]然而揆诸原始档案,笔者发现,实际上调查局的数量有24个之多,[12]光绪三十三年十月,吉林调查局即已成立,各局的开局、撤局时间以及负责人的情况也更为复杂,比如江西调查局总办,一般都认为是饶州知府张检担任,实际上由于人事调动真正在主办单位:AG娱乐网

 

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AG娱乐网2、ZHIDINGBENSHENGDIAOCHAJUBANSHIZHANGCHENG(XIZE),BINGBAOQINGXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANSHENHE。GESHENGDIAOCHAJUBANSHIZHANGCHENG(XIZE)SHIKAIZHANGAISHENGFAZHIXIGUANDIAOCHADEXINGDONGZHUNSHENG,SHOUGESHENGDUIZONGGANGLINGBENSHENDEFALIJIEDU、NIDINGZHEDESHUIPINGYIJISHIJIFAZHI、XINGZHENGZHUANGKUANGDENGYINSUDEYINGXIANG,GESHENGDIAOCHAJUZAIGUIDINGJUTIDEDIAOCHAXIANGMU、DIAOCHAXINGSHISHI,TIXIANCHUFAZHIXIGUANDIAOCHAZAIGESHENGSHIJIYUNZUODECHAYI。JIUDIAOCHAXIANGMUERYAN,GEDIAOCHAJUYIBANDOUANZHAOSANGUDIAOCHASHIXIANGNIDING8LEIXIMU,GUANGDONGDIAOCHAJUZEJINYIBUJIANG“MINQING”、“FENGSU”、“MINSHIXIGUAN”、“SHANGSHIXIGUAN”FENBIEDIAOCHA,BINGYUXIANGGUANBUMENFENLIQUANXIAN,DUIYANFA、CAIZHENG、JUNZHENGYIJIJUNZHENGLIBAQIDENGBANLIZHUANXIANGDIAOCHA。[23]XINGWENDIAOCHAYUPAIYUANDIAOCHAXIANGJIEHESHIGESHENGDIAOCHAJUPUBIANCAIYONGDEDIAOCHAXINGSHI,ZHIYUJUTIDIAOCHAZHONGYIHEZHONGXINGSHIWEIZHUDAO,GESHENGYEBUTONGYI。ZILIAOXIANSHI,ZHILIDIAOCHAJU、SHANDONGDIAOCHAJUSHIYIPAIYUANDIAOCHAWEIZHU,[24]GUANGDONGDIAOCHAJUZEYIXINGWENDIAOCHAWEIZHU,YUYOUFUTINGZHOUXIANDIAOCHAHANHUNBUSHIHUOYANDANGBUBAOSHI,CAIHUIZHIJIEPAIYUANDIAOCHA,QIEXIFENWEI“SIJUWEIYUANDIAOCHA”、“GEGUYUANDIAOCHA”HE“TEPAIGANYUANDIAOCHA”SANXIANG。[25]GESHENGDIAOCHAJUDINGDINGDEDIAOCHAFANGSHI,QUEDAZHIXIANGSI,JI: MINQINGFENGSUJIMINSHIXIGUANXIANGMINJIANGECHUSHIDIDIAOCHA;DIFANGSHENSHIXIGUANXIANGGAIDIGUANYASHENMINDIAOCHA;SHANGSHIXIGUANXIANGGESHANGHUIDIAOCHA;SUSONGSHIXIGUANDIAOCHAGUANYAJUANZONGBINGFANGWENSUSONGDANGSHIREN;BENSHENGDUFUQUANXIANNEIZHIDANXINGFAJIXINGZHENGGUIZHANGZHIDIAOCHA,HUOZHIJIEPAIYUANCHAOLU、ZHENGLI,HUOYOUGEYAMENJUSUOXUETANGZISONG;BENSHENGXINGZHENGSHANGZHIYANXIJIQILIBIDUODIAOCHADIFANGANJUAN,BINGCANKAOGAIDIGUANSHENYIJIANJITIAOCHEN。FANCIZHONGZHONG,XIANSHICHUGESHENGDIAOCHAGUOCHENGZHONGZHUYICAIQUWENJUAN、ZHENGXUN、SHIDIGUANCHADENGSOUJIXINXIDEFANGFA、JISHUYUZIJUEYISHI,YIJINGCHUJUXIANDAISHEHUIDIAOCHADETEZHENG。

 

3、ANLEIBIANZUANBENSHENGFAZHIXIGUANBAOGAOSHU,JINGZONGBANSHENHEDINGGAOHOUXIANGCHENGBENSHENGDUFUTONGSHIZISONGXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANJIXIUDINGFALVGUAN。ZHEISHIXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANXITONGNEIFAZHIXIGUANDIAOCHADEZUIHOUJIEDUAN,YESHIFANYINGDIAOCHACHENGGONGYUFOUDEGUANJIAN。GESHENGDIAOCHAJUJIANGNIDINGBINGJINGSHENHEQUERENDEGEGUDIAOCHAWENTIBIANCEFENFAGEFUTINGZHOUXIAN,SHIDIDIAOCHAHOUHUODEDEGELEIDAAN,JINGGUOHUIZONG、ZHENGLI,ZUIZHONGBIANZUANCHENGBENSHENGFAZHIXIGUANBAOGAOSHU。YINCIXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANXITONGNEIDEFAZHIXIGUANDIAOCHAZILIAODAZHIKEYIFENWEILIANGDALEI,YISHIJIEDUANXINGCHENGGUO,JIGESHENGDIAOCHAJUGENJUBENSHENGSHIJIQINGKUANGSUOBIANDINGDEGELEIFAZHIXIGUANWENTISHUHUOQINGCE[26],MUQIANKEJIANDAODEZHILIDIAOCHAJU《FAZHIKEDIYIGUDIAOCHASHU》[27],SICHUANDIAOCHAJU《FAZHIKEDIYICIDIAOCHAWENTIQINGCE》[28],HUBEIDIAOCHAJU《FAZHIKEDIYICIDIAOCHAGEMU》[29],HUNANDIAOCHAJU《DIAOCHAMINSHIXIGUANGELEIWENTI》《HUNANDIAOCHAFUTINGZHOUXIANXINGZHENGSHANGZHIYANXIJILIBIGELEIWENTI》[30],FENGTIANDIAOCHAJU《XUXINGDIAOCHABENSHENGMINQINGFENGSUTIAOMU》、《XUNIDIAOCHADIFANGSHENSHIBANSHIXIGUANTIAOMU》、《XUNIDIAOCHASUSONGSHIXIGUANTIAOMU》、《XUNIDIAOCHAMINSHIXIGUANTIAOMU》、《XUNIDIAOCHASHANGSHIXIGUANTIAOMU》[31]DENGWEICILEIXINGBAOGAOSHU;ERSHIZUIZHONGCHENGGUO,JIDUIDIAOCHAWENTIDAANDEZHENGLIHUIZONG。CILEIBAOGAOSHUYOUCUNZAILIANGZHONGXINGTAI,YIZHONGSHIXIANJIDEJICENGDIAOCHABAOGAO,RU《(HUIZHOUFU)LIUXIANMINQINGFENGSUSHENSHIBANSHIXIGUANBAOGAOCE》[32]、《LONGYOUXIANFAZHIDIAOCHABAOGAOCHUBIAN(MINQINGFENGSU、SHENSHIBANSHIXIGUAN)》[33]、《TENGXIANMINQINGFENGSUBAOGAOSHU》[34]DENG;LINGYILEISHIJINYIBUZHENGLIDESHENGJIDIAOCHABAOGAO,RUGUOJIATUSHUGUANSHOUZANGDE《GUANGXIDIAOCHAMINSHIXIGUANBAOGAOSHU、GUANGXISUSONGSHIXIGUANBAOGAOSHU》、《ANHUIXIANZHENGDIAOCHAJUBIANCHENGMINSHIXIGUANDAAN》[35]DENG。

 

XIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANZHANGCHENGDI12TIAOGUIDING“BENGUANDIAOCHAJIBIANDINGZHIJIAN,YINGSUISHIFAKANBAOGAOSHU,HUOYUEKANHUOJIKAN,LINSHIZHUODING”。PENGJIANRENWEI,XIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANJIBENSHANGBINGWEIZHANKAICIXIANGGONGZUO。[36]CISHUOQISHIBUQUE。ZHILIDIAOCHAJUDEDIAOCHABAOGAOCHUZHICHENG《ZHILIDIAOCHAJUFAZHIKEDIYIGUDIAOCHASHU》ZHIWAI,JINGWUXINGRANGZHISHOU,DUANXUKANDENGZAI《BEIYANGFAZHENGXUEBAO》SHANGJISHIGONGBU。[37]JUQIBENRENJISHU,ZHILIDIAOCHAJUDEDIAOCHABAOGAOYOUYUKAIFANGJIGEDIXUEXIZIZHI、FALVDERENFAHANSUOQU,YIZHIYIDUCHUXIAN“JUZHONGYINBENBUFU”DEJUMIAN。[38]CONGSHANGSHU《SICHUANGUANBAO》KANZAISICHUANDIAOCHAJUJIEDUANXINGDIAOCHABAOGAOSHUYIJIZHILIDIAOCHAJUDEQINGKUANGLAIKAN,GESHENGDIAOCHAJUDUIDIAOCHABAOGAODEBIANZUAN、ZHIDING、SHANGBAOHEGONGBUZHIJIEFUZE,SHIJISHANGTIXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANCHENGDANLECIXIANGGONGZUO。ZHEIYEZAIMOUZHONGCHENGDUSHANGSHUOMINGXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANDEFAZHIXIGUANDIAOCHABAOGAO,BINGFEIWANQUANBEISHUZHIGAOGE,GEDIAOCHAJUZHIJIANYECUNZAIZHEYIDINGCHENGDUDEZIYUANGONGXIANGHUOYIJIANJIAOHUAN。

 

(二)修订法律馆之法制习惯调查: 专注民商事习惯

 

ZAIGESHENGSHELIXIANZHENGDIAOCHAJUJINXINGFAZHIXIGUANDIAOCHADETONGSHI,XIUDINGFALVGUANXITONGDEXIGUANDIAOCHAYEKAISHIQIDONG。WEIBIANZUANGEXIANGFADIANERJINXINGXIGUANDIAOCHA,SHIXIUDINGFALVGUANDESHOUYAORENWUZHIYI,BEIMINGWENXIERUXIUDINGFALVGUANDACHENSHENJIABENDENGRENYUGUANGXUSANSHISANNIANSHIYUESHISIRI(1907NIAN12YUE18RI)NIDINGDE《XIUDINGFALVGUANBANSHIZHANGCHENG》ZHONG。GAIZHANGCHENGGUIDING,XIUDINGFALVGUANFENSHELIANGKE,QIZHONGDIYIKE“ZHANGGUANYUMINLVSHANGLVZHIDIAOCHAQICAO”,DIERKE“ZHANGGUANYUXINGSHISUSONGLVMINSHISUSONGLVZHIDIAOCHAQICAO”,“GUANZHONGXIUDINGGELV,FANGESHENGXIGUANYOUYINGSHIDIDIAOCHAZHE,DESUISHIPAIYUANQIANWANGXIANGCHA”。[39]SUIZHEXINXINGLV[40]DECHUTAI,XIUDINGFALVGUANDEGONGZUOZHONGXINZHUJIANZHUANDAOBIANZUANMINLV、SHANGLVSHANG,YINCI,XIANGDUIYUXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANFANWU、FUZADEFAZHIXIGUANDIAOCHANEIRONGERYAN,XIUDINGFALVGUANSUOJINXINGDEXIGUANDIAOCHANEIRONGJIAOWEIJIZHONG,BAOKUOMINSHIXIGUANHESHANGSHIXIGUANLIANGBUFEN。

 

XIUDINGFALVGUANSHISHIXIGUANDIAOCHADEFANGSHIYEYUXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANBUTONG,ZHUYAOSHIPAIDIAOCHAYUANQIANWANGGEDIJINXINGDIAOCHA。GENJUGUANGXUSANSHISINIANWUYUEERSHIWURI(1908NIAN6YUE23RI)SHENJIABENDENGZOUNIDE《ZIYIDIAOCHAZHANGCHENG》GUIDING,DIAOCHAYUANJIKEYICONGXIUDINGFALVGUANGUANYUANZHONGXUANPAI,YEKEYICONGTONGXIAOFALVRENSHIZHONGLINSHIWEIREN,ERHOUZHEJIBAOKUOCENGZAIBENGUOHUOWAIGUOFAZHENGXUETANGBIYE、XIANCHONGFAZHENGJIAOXIDEXINXINGFAZHENGRENCAI,YEBAOKUOSHUXIXINGLVDEFALVZHUANCAI。ZHANGCHENGTONGSHIDUIDIAOCHAYUANDEZHIZEHEJILVZUOLEGUIDING,YIFANGMIANYOUFALVGUANSHIQICHENGBANSHIJIANZHIFANJIANZHUOJIGONGFEI,LINGYIFANGMIANDUIYUBUCHENGZHIZHIDIAOCHAYUAN,XIUDINGFALVDACHENKESUISHICHEHUAN,YIDUCUDIAOCHAYUANKEJINZHISHOU,ANSHIBAOZHIBAOLIANGWANCHENGDIAOCHARENWU。[41]

 

XIUDINGFALVGUANSHOUXIANZHESHOUDESHISHANGSHIXIGUANDIAOCHA。XUANTONGYUANNIAN(1909NIAN)ERYUE,YOUFALVGUANZUANXIUZHURUZHENZHUCHIDEBAOKUOZHILIHEJIANGSU、ANHUI、ZHEJIANG、HUBEI、GUANGDONGDENGDONGNANBUSHENGFENDESHANGSHIXIGUANDIAOCHAHUODONGQIDONG。[42]XIUDINGFALVGUANZHUANMENZHIDING《FALVGUANDIAOCHAGESHENGSHANGXIGUAN(WENTI)TIAOLI》,FENZONGZE、ZUHEJIGONGSI、PIAOJU、GEZHONGYINGYE、CHUANBODENGWUBUFEN,JIUSHANGSHIXIGUANDIAOCHASHIXIANGHEWENTIZUOLEJUTIGUIDING,BAOZHENGLEDIAOCHAHUODONGYOUXU、YOUXIAODIKAIZHAN。[43]

 

ZHIDEYITIDESHI,CHULEXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANGESHENGDIAOCHAJUDESHANGSHIXIGUANDIAOCHAZHIWAI,SUZHOUDENGDISHANGHUIYEXIANYUXIUDINGFALVGUANZIXINGZUZHILEMINJIANXINGZHIDESHANGSHIXIGUANDIAOCHAHUODONG。GUANMINZHIJIANZAIDUIDAISHANGSHIXIGUANYUSHANGSHILIFAZHONGYAOXINGWENTISHANGDEGONGTONGRENSHI,SHIDEXIUDINGFALVGUANDESHANGSHIXIGUANDIAOCHAHENDACHENGDUSHANGYILAIGEDISHANGHUIDEYIJINXING,GEDISHANGHUIYEJIYULEXIANGDANGPEIHE。SUZHOUSHANGWUZONGHUITEBANBU《DINGDINGYANJIUSHANGXIGUANWENTIWUZE》“CHUANZHIGESHANGJIEYANJIU”,BING“FENLEITIAODA,YIBEIFABUXIULVZHIBIANZE”。[44]JINGUANRUCI,SHANGSHIXIGUANDIAOCHADESHIJIJINZHANBINGBUSHUNSUI。DIAOCHAFANGFABUDANGSHIDAOZHIDIAOCHANANXINGDEYIGEYUANYIN。YOUBAODAOCHENG,ZHURUZHENZAISHANGHAIDIAOCHASHI,DIAOCHAYUANJIXIEDIANZHAONIDINGHAODEXIGUANWENTIJINXINGFAWEN,SHANGRENGENJUZISHENDEGETIJINGYANZUOCHUXIANGDANGRANDEHUIDA,ZHEIZHONGHUDONGDEJIEGUOWANGWANGDAOZHI“FAWENZHEWEIMIANGEMO,ERSHOUWENZHEYISHUSHAOZHIPIANDUICEZHINENGSHI”,DIAOCHAYUANYUSHANGRENZHIJIAN“JIAOXIANGWEIWEI”DEXIANXIANGSHIYOUFASHENG。[45]DANGENGZHONGYAOYUANYINZAIYUFALVGUANNIDINGDEXIGUANWENTITIAOLIBENSHEN。GAIWENTITIAOLIXIYIRIBENSHANGFADIANWEIMOBEN,CONGPIANZHANGTILINAIZHITIAOWENYONGYU,WUBUDALIANGYIZHIRIBENSHANGFADIANDEXINSHIFALVCIHUI,FANERHULVELEBENTUSHANGSHIXIGUANDETESHUXINGWENTI,DADAYINGXIANGLEBENTUSHANGSHIXIGUANDEZHENSHICHENGXIAN。DUICIXIANXIANG,HANGZHOUSHANGWUZONGHUIBUWUBAOYUANDICHENG,“WENFAQUANXIDONGYANGMINGCI,JIEQUAOYA,WENLIFUZA,FEIDANSHANGZHONGSHIJIUFEIJIE,JIWEIXIFAZHENGZHEYINANZHOURANSUOJIE”。[46]SUZHOUYEBULIWAI,ZAIXIUDINGFALVGUANFACHUDIAOCHAWENJUANHOUDELIUQIGEYUEJIAN,GESHANGHUI“DAFUZHEJINYIERQI”,JUCHENG,DUIFALVMINGCI“WEIYILEJIE”SHIZAOCHENGTUOYANDEZHUYAOLIYOU。[47]

