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AG娱乐网LI KUN: “16—20SHIJIGUOJIMAOYI、JISHUBIANGEYUJINGJIZENGZHANG”GUOJIXUESHUYANTAOHUIZONGSHU

作者: 文章来源:AG娱乐网

2015NIAN4YUE11—13RI,QUANQIUJINGJISHIGUOJIHUIYI“16—20SHIJIGUOJIMAOYI、JISHUBIANHUAYUJINGJIZENGZHANG”ZAIBEIJINGHANGKONGHANGTIANDAXUERENWENXUEYUANZHAOKAI,DAHUIGONGZUOYUYANWEIYINGYU。BINXIAWUZHI、WANGGUOBIN(Roy Bin Wong)、WANZHIYING(Richard Von Glahn)、MAKELIN(Colin Patrick Mackerras)DENGZHUMINGHANXUEJIA,HEJoseph Inikiri, Federico Romero, Yun-CasalillaDENGLISHIXUEJIAYIJIQITALAIZIYUMEIGUO、YINGGUO、HELAN、DEGUO、AODALIYA、YIDALI、XIBANYA、RIBENHEMOXIGEDENGGUODE18WEIWAIGUOXUEZHEHE30YUMINGGUONEIXUEZHECANJIALEHUIYI。

 

HUIYIGONGSHOUDAO38PIANYINGYULUNWEN,YOU37MINGCANHUIXUEZHEXUANDULELUNWEN。MEIGUOJIAZHOUDAXUELUOSHANJIFENXIAOLISHIXIJIAOSHOUJIYAZHOUYANJIUZHONGXINZHURENWANGGUOBINJIAOSHOUZAIKAIMUSHISHANGZUOLEZHUTIFAYAN。MEIGUOJIAZHOUDAXUELUOSHANJIFENXIAOLISHIXIWANZHIYINGJIAOSHOUHEXIBANYABABULUODEAOLAWEIDAIDAXUELISHIXIYun-CasalillaJIAOSHOUZAIKAIMUSHISHANGXUANDULELUNWEN,ZHONGSHANDAXUEYATAIYANJIUYUANYUANZHANGBINXIAWUZHIJIAOSHOUHEBEIJINGHANGKONGHANGTIANDAXUERENWENXUEYUANJINGJIXIZHANGLIJIAOSHOUZAIBIMUSHISHANGXUANDULELUNWEN。《ZHONGGUOJINGJISHIYANJIU》CHANGWUFUZHUBIANGAOCHAOQUNJIAOSHOUZUOLEZHUZHIFAYAN。

 

AG娱乐网HUIYIHAIJINXINGLEBAGETIMUDEFENZUTAOLUN,FENBIEWEI“SHICHANGYUJINGJIZENGZHANG”“HAISHANGMAOYIYUWANGLUO”“JINRONGYUHUOBI”“QUANQIUJINGJISHIYANJIUDEZIYUANYUFANGFA”“SHANGREN、HAIDAOYUHAISHANGMAOYI”“SHEHUIYUSHEHUIZHIDU”“SHANGPINMAOYIYUCHENGZHENFAZHAN”“SHEHUIYANBIANYUJISHUBIANHUA”。

 

CICIHUIYIYI“GUOJIMAOYI、JISHUBIANHUAHEJINGJIZENGZHANG”WEIDAHUIZHUTI,ZAIZHEIYIZHUTIFANWEIXIA,HUIYILUNWENSUOHANGAIDEYANJIUWENTIFANWEIPOGUANG,YOUXIEWENTIZHENGSHIDANGJINGUOJIJINGJISHIXUEJIEGUANGWEIGUANZHUHERELIETAOLUNDEWENTI。

AG娱乐网YI、GUANYUDAFENLIUWENTIDETAOLUN

 