 

AG娱乐网ZHURUZHENZHUCHIDESHANGSHIXIGUANDIAOCHALISHIBANNIAN,“BOFANGZHOUZI,JIUQILIBING,KAOCHASUODE,DUOZHISHUSHIWANYAN”,JIANYUCI,SHENJIABENLEGUANDIRENWEI,“YUGESHENGSHANGQINGJUZHIQIYAO。”[48]

 

AG娱乐网ZAIJILEILESHANGSHIXIGUANDIAOCHAJINGYANDEJICHUSHANG,CHIZHIXUANTONGERNIAN(1910NIAN)ZHENGYUESHI,YIXIUDINGFALVGUANNIDINGZHI《DIAOCHAMINSHIXIGUANZHANGCHENG》(10TIAO)HE《DIAOCHAMINSHIXIGUANWENTI》(217TIAO)WEIZHIDAOHEGUIFANDEMINSHIDIAOCHAZAIQUANGUOFANWEIZHANKAI,TONGSHIDUIMOUXIEDIFANGSHANGSHIXIGUANJINXINGBUCHONGDIAOCHA。ZAICHAOYEYAOQIUSUODUANYUBEILIXIANCHOUBEINIANXIANDELANGCHAOSHENGZHONG,WEIPEIHEMINLV、SHANGLVZAIXUANTONGSANNIANBANXINGDEJIHUA,XIUDINGFALVGUANDEMINSHANGSHIXIGUANDIAOCHABEIYAOQIUZAIDANGNIAN(1910NIAN)BAYUEDIQIANJIJIANGDIAOCHAJIEGUOSHANGBAO。[49]MIANDUIDIAOCHARENWUSHIFANRENZHONG、SHIJIANJINPODEYALI,XIUDINGFALVGUANYUFUYOUXIEZHUXIUDINGFALVGUANDIAOCHAYUANJINXINGDIAOCHAZHIZEDEGESHENGDIAOCHAJUDEYILAIGUANXIGENGJIAMINGXIAN。[50]YIFANGMIANXIUDINGFALVGUANDIAOCHAYUANDAODADIFANGKAIZHANMINSHANGSHIXIGUANDIAOCHASHIDUOYILAIGAIDIDIAOCHAJUERCHENGSHI。RUJIANGNINGDIAOCHAJUXIEZHUXIUDINGFALVGUANJIANGQIDIAOCHAMINSHIXIGUANWENTIFENFAZHOUXIANDIAOCHA,BINGTEBIESHUOMINGYUBENJUZUNZHAOXIANZHENGGUANBIANDINGZHIWENTIXISHULIANGSHI,YAOQIUBUNENGHUNWEIYITAN;[51]SHANXI、GUANGDONGLIANGSHENGZENGBUBIANDINGDE《MINSHIXIGUANSHANGZHONGXIASANBIAN》22CE、《MINSHIXIGUANDISANCIBAOGAOSHU》ERHAN30BEN,GANSUYUQICHENGJIAODE《MINSHIXIGUANDAFUCE》1BEN,DOUSHIZAIBENDIDIAOCHAJUDEXIEZHUXIAWANCHENGDE。[52]LINGYIFANGMIANYOUDEDIAOCHAJUZAIBENDIMINSHANGSHIXIGUANDIAOCHAZHONGHAIYIDUFAHUILEZHUDAOZUOYONG。RUJIANGSUSHANGBAOXIUDINGFALVGUANDEDIERPISUOSHUZHANGZHOU、YUANHEDENG10ZHOUXIANMINSHIXIGUANQINGCEGONGJI22BENWANQUANSHIJIANGSUDIAOCHAJUDEDIAOCHACAILIAO;[53]SICHUANGENJUBENSHENGDIAOCHAJUNIDINGDESHANGSHIXIGUANWENTI,CANGCUWANCHENGCHUANSHENGMINSHIJISHANGSHIXIGUANDIYICIBAOGAOSHU,YIHUANJIEZHONGYANGZHENGFUYIZAICUIJIAODEYALI。[54] FANCIZHONGZHONG,JIXIANSHICHUQINGMOMINSHANGSHIXIGUANDIAOCHAZAIXIUDINGFALVGUANYUXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANSHUANGXITONGNEICONG“BINGXING”DAO“HELIU”DEFAZHANGUIJI,[55]YEZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGFANYINGLEXIUDINGFALVGUANZAIGUONEIZHENGJUDONGDANG、ZHENGFUCAIZHENGJIEJUJIGUANYUANRENLIBUZUDEQINGKUANGXIAJINXINGMINSHANGSHIXIGUANDIAOCHASHIDECANGCUHEYINGFU。

 

GUOJIATUSHUGUANGUJIGUANBAOCUNYOULIANGBENSHANGWEIZHENGLIWANBIDEDIAOCHABAOGAOSHUSHOUCHAOGAOBEN,YIBENTIWEI《DIAOCHAJIANGSUMINSHIXIGUANBAOGAOSHU》,19YE,ZHUGEZHIZHANG,BANXINXIAZHUAN“FALVGUAN”;LINGYIBENTIWEI《DIAOCHAHUBEIMINSHIXIGUANBAOGAO》,11YE,ZHUSILANZHIZHANG。LIANGZHONGBAOGAOSHUXINGTAISHIFENJIEJIN,JUNSHIDUIXIUDINGFALVGUANMINSHIXIGUAN“ZONGZE”BIANGEZHONGWENTIDAANDEHUIZONG,DANBUXIANGLIEWENTI,JINLIE“WENTIYI”,HUO“WENTIYIZHIQI”DENG,DAANHUOZHIJIECHAOLU,HUOSHIZHANYE。TONGSHI,《DIAOCHAJIANGSUMINSHIXIGUANBAOGAOSHU》YOUSHANGAI“HUBEI”WEI“JIANGSU”DEHENJI,NEIRONGDAODISANBIAN“ZHAIQUAN”DIYIZHANG“QIYUE”BUFENJIESHU。《DIAOCHAHUBEIMINSHIXIGUANBAOGAO》SHOUYEWENTIDAANCHENG“HUBEISENGNIJIAOSHAO,YUJIANGSUDENGSHENGBUTONG”,NEIRONGDAODIERBIAN“WUQUAN”DISANZHANG“DISHANGQUANGUANXI”WENTIYIJIESHU。ZHEILIANGBENDIAOCHABAOGAOSHUJUNMEIYOUBIAOZHUSHIJIAN,YEMEIYOU《FANLI》、《LIYAN》ZHILEIDEBIANJISHUOMING,DANCONGNEIRONGYIJIZHIZHANGSHANGTUICEYINGSHIXIUDINGFALVGUANXITONGDEMINSHIXIGUANDIAOCHABAOGAOSHU,QIEYOUKENENGSHIZUIYUANSHIDEXINGTAI。CONGZHONGAGYULEWANGYIKEKUIJIANXIUDINGFALVGUANZUIHOUCANGCUJINXINGMINSHIXIGUANDIAOCHAZHIYIBAN,LINGJINRENWUXIANXIXU。

 

 

AG娱乐网YISHANG,BIZHEYIYISHOUDANGANZILIAOWEIJICHU,ZAIQINGMOXINZHENGDELISHIMAILUOZHONG,DAZHISHULILEXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANHEXIUDINGFALVGUANSHUANGXITONGFAZHIXIGUANDIAOCHADEYUNZUOMOSHI。GAIERYANZHI,CONGDIAOCHADENEIRONGSHANGKAN,XIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANHEXIUDINGFALVGUANDEFAZHIXIGUANDIAOCHAGONGTONGGOUCHENGLEQINGMOXINZHENGFAZHIGAIGEDEZHONGYAOYIHUAN,ERZHEJUNWEIQINGMOXINZHENGGAIGEYIJIYUBEILIXIANAGYULEWANG,ZHISHIHOUZHEDEXIGUANDIAOCHAJIZHONGZAIMINSHI、SHANGSHINEIRONGSHANG,SHIYIAGYULEWANGYUMINSHANGFADIANBIANZUANSHIYEWEIMUDE,YI“QIUZUISHIYUZHONGGUOMINQINGZHIFAZE”[56]WEIMUBIAO;ERQIANZHEZUOWEIQINGZHENGFU“XIANZHENGZHISHUNIU”ZUZHIDEFAZHIXIGUANDIAOCHA,ZESHIZAIGENGGUANGFANDEYIYISHANGCHUYUCHOUBEILIXIANYIJIXIUDINGFALVZHIZILIAOSHOUJI、BIANZHIYUTONGJIDEXUYAO,SHIWEILIXIANZHUNBEIGONGZUODEDAJUAGYULEWANG,YINCIQIDIAOCHANEIRONG,CHULEZAIMINSHI、SHANGSHIXIGUANBUFENYUXIUDINGFALVGUANZHONGDIEWAI,HAIBAOKUOMINQINGFENGSU、DIFANGSHENSHIBANSHIXIGUAN、SUSONGSHIXIGUAN、DIFANGFAGUI、GUIZHANGJIXINGZHENGGUANLI。CONGDIAOCHADESHIJIANSHANGKAN,SHIXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANYISHELIGESHENGDIAOCHAJUWEIYITUOSHOUXIANFAQILEFAZHIXIGUANDIAOCHA,ZAIHENAN、FUJIANDIAOCHAJUZUIWANSHELIDEXUANTONGYUANNIAN(1909NIAN),XIUDINGFALVGUANDESHANGSHIXIGUANDIAOCHACAIKAISHIQIDONG,BINGWEIPEIHEYUBEILIXIANSUODUANSHIXIANHOUDESHIJIANJINDU,XUANTONGERNIAN(1910NIAN)MINSHIXIGUANDIAOCHAKAIZHANBUDAOSHUYUEBIANCANGCUWANCHENG。CONGDIAOCHADEZUZHIGUANLISHANGKAN,XIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANSHELIGESHENGDIAOCHAJUYUXIUDINGFALVGUANPAICHUDIAOCHAYUANZHEILIANGZHONGMOSHIZHIJIAN,BIAOMIANSHANGKAN“QUEFAXIEDIAOYIZHI,GEZIWEIZHEN”,[57]DANSHIJISHANGERZHEZAIMINSHI、SHANGSHIXIGUANDIAOCHABUFENJIBENCUNZAIZHEGONGTONGZHIXINGNAIZHIWEITUOZHIXINGDEQINGKUANG,TEBIESHIWEIPEIHETIQIANBANXINGMINLV、SHANGLVDESHIJIANJINDU,XIUDINGFALVGUANDEDIAOCHAYUANYUGESHENGDIAOCHAJUZHIJIAN“SHANGTONGDIAOCHA”DEHEZUOGUANXIGENGJIAMIQIE,JIBIMIANLECAILI、ZIYUANDELANGFEI,TIXIANLE“ZHIJIANERYUFAN”、“SHIBANERGONGBEI”DEZHANGCHENGJINGSHEN,[58]YOUQIHELEXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANYUXIUDINGFALVGUANYIDINGCHENGDUSHANG“TONGZHI”DENEIZAILILU。[59]

 

RURUOKAOCHAQINGMOFAZHIXIGUANDIAOCHAZHIYUQINGMOXINZHENGFAZHIGAIGEZHIYINGXIANG,XUCONGLIANGFANGMIANFENXI。YIFANGMIAN,BIXUCHENGREN,QINGMODEFAZHIXIGUANDIAOCHAWEINENGDUIGEFADIANDEBIANZUANCHANSHENGZHIJIEYINGXIANG。SHOUSUODUANLIXIANQIXIANDEYINGXIANG,GESHENGFAZHIXIGUANDIAOCHAYOUQISHIXIUDINGFALVGUANDEMINSHANGSHIXIGUANDIAOCHAZAISHIJIANJINDUANPAIHEDUIDIAOCHAJIEGUODEZHENGLIHUANJIEFANGMIANDOUXIANDEGUOYUCANGCUHECAOLV,DABUFENSHENGDEXIGUANDIAOCHABAOGAOMEIYOUANSHISHANGJIAO,QINGZHENGFUZAISHANGWEIDUIGEDIXIGUANJINXINGZHENGLI、XISHOU、LIYONGZHISHI,BIANJIANGMINFADENGCAOANCANGCUCHUTAI,YIYINGDUISHIJU。CIWAI,QINGZHENGFUKAIZHANFAZHIXIGUANDIAOCHADEZHUGUANTIAOJIANYESHANGBUCHENGSHU。QINGMOFAZHIXIGUANDIAOCHADENEIRONGSHIBENTUDE,DANQI“DIAOCHA”GAINIAN[60]、DIAOCHALINIAN、DIAOCHAFANGSHI、DIAOCHAWENTIDENGDOUSHIXUEZIXIFANG,FANGZHAORI、DE,SHENZHIDUIDAI“XIGUAN”[61]DERENSHI,SHANGZHITONGZHIZHE、LIFAZHE,XIAZHICANYUDIAOCHADEXINXINGFAZHENGRENYUAN,JIZHIDIFANGDUFU,DOUBUTONGYI。QINGMOFAZHENGJIAOYUDEBOXING,WEIFAZHIXIGUANDIAOCHADEKAIZHANTIGONGLERENCAIBAOZHANG,DANZHEIXIEXINXINGFAZHENGRENCAICHULEBENSHENSUOJUBEIDEFALV、FAZHENGZHISHIWAI,HAIXUJUBEIBIYAODEXIANDAISHEHUIDIAOCHAFANGFAHETONGJIXUEZHISHI,FANGKEYINGDUIFAZHIXIGUANDIAOCHAZHEIZHONG“TONGJIXINGDIAOCHA”DETIAOZHAN。XIYINGZHAO、ZHANGQIN、MAOLEI、JIANGZHAOTAODENGRENYIJINGZHUYIDAOGESHENGDIAOCHAJUZAISHIJIDIAOCHAGUOCHENGZHONGCUNZAIZHEXIANGHUAGYULEWANGJINGYANHERENCAIDEQINGKUANG,DANZHEIZHONGAGYULEWANGJIZHISHIFOUZAIGESHENGSHIJIDIAOCHAZHONGPUJI,SHIFOUNENGQIESHIJIEJUESHIJIDIAOCHAGUOCHENGZHONGCHUXIANDEWENTI,HAIYOUDAIXIANGGUANYANJIUDEJINYIBUJIESHI。SHIJISHANGGEDIAOCHAJUZHONGDOUYOUYIXIESUOWEI“TONGDAZHILI”ZIGEDEDAOFUGUANLI、RENYUANCHONGCHIQIJIAN、LANYUCHONGSHU。[62]ZHUCHIGUANLIGUANGDONGDIAOCHAJUYOUNIANDELIANGGUANGZONGDUZHANGRENJUN,ZAIDANRENLIANGJIANGZONGDUHOURENGZAIDIANXUNXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUAN《GESHENGDIAOCHAJUZHANGCHENG》ZHONG“ZHANGDIAOCHADUFUQUANXIANNEIZHIDANXINGFAJIXINGZHENGGUIZHANG”YIYUYINGRUHEJIESHI。[63]JIANGNINGDIAOCHAJUKAIBANJINSANNIANHOU,GEZHOUXIANDUIYUDIAOCHASHIXIANGHAIDUOSHUMANGRAN,DAFEISUOWEN。[64]FANCIZHONGZHONG,JUNXIANSHICHUFAZHIXIGUANDIAOCHASHIJIZHONGCUNZAIZHENIDINGDIAOCHAWENTITIAOMUYIWEIYIZHIRIBENDENGXIFANGFADIAN,SHIDIDIAOCHAJINGYANQUEFADENGXIANSHIWENTI,JIAZHIQINGZHENGFULIFAZHEZAIBIANZUANFADIANSHIRUHECAINAXIGUANYECUNZAIZHEJISHUSHANGDESHIJIKUNNAN,DENGDENG,ZHISHISUODIAOCHAZHIXIGUANZAIBIANZUANDEMINFAFADIANZHONGWEIYOUMINGXIANHEZHIJIEDETIXIAN,QIARUMINGUOFALVJIAJIANGYONGPIPINGQINGMO《DAQINGMINLVCAOAN》“DUOJISHOUWAIGUOFA,YUBENGUOGUYOUFAYUAN,WEISHENCUOYI”。[65]