“DAFENLIU”SHIDANGQIANGUOJIJINGJISHIXUEJIEZHONGDEYIGEFEICHANGREMENDEHUATI。CICIHUIYIZHONG,JIWEIXUEZHEDELUNWENDOUSHEJIDAOLEZHEIYIWENTI。WANGGUOBINJIAOSHOUZHICHUDAFENLIUDUILIJIEZHONGGUOJINGJIGUOQUYUXIANZAIZHIJIANDELIANXITICHULETIAOZHAN,DANJINGJISHIHEFAZHANJINGJIXUEWENXIANBINGMEIYOUQINGCHUDICHANMINGZHEIZHONGLIANXI。20SHIJIWANQIGUANYU“WEISHENMEZHONGGUOLUOHOUYUOUZHOU”DEJIESHIFEICHANGKUANFAN,SHEJIDILI、SHENGCHANJISHU、SHEHUIJIEGOU、WENHUA/ZONGJIAO、ZHENGZHIYISHIXINGTAIHEZHIDUDENG。ZHEIXIEJIESHISHIMIAOSHUXINGDE,WUFALIANGHUASHUOMINGNAZHONGXUSHUGENGNENGJIESHIXIANSHI。WANGGUOBINJIAOSHOURENWEIPENGMULANQIANGDIAOMEIZHOUZHIMINHEMEIKUANGDEWEIZHIDUIYINGGELANGONGYEHUADEZHONGYAOXING;QIFENXIYOULIANGDAGONGXIAN: YISHIXUANZELEKEBIJIAODEKONGJIANZUOBIJIAOJINGJISHIFENXI,ERSHIQIANGDIAOJINGYANFENXIHESHULIANGBIJIAOERFEIMIAOSHUXINGFENXI。PENGMULANZHIHOU,LAODONGSHENGCHANLVCHAYI、GONGZICHABIEBEIZHENGMINGBUZUYIJIESHIDAFENLIU,XUEZHEMENRENWEIYUYINDUFANGZHIYEDEJINGZHENGYIJIJINKOUTIDAICAISHIYINQIDAFENLIUDEGUANJIANYUANYIN。DANZHONGGUOYUYINGHEGONGZIDECHABIEYINQIXUEZHESIKAO,WEISHENMEGONGYEGEMINGZHIQIANGONGZICHUXIANLEDAFENLIU?ZHEIYOUCUSHIXUEZHESIKAOOUZHOUSHANGYEZIBENZHUYIDEFAZHANYIJISHANGYEZIBENZHUYISHIRUHEBEIGONGYEZIBENZHUYIQUDAIDE。GUANYUZHONGGUOGONGYEHUA,WANGGUOBINJIAOSHOUSHULILEWANQINGZHIGAIGEKAIFANGHOUZHONGGUOGONGYEHUADELICHENG,ZHICHUDANGQIANZHONGGUOGONGYEHUADECHENGJIULAIZIYUZIXIAERSHANGDESHIJIANYUZISHANGERXIADENULI,BINGCONGWANQINGXIANGZHENHECHENGSHIGONGYEZHONGHUODELEYICHU。ZHONGGUODEGONGYEHUALICHENGBIAOMING,ZHENGFUZAIJINGJIBIANHUAMIANQIANCAIQUDEZHENGQUEZHENGCEHEFAZHANFANGSHINENGGOUWEIJINGJIFAZHANGOUZAOMEIHAOWEILAI。

 

 ZHANGLIJIAOSHOUZAIBIMUSHISHANGDEDAHUIFAYANYESHIWEIRAOZHEDAFENLIUDEWENTIZHANKAIDE。TAZHICHUQUANQIUHUABUSHIGUOJIHUA,QUANQIUHUASHISHIJIEJINGJITIXIDEJIANLI,TADEHEXINNEIRONGSHIGUOJILAODONGFENGONG。ZHANGLIJIAOSHOURENWEIDAFENLIUZHENGSHIZAIQUANQIUHUADEGUOCHENGZHONGCHANSHENGDE;QUANQIUHUASUOCHUANGZAODEQUANQIUSHICHANG、GUOJILAODONGFENGONGTIXI、YIJIJIANLIZAIGUOJILAODONGFENGONGJICHUSHANGBINGYIKAOGUOJIMAOYISUOWANCHENGDEGUOJIBUPINGDENGJIAOHUANSHIDAFENLIUDEYICHANSHENGDEJICHU,SANZHEQUEYIBUKE。ZHANGLIJIAOSHOUZHICHUSHICHANGDEDAGUIMOKUOZHANGHUIDAILAI“SHENGCHANKENENGXINGBIANJIE”DEWAIYI,JINERDAOZHICHUANGXINHESHENGCHANLIDETIGAO。DANGSHICHANGKUOZHANGSUDUSHICHANYEPINGJIEJIANDANSHENGCHANGUIMOKUODA(KAOZENGJIALAODONGTOURU)YUANYUANBUNENGZHUISHANGDESUDUSHI,JINGJIXUEZHONGDE“BIANJISHOUYIDIJIAN”GUILVBUDANBUHUIFASHENG,BIANJISHOUYIFANERHUIJIJUSHANGSHENG,CONGERCUJINSHENGCHANZUZHIZHIDUSHANGHEJISHUSHANGDECHUANGXINHEBIANGE。ZHEIYIDIANZAIYINGGUOGONGYEGEMINGZHONGDEZHONGXINCHANYE,YINGGUOMIANFANGZHIGONGYEDELISHIFAZHANZHONGDEDAOLECHONGFENTIXIAN。JIJUKUOZHANGDEHAIWAISHICHANGSHIYINGGUOMIANFANGZHIYEFEISUFAZHANDEYIGEJUDATUIDONGLI。DONGOUDELIANGSHIJINKOU,MEIGUODEXIAOMAI、YUMIHEMIANHUADEJINKOU,YIJIYINDUDEMIANHUAJINKOUDENG,SHIYINGGUOKEYIDAGAOQUANDIYUNDONG,QUANLIFAZHANMIANFANGZHIGONGYESHENGCHANDEQIANTITIAOJIAN,ERMEIGUO、YINDU、XIFEIDENGMIANFANGZHIPINXIAOFEISHICHANGDEBAOZHANGYESHIYINGGUOMIANFANGZHIGONGYEKEYIFEISUFAZHANDEJICHUHEDONGLI。ZAIYINGGUOMIANFANGZHIPINYUMEIGUOMIANHUADEMAOYIJIAOHUANZHONG,YINGGUOMIANFANGZHIGONGRENYIGEXIAOSHIDELAODONGKEYIHUANQUMEIGUOMIANHUANONGCHANGSHANGHEINUDUOGEXIAOSHIDELAODONG,ZAIZHEIZHONGBUPINGDENGJIAOHUANZHONGYINGGUOXIANRANZHANYOUYOUSHIDIWEI。ZHENGSHIGUOJISHICHANG,GUOJILAODONGFENGONGHEBUPINGDENGJIAOHUANSHIYINGGUODEYIWANCHENGGONGYEGEMING,YESHIHOULAINULIZHANJUGUOJILAODONGFENGONGTIXIGAODUANDEGUOJIADEYIYUELAIYUEFADAFUYOU,DAOZHILEXIFANGDEJUEQIHEDAFENLIUDECHANSHENG。YUYINGGUOHEXIBEIOUGUOJIAXIANGBI,17—19SHIJIZHONGGUOZHIZAOYEDEXUQIUSHICHANGZEJIBENSHANGSHIBIJIAOWENDINGDE,SUIRANYEYOURIBEN、OUZHOU、MEIZHOUDALUZAI16SHIJIZHONGYEZHI18SHIJIZHONGYEDUIZHONGGUOZHIZAOPINXUQIUDEZENGJIA,DANYU16—19SHIJICHUSHIYINGGUOHEXIBEIOUXIANGBI,GENBENBUKETONGRIERYU。ZAIZHEIYISHIQI,ZHONGGUOZHIZAOYECHENGXIANDEZHUYAOSHI“SIMIXINGZENGZHANG”。