 

AG娱乐网LINGYIFANGMIAN,QINGMOFAZHIXIGUANDIAOCHADEJIJIYIYIQUEBUKEHUSHI。SHOUXIAN,ZAIXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANHEXIUDINGFALVGUANDEGONGTONGBUXIENULIXIA,QINGMOFAZHIXIGUANDIAOCHAZUIZHONGSHOUHUOLEDALIANGDEXIGUANDIAOCHAZILIAOBAOGAOSHU,JINJIUMINSHI、SHANGSHIXIGUANDIAOCHABAOGAOZILIAOLUN,JUMINGUOBEIYANGZHENGFUDETONGJI,QINGMODEBAOGAOSHUDA887CE,YUANYUANGAOYUMINGUOSHIQIMINSHANGSHIXIGUANDIAOCHASHISUODE72CEBAOGAOSHUDESHULIANG,[66]ZHEIHAIBUBAOKUOGEZHONGMINQINGFENGSU、SHENSHIBANSHIXIGUAN、SUSONGSHIXIGUANDENGBAOGAOSHUZAINEI。SUOYICONGDIAOCHAHUODONGBENSHENERYAN,QINGMODEFAZHIXIGUANDIAOCHA,KEWEICHENGJIFEIRAN。QICI,CONGFALVCENGMIANSHANGGUANCHA,QINGMOFAZHIXIGUANDIAOCHA,YOUQISHIMINSHI、SHANGSHI、SUSONGSHIXIGUANDIAOCHA,ZAI“XIUMINGFADIAN”FANGMIANSHOUXIAOSHENWEI,DANJIUXIGUANDIAOCHAZHENGTIERLUN,ZAI“ZHENGQIZHENGSU”FANGMIANPOJILEILEXIANGDANGJINGYAN。YOUQISHIDIFANGDUFUGUANLIZHUCHIGESHENGDIAOCHAJUGONGZUO,JIANGMINQINGFENGSU、DIFANGSHENSHIBANSHIXIGUAN、DUFUQUANXIANNEIGEXIANGDANXINGFAGUIJIXINGZHENGGUIZHANG、SHENGXINGZHENGSHANGZHIYANXIJIQILIBIDENGDIAOCHA,SHIWEIGEZITUIXINGDIFANGZIZHIYUNZUODESHIJIANNEIRONG,KEGUANSHANGYOULIYUQINGZHENGFUDUIYUGUOQINGDEZHANGWO,JIWEIGEXINZHENGZHI、GAILIANGXINGZHENG、BIANZHIFAGUIYIJITUIJINXIANZHENGDENGTIGONGLEYOUJIAZHIDEZHONGYAOCANKAO,YICHENGWEIKAOCHABINGTISHENGDIFANGZIZHINENGLIDEYIZHONGYOUXIAOFANGSHI。ZUIHOU,QINGMOMINSHISHANGSHIXIGUANDIAOCHAYUNDONGDEZHANKAI,DUICUJINZHENGFUCAIJI、RENZHIBENTUFALVZIYUANYEQIDAOLEYIDINGDEJIJIZUOYONG。《DAQINGMINLVCAOAN》DI1TIAOMINGWENGUIDING: “MINSHIBENLVSUOWEIGUIDINGZHE,YIXIGUANFA;WUXIGUANFAZHE,YIFALI。”[67]QIDUIXIGUANDIWEIDEGUIDINGYEBEIMINGUOZHENGFUZHIDINGDEXIANDAIYIYISHANGDEMINFADIANSUOJICHENG。[68]LIFAZHEZAILIFALINIAN、LIFAFANGZHENSHANGDUIXIGUANDEZHONGSHI,JIAOZHILIFASHIJIANHUOLIFASHISHIFANGMIANSUOJUYOUDELISHIYIYI,SIHUYAOGENGWEISHENYUAN。

 

ZUOZHEJIANJIE: QIUZHIHONG,ZHONGGUOSHEHUIKEXUEYUANJINDAISHIYANJIUSUOFUYANJIUYUAN,BOSHI。BEIJING 100006

 

[①]RIBENXUEJIEYIZHONGCUNZHEFU、DAOTIANZHENGLANG、ZIHEXIUSAN、XIYINGZHAODENGRENDEYANJIUWEIDAIBIAO,GUONEIXUEJIEYIHUXUSHENG、SUIHONGMING、JIANGZHAOTAO、LIUGUANGAN、YUJIANGDENGWEIDAIBIAO。

 

[②] CHENGLIAOYUAN《QINGMOFAZHENGRENDESHIJIE》YISHUZHONGYOUYIXIAOJIEDENEIRONGSHEJI“FAZHENGRENCANYUDIAOCHAJU”WENTI,XIWEISHENRUZHANKAI。CANJIANCHENGLIAOYUAN《QINGMOFAZHENGRENDESHIJIE》,BEIJING: FALVCHUBANSHE,2003NIAN,DI256-257YE。

 

[③]“GUANGXUERSHIBANIANSIYUECHULIURINEIGEFENGSHANGYU”,ZHONGGUODIYILISHIDANGANGUANBIAN: 《GUANGXUXUANTONGLIANGCHAOSHANGYUDANG》DI28CE,GUILIN: GUANGXISHIFANDAXUECHUBANSHE,1996NIAN,DI95YE。

 

AG娱乐网[④]“GUANGXUSANSHISANNIANJIUYUECHUWURIQINGZHENGFUYULINGXIULVDACHENSHENJIABENDENGREN”,《QINGSHILU·DEZONGSHILU》DI59CE,BEIJING: ZHONGHUASHUJU,1987NIAN,DI661YE。

 

AG娱乐网[⑤]《XIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANZIZHENGYUANHUIZOUXIANFADAGANGJIYIYUANFAXUANJUFAYAOLINGJIZHUNIANCHOUBEISHIYIZHE(FUQINGDAN)》,GUGONGBOWUYUANMINGQINGDANGANBUBIAN: 《QINGMOCHOUBEILIXIANDANGANSHILIAO》SHANGCE,BEIJING: ZHONGHUASHUJU,1979NIAN,DI61-67YE。

 

AG娱乐网[⑥] 《CHENGZUNNIXIUZHENGZHUNIANCHOUBEISHIYIQINGDANJIAJUANYU》,ZHONGGUODIYILISHIDANGANGUANZANGGONGZHONGZHUPIZOUZHE,DANGHAO04-01-02-0112-009;《CHENGZUNNIXIUZHENGYIYUANWEIKAIYIQIANZHUNIANCHOUBEISHIYIQINGDAN》,GONGZHONGZHUPIZOUZHE,DANGHAO04-01-02-0112-010。

 

[⑦]《ZANSHUHEILONGJIANGXUNFUCHENGDEQUANZOUCHENYUBEILIXIANZHIFANGJISHIXINGXIANZHENGZHIXUBANFABATIAOZHE》,《QINGMOCHOUBEILIXIANDANGANSHILIAO》SHANGCE,DI255-256YE。

 

[⑧]《XIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANZOUQINGCHILINGGESHENGSHELIDIAOCHAJUBINGNICHENGBANSHIZHANGCHENGZHE(FUPIANBINGQINGDAN)》,《DONGFANGZAZHI》1908NIANDI5JUANDI1QI。

 

AG娱乐网[⑨]《LINGGESHENGSHELIDIAOCHAJUGEBUYUANSHETONGJICHUYU》,《QINGMOCHOUBEILIXIANDANGANSHILIAO》SHANGCE,DI52-53YE。

 

[⑩] XIYINGZHAO: 《QINGMO·MINGUOSHIQIDEXIGUANDIAOCHAHE<MINSHANGSHIXIGUANDIAOCHABAOGAOLU>》,ZHONGGUOFALVSHIXUEHUIBIAN: 《ZHONGGUOWENHUAYUFAZHI》,BEIJING: SHEHUIKEXUEWENXIANCHUBANSHE,2007NIAN,DI392-393YE;JIANGZHAOTAO: 《XIGUANDIAOCHAYUWANQINGFAZHIGAIGE》,ZAILIUGUANGAN《WANQINGFAZHIGAIGEDEGUILVXINGTANSUO》,BEIJING: ZHONGGUOZHENGFADAXUECHUBANSHE,2013NIAN,DI284-285YE。