 

InikoriJIAOSHOUZAI“SHICHANGYUJINGJIZENGZHANG”FENZUTAOLUNHUISHANGGUANYU“YINGGUOGONGYEGEMINGQIJIANDEDAXIYANGMAOYIHEJISHUFAZHAN”DEBAOGAOYEDUISHICHANGYUDAFENLIUZHIJIANDEGUANXIJINXINGLETANTAO。InikoriJIAOSHOURENWEIZAIGUOJIACENGMIANSHANG,JIEGOUZHUANXINGYUJISHUFAZHANBINGBUBIRANYURENJUNSHOURUZENGZHANGTONGSHIFASHENG。ZAIDUANQIDEMOUGESHIKE,DANGJIEGOUZHUANXINGYUJISHUFAZHANCHUXIANSHI,GUOMINRENJUNSHOURUZENGZHANGKENENGHUITINGZHI,SHENZHIJIANSHAO。YINGGELANDEJINGYANBIANZHANSHILEZHEIZHONGXIANXIANG。DANGJIEGOUZHUANXINGYUJISHUFAZHANXIAOFANWEIDIJIZHONGFASHENGZAIGEBIELUOHOUDIQUSHI,JINGUANGAIDIQUDEJIEGOUZHUANXINGHEJISHUFAZHANYURENJUNSHOURUZENGZHANGTONGSHIFASHENG,DANYOUYUQITADIQUDEANDANBIAOXIAN,GUOMINRENJUNSHOURUZENGZHANGBINGWEIFASHENG。ZAIJIEGOUZHUANXINGYUJISHUFAZHANDUIRENJUNSHOURUZENGZHANGDEJIJIYINGXIANGKUOZHANDAOQUANGUOZHIQIAN,GUOJIACENGMIANDESHUJUBUHUIYOULIANGDIAN。YINCI,JIYUGUOJIACENGMIANDEFENXIBINGBUNENGYOUXIAOSHUOMINGDAOZHIGONGYEGEMINGXINJISHUCHANSHENGDEYUANYIN,BIXUJIANGMUGUANGJUJIAOYUWEIGUANQUYUCENGMIAN。OUZHOUDEJUEQIYUDAXIYANGMAOYICUNZAIMIQIELIANXI,DAXIYANGMAOYIDEJIJIYINGXIANGBINGMEIYOUCHUANBIANZHENGGEOUZHOU,SHENZHIDUIYINGGELANGEZHOUXIANDEYINGXIANGYEBUSHIJUNHENGDE。TONGGUODUIYINGGELANGEZHOUXIANJINGJIBIAOXIANDEDUIBIFENXIFAXIAN,JUDADELIYIZUICHUZHUYAOLIUXIANGYINGGELANDEYIXIAOBUFENDIQU。LANKAIXIAJUNHEXILAIDINGLIYONGQIXIANGDUILIANJIADELAODONGLI,FUHUOLEYUQIQUYUGUIMOBUCHENGBILIDEDAXIYANGSHICHANGFENE,ZAICHUKOUDAOXIANGZENGZHANGZHANLVEDEZHIDAOXIA,GUIMOPANGDADEHAIWAISHICHANGYOULIDITUIDONGLEJISHUFAZHAN,ZUIZHONGWANCHENGLEJINKOUTIDAIDEGONGYEHUAJINCHENG。TONGSHI,InikoriJIAOSHOUTICHU,15SHIJIHE16SHIJIWANQIOUZHOUDEMAOYIKUOZHANGMEIYOUYINFAGONGYEGEMINGSHIYINWEIDANGSHIQUEFAZUGOUDESHICHANGHEJINGJIJIHUI;GONGYEGEMINGFASHENGZAIYINGGUO,ERBUSHITONGSHIFASHENGZAIOUZHOUJIGEGUOJIA(TEBIESHIYUYINGGUOYONGYOUXIANGTONGZHIDUGUIJIDEHELAN),SHIYINWEIDAXIYANGMAOYIDELIYIBINGMEIYOUZAICANYUGUOZHIJIANJUNHENGFENPEI;ZHANGJIANGSANJIAOZHOUYUDONGANGELIYAJIEJUXIANGSI,SHIYINWEIERZHEDOUSHIQULEZHONGYAODESHICHANG,LANKAIXIAJUNHEXILAIDINGMEIYOUJINGLIZHANGJIANGSANJIAOZHOUNEIYANGDEJIEJU,SHIYINWEIQIHUODELEZUGOUDESHICHANG。

 

AG娱乐网LINGWAI,ZAI“SHICHANGYUJINGJIZENGZHANG”TAOLUNZUSHANGFAYANDEQITAJIWEIXUEZHEYEHUODUOHUOSHAODISHEJIDAOLEDAFENLIUWENTI。XIAMINGFANGJIAOSHOUZAITADE“YADANG·SIMIZAINAER?HUANJINGSHIZHONGDEZHONGGUOXIANGCUNJINGJI”DELUNWENZHONGTICHU,QIANGDIAOSHEHUIFENGONG(BUTONGJINGJIBUMENHUOSHEHUIJIECENGZHIJIANDEFENGONG)DESIMILILUNBUNENGJIESHIYINONGGONGJIEHEWEIZHUYAOXINGTAIDEJINDAIZHONGGUONONGCUNJINGJIDEYANBIAN。DANGQIANZHONGGUOYINJIANXINGSHEHUIFENGONG,QIANRUXIFANGZHUDAODESHIJIEJINGJITIXIZHONG,ZAIYINGDEJINGJIZENGZHANGDETONGSHIYEFUCHULECHENZHONGDEHUANJINGCHENGBEN,ERZAIDAFENLIUZHONGLUOBAIYUSIMISHEHUIFENGONGMOSHIDE、YIDUBEIRENWEISHIYUMEILUOHOUDENONGGONGJIEHEDEXIAONONGJINGJI,ZAIWEILAIYEXUSHINENGRANGZHONGGUOBAITUOHUANJINGKUNJINGDEKEXINGLUJING。NANKAIDAXUEJINGYANSUODEGUANYONGQIANGFUJIAOSHOUZAITA“JINDAIZHONGGUOXIANGCUNSHOUGONGYESHIJIAOXIADESIMIZENGZHANGLILUNHUIGU”DELUNWENBAOGAOZHONGZHICHU,JINDAIZHONGGUOXIANGCUNGONGYEDEFAZHANZHUYAOSHISIMIXINGDONGLIHUOSHICHANGTUIDONGDEJIEGUO,QIYUXIFANGQINMIANGEMINGMEIYOUMINGXIANCHABIE;1930NIANDAIDEZHONGGUONONGCUNCUNZAINEIJUANHUAXIANXIANG,DANZHUYAOSHISHICHANGBODONGERFEIRENKOUYALIDEJIEGUO;JINDAIXIANGCUNGONGYEZHONGYOUHENDUOLAODONGMIJIXINGJISHU,DANZHONGGUODEGONGYEHUAQUEBUJINSHILAODONGMIJIXINGDEFAZHANDAOLU。

 

ER、LISHISHANGDEHAIYANGMAOYI

 

“YIDAIYILU”SHIJINLAIGUONEIGEJIEGAODUGUANZHUDEWENTI,BENCIHUIYIZHONGBUSHAOXUEZHEDOUGUANZHUMINGQINGSHIQIDEHAIYANGMAOYI,TEBIESHIYOUGUANYAZHOUHAIYANGMAOYIZHONGDEMAOYIGANGKOU、MAOYIWANGLUO、HAISHANGHEHAIDAODENGWENTI。BINXIAWUZHIJIAOSHOUZAIBIMUSHISHANGTAOLUNLE“15—18SHIJIDEYAZHOUHAISHANGSICHOUZHILUYUMAOYIGANGKOUCHENGSHI”,CONGZHENGTIHELIANXIDESHIJIAOTANTAOLE15—18SHIJIYAZHOUHAISHANGSICHOUZHILUSHANGMAOYIGANGKOUCHENGSHIZHIJIANDEHUDONGJIQIBENZHI。BINXIAWUZHIJIAOSHOURENWEIRUGUOJINJIANGHAISHANGSICHOUZHILUKANZUODONGXIFANGMAOYI、AGYULEWANGHEWENHUALIANJIEDELUJING,HUICUOSHIYAZHOUGEHAIYUDEQUYUGONGNENGHELISHITEZHENG。CONGZHONGSHIJIKAISHI,DALIANGMAOYIZHONGXINHEGANGKOUCHENGSHICHUXIANZAIYAZHOUHAIYU,BINGGENJUYAZHOUHAIYUDEZHENGTIBIANHUADIAOZHENGZISHENZAIGEZIHAIYUZHONGDEJIAOSE。MEIGEHAIYUDOUFENXIANGHEYINGXIANGGEZIZAIQUYUJIEDIANHEWANGLUOZHONGDEBIANHUA,YIGEQUYUYESHILINGYIGEQUYUDESUZAOZHE。BINXIAWUZHIJIAOSHOUHAIZHEZHONGTANTAOLELIUQIUZAIYIZHONGGUOWEIZHONGXINDECHAOGONGMAOYITIXIZHONGDEAGYULEWANGWANGLUOZUOYONG。TAYONGSHANGPINLIAN、MAOYIWANGLUO、YIMIN、WENHUAQUYU、WENHUAQUANJIANGGEGEQUYULIANJIEQILAI,FAXIANYAZHOUSICHOUZHILUTONGSHISHIDALUSHIJIEHEHAIYANGSHIJIEDEQIAOLIANGYUNIUDAI,TONGGUOYOUDENGJIDIFENXIANGZIYUANHEBIXUPIN,GEGEDIQUXIANGHULIANJIEXINGCHENGYIGEYOUXIAOZHENGHE、YUNXINGLIANGHAODEZHENGTI。