 

[11]《ZHILISHELIDIAOCHAJUZHIXIANSHENG》,《GUANGDONGDIFANGZIZHIYANJIULU》1908NIANDI1QI。

 

AG娱乐网[12] GUANYUJIANGSUSHENGSHELIDIAOCHAJUDEQINGKUANGBIJIAOFUZA,MUQIANKEZHIFENSHEYOUJIANGNINGDIAOCHAJUYUJIANGSUDIAOCHAJULIANGGEDIAOCHAJU。ZHONGGUODIYILISHIDANGANGUANXIUDINGFALVGUANJUANZONGZHONGSHOUYOUYIFEN《JIANGSUSHENGSUSHUDIAOCHAJUCHENGSONGDIERPIMINSHIXIGUANQINGCE》(DANGHAO10-00-00-0018-052),QIYINJIANWEI“JIANGSUDIAOCHAJUMUGUANFANG”,ERZAI《SHENBAO》ZHONGBIZHEYOUKANDAOYOU“NINGYUANDIAOCHAJU”DECHENGWEI,ZHEIYINGYUQINGDAIJIANGSUSHENGFENWEISU、NINGERSHU,LIANGJIANGZONGDUZHUJIANGNING(NANJING),JIANGSUXUNFUZHUSUZHOUDEJIANZHIYANGEYOUGUAN。TONGSHI《DONGFANGZAZHI》1908NIANDI5JUANDI9QISHANGKANZAIYOU《JIANGNANDIAOCHAZONGJUBANSHIXIZE》YIWEN,BIZHEFANYUE《SHENBAO》SHIYILINGXINGKANDAOYOUGUAN“JIANGNANDIAOCHAJU”DEBAODAO,DANXIANYUZILIAO,SHANGWUFALEJIEJIANGNANDIAOCHAJUDEXIANGXIQINGKUANG。

 

[13] 《ZOUWEICHENMINGCAICHEJISHENGYUANSHEDIAOCHAJUQINGXINGSHI》,ZHONGGUODIYILISHIDANGANGUANZANGLUFUZOUZHE,DANGHAO03-7440-067;《ZOUWEIZUNSHEDIAOCHAJUBINGPAICHONGRAOZHOUZHIFUZHANGJIANZONGBANSHI》,LUFUZOUZHE,DANGHAO03-5621-026;《ZOUWEIWEIPAIJIANGFENGQINGCHONGDANGJIANGXIDIAOCHAJUZONGBANSHI》,GONGZHONGZHUPIZOUZHE,DANGHAO04-01-12-0679-019。

 

[14]《ZOUWEIBIANTONGGESHENGDIAOCHAJUBANFAYIJIEJINGFEIERBITONGJISHI》,LUFUZOUZHE,DANGHAO04-01-01-1111-053。

 

[15]《ZOUWEIZUNSHEDIAOCHAJUBANLIQINGXINGSHI》,GONGZHONGZHUPIZOUZHE,DANGHAO04-01-01-1095-049;“JIANGSUDIAOCHAJUMUGUANFANG”YIN,《JIANGSUSHENGSUSHUDIAOCHAJUCHENGSONGDIERPIMINSHIXIGUANQINGCE》,ZHONGGUODIYILISHIDANGANGUANZANGXIUDINGFALVGUAN,DANGHAO10-00-00-0018-052。

 

AG娱乐网[16]《ZOUWEIZUNZHISHELIGUANGDONGDIAOCHAJUQINGXINGSHI》,GONGZHONGZHUPIZOUZHE,DANGHAO04-01-02-0110-015;《ZOUWEIZUNSHEDIAOCHAJUBANLIQINGXINGSHI》,GONGZHONGZHUPIZOUZHE,DANGHAO04-01-01-1095-048。

 

AG娱乐网[17]《ZOUBAOZUNZHISHELIDIAOCHAJUBANLISHI》,GONGZHONGZHUPIZOUZHE,DANGHAO04-01-12-0663-063。

 

[18]《GUANGDONGDIAOCHAJUBANSHIYUANSIXIANMINGBIAO》,ZHONGGUODIYILISHIDANGANGUANZANGXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUAN,DANGHAO09-01-02-0016-014。

 

[19]《ZOUWEIZUNSHEHUBEIDIAOCHAJUSHI》,GONGZHONGZHUPIZOUZHE,DANGHAO04-01-01-1086-056;《ZOUWEIZUNSHEDIAOCHAJUBANLIQINGXINGSHI》,GONGZHONGZHUPIZOUZHE,DANGHAO04-01-01-1095-049。

 

[20] FUWENSHEBIAN: 《ZUIJINGUANSHENLVLIHUILUDIYIJI》,ZAISHENYUNLONGZHUBIAN《JINDAIZHONGGUOSHILIAOCONGKAN》DI45JI,TAIBEI: TAIWANWENHAICHUBANSHE,1970NIAN,DI122YE。

 

AG娱乐网[21] WUXINGRANG: 《DIAOCHAJUFAZHIKEDIAOCHASHUXU》,《BEIYANGFAZHENGXUEBAO》DI110QI,1909NIAN8YUE。

 

[22] WUXINGRANG: 《GESHENGDIAOCHAJUZHANGCHENGSHIYI》,《BEIYANGFAZHENGXUEBAO》DI55QI,1908NIAN3YUE;《DIAOCHAJUFAZHIKEDIAOCHASHUXU》,《BEIYANGFAZHENGXUEBAO》DI113QI,1909NIAN8YUE。

 

AG娱乐网[23]《GUANGDONGDIAOCHABANSHIXIANGXIZHANGCHENGQINGCE》,XIANZHENGBIANCHAGUAN,DANGHAO09-01-02-0016-013。

 

[24]《ZHILIDIAOCHAJUXIANGDINGFAZHIKEBANSHIXIZE》,《ZHENGZHIGUANBAO》GUANGXUSANSHISINIANERYUESHIJIURI,DI141HAO;《SHANDONGDIAOCHAJUBANSHIZHANGCHENG》,《SHANDONGDIAOCHAJUGONGDULUYAOCHUBIAN》,JINANRIBAOGUAN,1909NIAN。

 

[25]《GUANGDONGDIAOCHABANSHIXIANGXIZHANGCHENGQINGCE》,XIANZHENGBIANCHAGUAN,DANGHAO09-01-02-0016-013。

 

AG娱乐网[26] SUIHONGMINGRENWEIQINGMODEXIGUANDIAOCHABAOGAOFENWEI“ZHONGQIXING”HE“ZHONGJUXING”LIANGLEI,QIZHONG“ZHONGQIXING”DIAOCHABAOGAOYIGUANGDONGDIAOCHAJUCHENGSONGDE“DIAOCHATIAOMU”、“JULIGAOBEN”WEIDAIBIAO。CANJIANSUIHONGMING《QINGMOMINCHUMINSHANGSHIXIGUANDIAOCHAZHIYANJIU》,DI53YE。

 

AG娱乐网[27] GUOJIATUSHUGUANGUJIGUANZANG。SIJUANBEN,FEN“MINQINGFENGSU”、“SHENSHIBANSHIXIGUAN”、“MINSHIXIGUAN”、“SHANGSHIXIGUAN”JI“SUSONGSHIXIGUAN”WUBUFEN。

 

[28]《SICHUANGUANBAO》DI11-14QI,1909NIAN。

 

AG娱乐网[29] SHANGHAITUSHUGUANGUJIYUELANSHIZANG。

 

[30] GUOJIATUSHUGUANGUJIGUANZANG。《HUNANDIAOCHAFUTINGZHOUXIANXINGZHENGSHANGZHIYANXIJILIBIGELEIWENTI》GONGBAOKUOSIBUFENNEIRONG,NEIYETI“DIAOCHAFAZHIKEDISANGUBENSHENGGEFUTINGZHOUXIANXINGZHENGSHANGZHIYANXIJIQILIBIGELEIWENTI”,SHANGKEYOU“BEIJINGTUSHUGUANZANG”DUANZHANGFANGXINGZHUANWENZANGZHANGYIJI“CHENYUANTONGZHIYISHU”ZHANGFANGXINGTIAOZHANG,QIZHONG“SIFAXINGZHENG”DIAOCHAGUIBINGRUDIFANGXINGZHENGYANXIJIQILIBILEI,15YE;“HUNANDIAOCHAJUDIAOCHAMINQINGFENGSUGELEIWENTI”,20YE;“HUNANDIAOCHAJUDIAOCHADIFANGSHENSHIBANSHIGELEIWENTI”,5YE;“HUNANDIAOCHAJUDIAOCHASHANGSHIXIGUANGELEIWENTI”,23YE。YU《HUNANDIAOCHAJUDIAOCHAMINSHIXIGUANGELEIWENTI》(HANRENSHIBUYUCAICHANBU)XINGCHENGHUNANDIAOCHAJUJIAOWEIWANZHENGDEDIAOCHAWENTIQINGCEBAOGAOSHU。