 

LIQINGXINYANJIUYUANDUI“17、18SHIJIDONGYAHAIYUDEHAIYANGSHILI、MAOYIWANGLUOHEGANGKOUTIXI”JINXINGLETANTAO,JIANGDANGSHIDONGYAHAIYANGBIANJUZHIYUDAHANGHAISHIDAIDONGYALISHIBIANQIANYUZAOQIQUANQIUHUADEDABEIJINGXIAJINXINGKAOCHA。ZHONGGUORENMINDAXUEAgnes KneitzBOSHIJIU“QUANQIUYANGLIUDUIQUANQIUDAOHANGDEYINGXIANG”DEFAYANZETANTAOLEHAIYANGKEXUEFAZHANDUIQUANQIUDAOHANGHEHAIYANGMAOYIDEYINGXIANG。XIAJIGUOJIAOSHOUTICHUXINHAIYANGSHIYANJIUDESANGETEDIAN: (1)YANJIUSHIJIAOCONGDALUZHONGXINZHUANBIANWEIHAIYANGZHONGXIN,(2)JIANGHAIYANGSHIWEIHUDONGWANGLUOERFEIDANCHUNDEMAOYILUJING,(3)JIANGDANGDAIHAIYANGSHIWEIZHANGQICUNZAIDEHAIYANGWANGLUODEYIBUFEN。

 

Antony RobertJIAOSHOUZUOLEGUANYU“1550—1850QIJIANBEIBUWANDEMAOYI、ZOUSI、HAISHANGQIANGJIEYUZHANZHENG”DEFAYAN,TICHUHAISHANGQIANGJIESHIBEIBUWANZHENGZHI、JINGJI、SHEHUIHEWENHUADENEIZAITEZHENG;DIFANGZHENGQUANRUYUENANDERUANJIA,YIJISUIHOUDEANNANXISHANZHENGQUAN,HAIYOUTAIWANDEZHENGSHIJITUAN,DOUZHIJIEHUOJIANJIEDIZHICHIHAIDAOXINGWEI,BINGJIANGQIZUOWEIZENGJIACAIZHENGSHOURUHEZAIZHENGZHIDOUZHENGZHONGYINGDEJINGZHENGYOUSHIDEYIGESHOUDUAN。ZAIWUZHIXU、BUQUEDINGDETIAOJIANXIA,MAOYI、ZOUSIHEHAISHANGQIANGJIEMEIYOUSHENMEQUBIE。HEBEIDAXUEDEWANGTAOFUJIAOSHOUZHICHUZHENGZHILONGGERENDEMINGYUNSHIZHONGGUOHAISHANGMINGYUNDESUOYING: YOUYUDEBUDAOLAIZIZHONGYANGZHENGQUANDEZHICHI,HAISHANGZAIYUXIFANGDEJINGZHENGZHONGSHIBAILE;ZHONGGUOYECHENGWEIYIGEZHIYOUSHANGPINCHUKOU,DANQUEMEIYOUHAISHANGLILIANGDEGUOJIA,BINGZUIZHONGWEICIFUCHULECHENZHONGDAIJIA。DENGZHOUBOWUGUANDEWANGYIZHENGYANJIUYUANZHICHUJIAJINGZHENGFU1559NIANDUIZHONGGUOHAISHANGWANGZHIDESHAHAI,SHIPUTAOYAHAISHANGDEYICHENXUERRU,BAAOMENCHONGDANGDUIRIMAOYIJIDI,JINERQUDAILEZHIQIANDEWANGZHIHAISHANGJITUAN,YIYUEERCHENGWEIZHONGRIMAOYIDEZHUZAI,ZHEIJIUSHIRIBENNANMANMAOYIDEKAIDUAN。DONGJINGWAIGUOYUDAXUEDESousa LucioFUJIAOSHOUDUIQUANQIUHUAZAOQICHUXIANZAIYAZHOUHAIYANGMAOYIZHONGDEYOUTAISHANGRENJINXINGLEYANJIU,BINGYIYIZHICHUXIANZAIBAXIHEZHONGGUODEYOUTAISHANGRENJIAZUWEILI,TANTAOLETAMENDEHAIYANGMAOYISHENGYAHESHEHUIJINGJIWANGLUO。

 

AG娱乐网SAN、MEIZHOUBAIYINHEMINGQINGZHONGGUOCAIZHENGWENTI

 

MEIZHOUBAIYINDUIOUZHOUHEZHONGGUOJINGJIFAZHANDEZUOYONGYIZHISHIJINGJISHIYANJIUZHONGYIGEPOYOUZHENGYIDEWENTI,ZAIZHEIYILINGYU,WANZHIYINGJIAOSHOUWUYISHIYIWEIJUZUQINGZHONGDERENWU。WANZHIYINGJIAOSHOUZAIKAIMUSHISHANGDEFAYANZHONGTANTAOLE19SHIJISHANGBANYEZHONGGUODAOGUANGXIAOTIAO(1820—1850)YUBAIYINWAILIUZHIJIANDEGUANXI。TAZHICHUHENDUOXUEZHERENWEIBAIYINWAILIUSHIDAOGUANGXIAOTIAODEYUANYIN,DANZHONGGUODEBAIYINWAILIUSHIYU19SHIJI20NIANDAIWANQI,TONGBIDEMINGXIANBIANZHISHIYU19SHIJI30NIANDAIZHONGQIZHIHOU,ERCISHIDAOGUANGXIAOTIAOQISHIYIJINGFASHENGLE。YINCI,BAIYINWAILIUBINGBUSHIYINQIDAOGUANGXIAOTIAODEYUANYIN,JINGJIBUXINGDEGENYUANBUYINGGUIZUIYUDUIWAIMAOYIDENGWAIBUYINSU。18SHIJIWANQIZHONGGUOGUONEISHICHANGDEYITIHUASHUIPINGCHUXIANDAOTUI,XIANGCUNGONGYEDEFAZHANXISHENGLEJIANGNANDENGHEXINQUYUGONGYEDELIYI——HOUZHESHENGCHANDECHANPINZHILIANGGENGGAODANJIAGEGENGGUI,DAOZHIQIGUONEISHICHANGYANZHONGWEISUO。ZHEIZHONGGUONEIQITADIQUDUIJIANGNANGONGYECHANPINDEJINKOUTIDAIZUAILEQUJIMAOYI,JIAJULEZIJIZIZUJINGJIMOSHIDESHENHUA,YIJIBUDUANZENGZHANGDEGONGYESHENGCHANDEXIANGCUNHUA。ZHONGGUORENMINDAXUEDEHEPINGJIAOSHOUZAITADELUNWENZHONGYETANTAOLEDALIANGBAIYINLIURUDUIMINGCHAOZHONGGUOHUOBITIXIDEYINGXIANG,RENWEIMINGCHAOZHONGGUOZAIZHONGXIMAOYISHANGDERUCHAOYIJIXIFANGDEHUANGJINTAOLISHIBAIYINDALIANGLIURUZHONGGUO,ZHEIWEIZHONGGUOJIANLIBAIYINHUOBIXITONGDAILAILEGUOJIQIJI。

 

AG娱乐网CHULEMEIZHOUBAIYINWAI,YIXIEXUEZHEDUIMAOYIZHONGDEJINRONGWENTIYEZUOLETANTAO。SHANXIDAXUECHENGYANPINGJIAOSHOUTANTAOLEQINGCHAOQIAKETUMAOYIDEFANRONGYUSHANXIPIAOHAOZHIJIANDEGUANXI,ZHICHUSHANGPINMAOYIDEFAZHANYINGXIANGLESHANXIPIAOHAODEGUIMO,ERSHANXIPIAOHAODUISHANGPINMAOYIDEFAZHANZEJIYOUZHENGMIANYINGXIANG,YEYOUFUMIANYINGXIANG。ZHONGGUOSHEHUIKEXUEYUANJINGJISUOYUANWEIPENGFUYANJIUYUANYITONGTAISHENGHAOSHANGYEZHANGBU(1798—1850)WEILI,FENXILEZHONGSHIHUIJIDEZHONGDIAN、ZHUYAOGONGNENGHECUNZAIWENTI,ZHICHUZHONGSHIHUIJINENGMANZUSHENGYIDEJIBENXUQIU,DANZHIFAZHANLEDANSHIBUJI,KANBUDAOFUSHIJIZHANGDERENHEHENJI。

 

SI、ZHISHIHEJISHUCHUANBOYUJINGJIZENGZHANG

 