 

[31] LIAONINGSHENGDANGANGUANBIAN: 《ZHONGGUOJINDAISHEHUISHENGHUODANGAN(DONGBEIJUANYI)7》,GUILIN: GUANGXISHIFANDAXUECHUBANSHE,2005NIAN,DI385-481YE。

 

[32] BAOKUOSHEXIAN、XIUNING、WUYUAN、QIMEN、YIXIANYIJIJIXILIUXIANDEMINQINGXIGUAN、FENGSUXIGUANYIJISHENSHIBANSHIXIGUAN。LIURUJI: 《TAOPIGONGDU》JUAN12,JIANGUANZHENSHUJICHENGBIANZUANWEIYUANHUIBIAN《GUANZHENSHUJICHENG》DI10CE,HEFEI: HUANGSHANSHUSHE,1997NIAN,DI578-625YE。

 

AG娱乐网[33] RIBENDONGJINGDAXUEDONGYANGWENHUAYANJIUSUOZANG,ZHUANYINZIZHONGCUNZHEFU《XIANGSHENのSHOUになるXIANGSHENDIAOCHAにつぃて》,《SHEHUIJINGJISHIXUE》DI43JUAN6HAO,1978NIAN。

 

AG娱乐网[34] CHENSISHU,GUOJIATUSHUGUANGUJIGUANZANG。

 

[35] JIANGZHAOTAOMINRUIDIZHUYIDAOANHUIDIAOCHAJUMINSHIXIGUANDIAOCHABAOGAOSHUSHIANZHAOXIUDINGFALVGUAN《DIAOCHAMINSHIXIGUANWENTI》DETIAOLITIAOMUBIANZUANERCHENG,BINGJIANGQIDINGYIWEI“XIUDINGFALVGUANTILITIAOMUXING”,YIQUBIEYU《GUANGXIDIAOCHAMINSHIXIGUANBAOGAOSHU》DE“DIAOCHAJUTILITIAOMUXING”YIJISICHUANSHENGDIAOCHAJUDE“FUHEXING”BAOGAOSHU,DUIYUAGYULEWANGJINYIBUBIANMINGXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANYUXIUDINGFALVGUANSHUANGXITONGNEIDEFAZHIXIGUANYOUQISHIMINSHANGSHIXIGUANDIAOCHAZHIBUTONG,TIGONGLEHENHAOYANJIUSILUHESHIJIAO,JUYOUZHONGYAOYIYI。DANJIBIANANHUIDIAOCHAJUMINSHIXIGUANBAOGAOSHUSHIANZHAOXIUDINGFALVGUANDEWENTITIAOMUBIANZHIERCHENG,DANTARENGSHIXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANERFEIXIUDINGFALVGUANXITONGDEDIAOCHAYUCHENGGUO,ZHEIYEQIAQIASHUOMINGXIUDINGFALVGUANDUIYUQUANGUODEMINSHIXIGUANDIAOCHAERYANQUESHIQIDAOLEYIDINGCHENGDUDEGUIFANZUOYONG。CANJIANJIANGZHAOTAO《SHIBINGXINGERZHONGHELIU: QINGMODELIANGCIMINSHIXIGUANDIAOCHA》,ZAILIZANZHUBIAN《JINDAIFAPINGLUN》(2009NIANJUAN),DI75-77YE。

 

[36] PENGJIAN: 《QINGJIXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANYANJIU》,DI18YE。

 

AG娱乐网[37] WUXINGRANGCHUCANYUZHILIDIAOCHAJUFAZHIKEDIAOCHAGUIZHANGDETAOLUN、QICAOZHIWAI,HAIFUZEBIANDINGLEZHILIDIAOCHAJU“MINQINGFENGSU”、“SHISHENBANSHIXIGUAN”“MINSHIXIGUAN”、“SHANGSHIXIGUAN”SIBUFENDEDIAOCHAWENTISHU。《BEIYANGFAZHENGXUEBAO》DI113-140QI,1909NIANZHI1910NIAN。

 

AG娱乐网[38] WUXINGRANG: 《DIAOCHAJUFAZHIKEDIAOCHASHUXU》,《BEIYANGFAZHENGXUEBAO》DI110QI,1909NIAN8YUE。

 

[39]《XIUDINGFALVDACHENFABUYOUSHILANGSHENJIABENDENGCHENGXIUDINGFALVGUANBANSHIZHANGCHENGQINGDAN》,LUFUZOUZHE,DANGHAO03-5620-039。

 

AG娱乐网[40] JISHENJIABENYUGUANGXUSANSHISANNIANBAYUEERSHILIURI(1907NIAN10YUE3RI)HEGUANGXUSANSHISANNIANSHIYIYUEERSHILIURI(1907NIAN12YUE30RI)SHANGZOUDE“DAQINGXINGLVCAOAN”ZONGZEHEFENZE。

 

[41]《XIUDINGFALVDACHENSHENDENGZOUNIZIYIDIAOCHAZHANGCHENGZHE(FUZHANGCHENG)》,《DONGFANGZAZHI》1908NIANDI5JUANDI8QI。

 

[42] YOUXUANTONGYUANNIANERYUESHIYIRI《SHENBAO》ZAIWENCHENGZHURUZHEN“JIANGCIQICHENGNANXIA”DIAOCHADONGNANMINQINGFENGSU,YIJIXUANTONGYUANNIANJIUYUEERSHIRIZHURUZHENZHISUZHOUZONGSHANGHUIWENZHONGYOU“QIYUEZHONGHUANXUANJING,DANGJIANGGESHANGHUIJIEQIAQINGXINGBAOGAOXIUDINGFALVDACHEN”YUPANDING。JIAN《FALVGUANPAIYUANDIAOCHADONGNANMINQINGFENGSU》,《SHENBAO》1909NIAN4YUE1RI,DI1ZHANGDI5BAN;《ZHURUZHENCUIBANHAN》,ZAIZHANGKAIYUAN、LIUWANGLING、YEWANZHONGZHUBIAN《SUZHOUSHANGHUIDANGANCONGBIAN(DIYIJI)》,WUHAN: HUAZHONGSHIFANDAXUECHUBANSHE,1991NIAN,DI256YE。

 

AG娱乐网[43]《FALVGUANDIAOCHAGESHENGSHANGXIGUANTIAOLI》,《DONGFANGZAZHI》1909NIANDI6JUANDI8QI。

 

AG娱乐网[44]《SUYUANYANJIUSHANGXIGUANWENTI》,《SHENBAO》1909NIAN5YUE22RI,DI2ZHANGDI4BAN。

 

AG娱乐网[45] MENGSEN: 《XIANZHENGPIAN》,《DONGFANGZAZHI》1909NIANDI6JUANDI4QI。

 

AG娱乐网[46]《JIYIDIAOCHASHANGXIGUANWENTI》,《SHENBAO》1909NIAN5YUE31RI,DI2ZHANGDI3、4BAN。

 

AG娱乐网[47] 《ZHURUZHENCUIBANHAN》,《SUZHOUSHANGHUIDANGANCONGBIAN》(DIYIJI),DI256YE。

 

AG娱乐网[48]《XIUDINGFALVDACHENZOUBIANDINGMINSHANGGELVZHAOZHANGPAIYUANFENSHENGDIAOCHAZHE》,《ZHENGZHIGUANBAO》XUANTONGERNIANZHENGYUEERSHIBARI,DI845HAO。

 

[49]《FALVGUANTONGXINGDIAOCHAMINSHIXIGUANZHANGCHENGWEN(FUZHANGCHENG)》,《DAQINGXUANTONGXINFALING》DI16CE,SHANGHAI: SHANGWUYINSHUGUAN,1911NIAN,DI32YE。

 

[50]《XIUDINGFALVGUANZOUBIANDINGMINSHANGGELVZHAOZHANGPAIYUANFENSHENGDIAOCHAZHE》,《ZHENGZHIGUANBAO》XUANTONGYUANNIANZHENGYUEERSHIBARI,DI845HAO。