MAOYI、YIMIN、ZHANZHENGYIJIZHENGFUCONGLAIDOUSHIZHISHIHEJISHUCHUANBODEZHONGYAOTUJING。CICIHUIYIDELINGYIGEZHONGYAOYITIJIUSHIQUANQIUHUALISHIZHONGDEZHISHIHEJISHUCHUANBO。Yun-CasalillaJIAOSHOUZAIKAIMUSHISHANGDEDAHUIFAYANTANTAOLE“HEISECHUANQI”(Black Legend)SHIDAIXIBANYADIGUODEFEIZHENGSHIZHIDUHESHEHUIWANGLUOZAIJISHUHEKEJIZHISHICHUANBOZHONGDEJIAOSEYUZUOYONG。ZHICHUCHENGZAIJISHUXINXICHUANBODESHEHUIWANGLUOWEILIJIEJISHUHEQUANLIZHIJIAN、YIJIQUANQIUHUAHEDIGUOZHIJIANDEGUANXITIGONGLEBIANLI。16SHIJIDEXIBANYASHIOUZHOUDEZHONGXIN;ZHISHI、YUNHANTIAOXINSIXIANGDESHANGPIN、JISHUHEJIGONG、JIANZAOSHIHEGONGCHENGSHI、DAOHANGYUANHESHUISHOU、JINGTONGZHANZHENGJISHUDEJUNREN、YISHENGJIQITAXINGYECONGYEZHEDEQUYUJIANLIUDONGBIANZHILEYIGEFEIZHENGSHIDECHENGZAIJISHUCHUANBODESHEHUIWANGLUO。SUIZHEKASIDILIYACHENGWEIXIBANYAQUANQIUDIGUODEZHONGXIN,ZHEIGEWANGLUOBIANDEYUELAIYUECHOUMI,BINGZAIHAIWAIKUOZHANGDETUIDONGXIAYOUKUAGUOWANGLUOCHENGZHANGWEIKUADAXIYANGWANGLUO。GAISHEHUIWANGLUOSHIZHISHI、JISHUDEKUAGUOCHUANBOHEQUANQIUCHUANBOZUIYOUXIAOLVDEZOULANG。JISHUSHIDIGUOZHENGFUHETONGZHIDEGONGJU,TONGSHIYEWEIDIGUODEDIRENTIGONGLEFANKANGDIGUODEZIYUAN,ZENGJIALEZHIMINDIZIZHIYIJIYUTONGZHIZHEJINXINGZHENGZHIXIESHANGDEKENENGXING。XIBANYADIGUOSHI16SHIJITUIDONGQUANQIUHUAZUIYOUSHILIDEDAIBIAO,DANJISHUDEQUANQIUHUABENSHENRUOHUALEDIGUODELILIANG。YINCI,BUNENGZHIQIANGDIAOJISHUZUOWEIDIGUOTONGZHIDEGONGJU。QUANQIUHUAHEDIGUOTONGZHIXIANGHULIANXI,DANBINGBUZONGSHIZUOYONGZAITONGYIGEFANGXIANG。ZUIHOU,Yun-CasalillaJIAOSHOUZHICHU,WEILELIJIENEIGESHIDAIDEFUZAXING,BUNENGZHIGUANZHUYOUWANGQUANCHUANGZAODEZHENGSHIZHIDU,YEYAOGUANZHUZHISHIHEJISHUCHUANBOBEIHOUDEFEIZHENGSHIZHIDUHESHEHUIWANGLUO。

 

Colin MackerrasJIAOSHOUZAITADELUNWENZHONGYETANTAOLEKEJIFAMINGDECHUANBOYIJIQIDUIQUANQIULISHIFAZHANDEYINGXIANG。MackerrasJIAOSHOUZHICHUOUZHOUZAI16—19SHIJIKAISHIZAIGEFANGMIANLINGXIANZHONGGUO,QIKEXUEFAMINGBAOKUONEIXIEYINGYONGKEXUEDEFAMINGCUISHENGLEOUZHOUDEGONGYEGEMING,YESHIOUZHOUDEYIZAIQUANQIUFANWEINEIJIANLIZHIMINTIXI,BINGNENGGOUDUIYULUOHOUDEJINDAIZHONGGUOSHIJIAQURU。YANSEFUJIAOSHOUZEBACHUANJIAOYUSHEHUIHEJISHUDEJINBULIANXIQILAI,RENWEI19SHIJIWANQIHE20SHIJIZAOQIZHONGGUODEXINJIAOHUODONGDUIZHANGQIJINGJIZENGZHANG、JIAOYUHEYILIAOFAZHANCHANSHENGLEJIJIYINGXIANG;ZHONGGUO1978NIANYILAIDEJINGJIZENGZHANGBUJINJINSHITURANDEZHIDUBIANHUADEJIEGUO,ERQIESHIYOUYUCONGLISHISHANGHUODELERENLIZIBENHEJIJIDEJIAZHIGUAN。

 

WU、QITAWENTI

 

AG娱乐网CHULEDAFENLIU、HAIYANGMAOYI、MEIZHOUBAIYINHEZHISHIJISHUCHUANBODENGJIDAWENTIWAI,YUHUIXUEZHEHAIDUIXUDUOQITAWENTIJINXINGLEYANJIUHETANSUO。BEIJINGDAXUEJINGJIXUEYUANDEGUANHANHUIFUJIAOSHOURENWEIJUNTIANZHIDESHISHISHIGUIZUJIECENGBUDEBUYUTONGGUOKAOSHICONGBAIXINGZHONGXUANCHULAIDEJINGYINGFENXIANGZHENGZHIQUANLI,YINERJUNTIANZHICUJINLESHEHUIJIECENGLIUDONG,SHIKEJUZHIDUCHANSHENGDEZHUYAOQUDONGYINSU;JINGJIYINSUJUEDINGZHENGZHIZHIDUJIQIYANHUA,ERFEIZHENGZHIZHIDUJUEDINGZHANGQIDEJINGJIFAZHAN;ZHIYOUDANGJINGJIYINSUCHEDIGAIBIANSHEHUIJIEGOUSHI,ZHENGZHIZHIDUDEGAIBIANCAIGENGYOUKENENG。HENANDAXUEJINGJIXUEYUANDEDONGBAOMINFUJIAOSHOUZETANTAOLEJIAWUZHANZHENGPEICHANGDUIZHONGGUOZHANHOUJINGJIFAZHANDEYINGXIANG,ZHICHUJIAWUZHANZHENGPEICHANGDAOZHIZHONGGUOCHUXIANJUEDEMAOYINICHAHEWAIGUOBAIYINLIURU,YANZHONGXUERUOLEQINGZHENGFUDECAIZHENGNENGLI。HELANGELUONINGGENDAXUEDEUebele MartinFUJIAOSHOUTAOLUNLE“1823NIANZHONGGUOHONGZAIJIUYUANDELIDUYUJUCUO”。SHANXIDAXUEWANGFEIYI1834NIANSHANXIZEZHOUGANHANWEILI,LUNLEQINGZHENGFUDEJIUZAIXINGWEI。

 

AG娱乐网WUHANDAXUEDIAOLIFUJIAOSHOUFENXILEYAPIANZHANZHENGHOUHANKOUCHAYEDEDUIEMAOYIYUSHICHANGZHUANGKUANG。Wallis PatrickDUI16—18SHIJIQUANQIUMAOYIZENGZHANGYUTONGSHIFASHENGDEOUZHOUSHANGYEYILIAOXINGQIZHIJIANDELIANXIJINXINGLEKAOCHA,ZHICHUOUZHOUDEXIAOFEIGEMINGBUJINSHEJIDAOCHANPIN,HAISHEJIDAOAGYULEWANG;QUANQIUMAOYIDEZENGZHANGZAIGONGJIDUANHEXIAOFEIDUANJUNCUJINLEOUZHOUSHANGYEYILIAODEFAZHAN。SHANXIDAXUEDEWEIYUBOSHIFENXILE19SHIJISHANGBANYEZHONGMEICHAYEMAOYIZHONGDEJIACHAWENTI。

 

BEIJINGDAXUEJINGJIXUEYUANDEZHOUJIANBOJIAOSHOUTANTAOLEBUKAIDETUDIGAIGESIXIANG。ZHANGLIJIAOSHOUDUIBEISONG、NANSONG、MING、QINGSHIQIDEZHONGGUOSHENGSICHANLIANGJINXINGLEGUSUAN,RENWEIMINGZHONGYEQIANDEZHONGGUOSHENGSICHANLIANGYUANDAYUMINGZHONGYEZHIHOU,ERQIERENWEIJISHISHIZAIMINGZHONGYEZHI19SHIJIZHONGYEZHIJIAN,JIANGNANDESIZHICHANLIANGYEBUZUYIDAIBIAOZHONGGUO。

 

HUIYIHAIZHUANMENJIUDANGJINQUANQIUSHIYANJIUDEFANGFAYUDONGTAIZHANKAILETAOLUN。MOXIGEDAXUE(El Colegio de México)DEHausberger BerntJIAOSHOUZUOLEGUANYU“CONGDIANYINGZHONGDEMOXIGEGEMINGKANGUOJIALISHIDEQUANQIUHUA”DEFAYAN。Pérez GarcíaFUJIAOSHOUFENXILEZHONGGUOXUESHUJIEGUANYUQUANQIUSHIYANJIUDEXIANZHUANG。ZHONGGUORENMINDAXUEDEPickus DavidJIAOSHOUCONGJIAOYUXUEDESHIJIAOFENXISHIJIESHIHESHIJIEZHIXUWENTI。ZHONGGUOSHEHUIKEXUEYUANJINGJISUODEZHAOXUEJUNYANJIUYUANZEDUIJINGJISHIYANJIUZHONGTIANYEDIAOCHAYUSHUJUDESHIYONGHEJIAZHIJINXINGLEFENXI,TEBIESHIYIWUXI、BAODING1929—1998NIANDEJICIDIAOCHAWEILI,FENXILETIANYEDIAOCHADEFANGFAHESHUJUZILIAODESHOUJI,YIJIZILIAODEJIAZHIHESHIYONG。

 

HUIYIZHONG,YUHUIXUEZHEYUDAJIAGONGXIANGTAMENDEYANJIUCHENGGUO,ZHANXIANLEDANGJINJINGJISHIYANJIUZHONGDEXUDUOQIANYANWENTIHELINGRENERMUYIXINDEYANJIUFANGFA。AGYULEWANGXIWANGZHEIXIEWENTIHEFANGFANENGZAIJINGJISHIXUEJIEDEYANJIUZHONGJIECHUSHUOGUO。



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