 

[51]《CHABAOMINSHIXIGUANZHIPICI》,《SHENBAO》1910NIAN10YUE15RI,DI1ZHANGDI3BAN。

 

AG娱乐网[52]《SHANXIXUNFUENSHOUWEIDIAOCHAMINSHIXIGUANQUANXINGBIANJIWANJUNSHIZHIXIUDINGFALVGUANZIWEN》,XIUDINGFALVGUAN,DANGHAO10-00-00-0018-059;《LIANGGUANGZONGDUZHANGMINGQIWEIZISONGGUANGDONGDISANCIMINSHIXIGUANBAOGAOSHUSHIZHIXIUDINGFALVGUANZIWEN》,XIUDINGFALVGUAN,DANGHAO10-00-00-0018-058;《SHANGANZONGDUZHANGGENGWEIZISONGMINSHIXIGUANDAFUCESHIZHIXIUDINGFALVGUANZIWEN》,XIUDINGFALVGUAN,DANGHAO10-00-00-0018-062。

 

[53] SHANGTIE“CHENGFALVGUAN”HONGTIAO。《JIANGSUSHENGSUSHUDIAOCHAJUCHENGSONGDIERPIMINSHIXIGUANQINGCE》,XIUDINGFALVGUAN,DANGHAO10-00-00-0018-052。

 

[54]《SICHUANZONGDUZHAOERXUNWEIZISONGCHUANSHENGMINSHANGXIGUANDIYICIBAOGAOSHUSHIZHIXIUDINGFALVGUANZIWEN》,XIUDINGBIANCHAGUAN,DANGHAO10-00-00-0018-050。

 

[55] JIANGZHAOTAO: 《SHIBINGXINGERZHONGHELIU: QINGMODELIANGCIMINSHIXIGUANDIAOCHA》,ZAILIZANZHUBIAN《JINDAIFAPINGLUN》(2009NIANJUAN),DI64-78YE。

 

[56] “ZHUZHONGSHIJIEZUIPUBIANZHIFAZE”、“YUANBENHOUCHUZUIJINGQUEZHIFALI”、“QIUZUISHIYUZHONGGUOMINQINGZHIFAZE”YIJI“QIYUGAIJINSHANGZUIYOULIYIZHIFAZE”BEIXIUDINGFALVDACHENYULIANSAN、LIURUOCENGSHIWEIBIANZUAN《DAQINGMINLVCAOAN》DESIDAYAOZHI。《ZOUWEIBIANJIMINLVQIANSANBIANCAOANGAOCHENGJINSHANCHENGCEGONGCHENGYULANSHI》,LUFUZOUZHE,DANGHAO03-9303-018。

 

[57] ZHANGQIN、MAOLEI: 《QINGMOGESHENGDIAOCHAJUHEXIUDINGFALVGUANDEXIGUANDIAOCHA》,《SHAMENDAXUEXUEBAO(ZHEXUESHEHUIKEXUEBAN)》2005NIANDI6QI,DI90YE。

 

AG娱乐网[58]《DIAOCHAMINSHIXIGUANZHANGCHENGSHITIAO》,《SHENBAO》1910NIAN4YUE2RI,DI1ZHANGDI1BAN。

 

[59] CHENYUCONGZUZHIJIEGOU、GONGZUOGUANLIAN、RENYUANPEIBEIDENGFANGMIANKAOCHA,RENWEIXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANYUXIUDINGFALVGUANCUNZAIZHEJIDADEXIANGSIHEJIAOCHAZHICHU,JUYOUCHONGREN“XINZHENGXIANFENG”DE“TONGZHIXING”。CANJIANCHENYU《QINGMOXINZHENGZHONGDEXIUDINGFALVGUAN——ZHONGGUOFALVJINDAIHUADEYIDUANWANGSHI》,DI267-285YE。

 

[60] JULIZHANGPENGDEYANJIU,ZUIZAOZAIZHONGGUOSHIYONG“DIAOCHA”ZIYANGDESHIRIBENRENTENGTIANFENGBA,QINGMOZHONGGUOZUIZAOCHUXIANDEJIGEDIAOCHAZUZHIJUNSHIYOULIURIXUESHENGZUCHENG。CANJIANLIZHANGPENG《QINGMOZHONGGUOXIANDAISHEHUIDIAOCHAZHAOXINGCHUYI》,《QINGSHIYANJIU》2006NIANDI5QI。

 

[61] FALVYIYISHANGcustomYICIYU“XIGUAN”DUIYIDEWENHUASHIHENZHIDEYANJIU。JUBIZHECHAKAOSOUJIDAODEZAOQIYINGHAN-HANYINGZIDIAN,CONG1822NIANMALIXUNDE《HUAYINGZIDIAN》DISANBU《YINGHANZIDIAN》,DAO1913NIANDE《SHANGWUYINSHUGUANYINGHUAXINZIDIAN》,DOULIEYOUcustomDETIAOMU,DANJIBENSHANGSHIYI“GUIJU”、“GUANLI”、“FENGSU”DENGDUIYIZHI,“XIGUAN”YICIGENGDUODESHIDUIYIhabit。JUWENXIANCHAKAO,GUANGXUMONIANDEDUFUGUANYUANZOUZHEZHONGYIJINGYOU“DIAOCHAGESHENGMINQINGFENGSU”DEYONGFA,SHENZHIZAIGUANGXUSANSHISANNIANLIUYUECHUJIURIFABUSHANGSHUDAIHONGCIDE《ZOUNIXIUDINGFALVBANFAZHE》ZHONGTEBIETIDAO: “ZHIRUOXIANSHIZHIYUBEI,ZEZAIDIAOCHAXIGUAN,LINSHIZHIZHIXU,ZEZAIFENPEIZHIWU,YISHIZHISHESHI,ZEZAISHIXINGBANFA……”(《QINGMOCHOUBEILIXIANDANGANSHILIAO》XIACE,DI842YE)。

 

[62]《ZHEYIYUANYOUTONGBODIAOCHAJURENYUANYUANZIGEYI》,《SHENBAO》1910NIAN12YUE27RI,DI1ZHANGDI1BAN。

 

[63] HANCE、CUIXUESENZHENGLI,WANGXIAOQIUSHENDING: 《WANGRONGBAORIJI》,BEIJING: ZHONGHUASHUJU,2013NIAN,DI40YE。ZHANGRENJUNYUXUANTONGYUANNIANWUYUESHIYIRI(1909NIAN6YUE28RI)DIAOLIANGJIANGZONGDU。SHIRENXIANZHENGBIANCHAGUANBIANZHIJUBIANZHIKEKEYUANDEWANGRONGBAOFENBIEZAIXUANTONGYUANNIANWUYUESHIYIRI(1909NIAN6YUE28RI)YIJIWUYUESHISIRI(7YUE1RI)DERIJIZHONGJIXIAZHANGRENJUNDIAORENYIJIDIANXUNDIAOCHAGUIZHANGDESHIJI,BINGCHENG,“DANGJINGDIANFUYIFALVYUMINGLINGZHIQUBIEJIESHIDANXINGFAJIXINGZHENGGUIZHANGZHIYITONG。XUANYOUZHUNZI,XUNYIJIUZHIYANZHI,HEZHEWEIFA,HEZHEWEILING,QINGBIFUSHIZUN”。

 

[64]《DIAOCHAJUZHAFAXINSHIWENTI》,《SHENBAO》1910NIAN11YUE14RI,DI1ZHANGDI3BAN。

 

AG娱乐网[65] JIANGYONG: 《WUSHINIANLAIZHONGGUOZHIFAZHI》,DI7YE,ZAISHENBAOGUANBIAN《ZUIJINZHIWUSHIJI》,SHENBAOGUAN,1923NIAN。

 

AG娱乐网[66]《GESHENGQUMINSHANGSHIXIGUANDIAOCHABAOGAOWENJIANQINGCE》,《SIFAGONGBAO》1927NIANDI232QI,

 

[67] YANGLIXINDIANXIAO: 《DAQINGMINLVCAOAN·MINGUOMINLVCAOAN》,ZHANGCHUN: JILINRENMINCHUBANSHE,2002NIAN,DI3YE。

 

[68] 《中华民国民法》(1929)第1条明文规定: “民事法律所未规定者依习惯,无习惯者依法理。”从而规定了“法律”、“习惯”、“法理”为法之渊源。参见夏勤《论新民法之法源》,《国立中央大学法学院季刊》,第1卷第3期,1931年4月。



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